Beaverdam Amphibolite - dark-green to dark-gray hornblende amphibolite, extensively sheared and folded, and locally retrograded to actinolite-tremolite-chlorite schist. Includes all amphibolite associated with the Wedowee Group.
Chilhowee Group undifferentiated - light to medium-gray arkose, arkosic conglomerate, and discontinous mudstone overlain by greenish-gray mudstone with minor siltstone and sandstone; dominantly light-gray pebbly quartzose sandstone in upper part.
Conasauga Formation, lower unnamed shale facies - lower unnamed shale facies in eastern Valley and Ridge consists of dark-green to pale-olive fossiliferous shale with a few dark-gray limestone interbeds.
Cochran Formation - poorly sorted arkosic sandstone and conglomerate containing interbedded greenish-gray siltstone and mudstone. The Cochran Formation is exposed only in northeastern Calhoun and northwestern Cleburne Counties.
Copper Ridge Dolomite - light-gray finely to coarsely crystalline, thick-bedded siliceous dolomite; characterized by abundant stromatolitic chert. Mapped seperately only in the Birmingham anticlinorium where overlying units within the Knox Group are absent beneath the post-Knox unconformity.
Weisner and Wilson Ridge Formations undifferentiated -- interbedded quartzose to slightly feldspathic sandstone and laterally continous conglomerate in ledge-forming units separated by greenish-gray silty mudstone.
Chattanooga Shale and Frog Mountain Sandstone undifferentiated (In areas mapped as Dcfm one or both units may be locally absent) - Chattanooga Shale -- Brownish-black organic shale containing light to dark-gray sandstone and rare limestone interbeds near the base. Frog Mountain Sandstone -- light to dark-gray sandstone with thin dark-gray shale interbeds, light-gray to black dolomudstone, glauconitic limestone, and fossiliferous chert locally in lower part.
Camp Hill Granite Gneiss - coarse to medium-grained foliated granite to quartz diorite (tonalite) gneiss, locally biotite-rich; locally contains thin amphibolite pods and lenses. Boundary between Rock Mills Granite Gneiss and Camp Hill Granite Gneiss arbitrarily defined.
Mafic and ultramafic rock - ultramafic rock including enstatite pyroxenite, layered actinolite-tremolite amphibolite altered locally to serpentine, anthophyllite, and talc; metanorite; metagabbro; hornblendite; garnet-hornblendite, and massive amphibolite.
Rock Mills Granite Gneiss - coarse to medium-grained biotite granite gneiss; locally includes thick bands of epidote and thin, small amphibolite bodies. Boundary between Rock Mills Granite Gneiss and Camp Hill Granite Gneiss arbitrarily defined.
Jemison Chert and Chulafinnee Schist undifferentiated - grayish-white to yellowish-orange massive, thick-bedded, fine-grained, locally argillaceous, locally fossiliferous metachert and light to dark-greenish-gray fine to medium-grained fissile quartz-sericite-chlorite phyllite and schist which locally includes thin chlorite phyllite and quartzose phyllite beds.
Waresville Schist - banded amphibolite interlayered with chlorite schist, chlorite amphibolite, chlorite-actinolite schist, chlorite +/- magnetite quartzite, and actinolite quartzite; may include small ultramafic pods.
Emuckfaw Group undifferentiated in part - interbedded muscovite +/- garnet-biotite schist, metagraywacke, calc-silicate rock, and quartzite; rare thin amphibolite. Includes thin layers of aluminous graphitic schist. Locally sheared to mylonite schist.
Hatchetigbee Formation - (Wilcox Group), Light to dark-gray laminated carbonaceous clay, silt and very fine to fine sand, and cross-bedded glauconitic sand; one or more thin beds of fossiliferous marly glauconitic sand and sandstone occur in the upper part. Near the base is a prominent bed of glauconitic calcareous sand containing abundant fossils and spheroidal to pillow-shaped sandstone concretions (Bashi Marl Member). In parts of southeast AL the upper beds of the Th were either eroded or not deposited and the overlying Tt formation directly overlies the Bashi Marl Member.
Jackson Group undifferentiated - The units of the Jackson Group are the Yazoo Clay and Crystal River and Moodys Branch Formations. Descriptions of the members of the Yazoo Clay follow in decending order. Shubuta Member - in western Alabama consists of light-greenish-gray to white plastic fossiliferous, calcareous clay containing irregular calcareous nodules. From the Tombigbee River eastward the Shubuta becomes more calcareous and grades into massive clayey glauconitic limestone. Eastward from the Alabama River , equivalent beds grade into the Crystal River Formation. Pachuta Marl Member - light-greenish-grey glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand and sandy limestone traceable from western Alabama eastward to Covington County where it grades into the Crystal River Formation. Cocoa Sand Member - yellowish-gray firm calcareous, fossiliferous fine to medium sand or sandy limestone or greenish-grey micaceous, calcareous, very clayey sand. Calcareous and clayey sand equivalent to the Cocoa is traceable from western Alabama to the Conecuh River area. North Twistwood Creek Clay Member - greenish-gray plastic calcareous, sparsely fossiliferous, blocky massive clay; grades into Crystal River formation in southeast AL. Crystal River Formation - white to yellowish-grey medium-grained to coquinoid limestone that is soft and chalky to compact and brittle; principally in southeastern AL but interfingers westward with members of the Yazoo Clay. Moodys Branch Formation - greenish-gray to pale-yellowish-orange glauconitic, calcareous, fossiliferous sand and sandy limestone; underlies the Yazoo Clay and the Crystal River Formation.
Tallahatta Formation - (Claiborne group), White to very light-greenish-gray thin-bedded to massive siliceous claystone; interbedded with thin layers of fossiliferous clay, sandy clay, and glauconitic sand and sandstone. White to light-greenish-gray fine to coarse sand and fine gravel occur at the base of the formation in southwest Alabama (Meridian Sand Member).
Alluvial, coastal and low terrace deposits - Varicolored fine to coarse quartz sand containing clay lenses and gravel in places. Gravel composed of quartz and chert pebbles and assorted metmorphic and igneous rock fragments in streams near the Piedmont. In areas of the Valley and Ridge province gravel composed of angular to subrounded chert, quartz, and quartzite pebbles. Coastal deposits include fine to medium quartz sand with shell fragments and accessory heavy minerals along Gulf beaches and fine to medium quartz sand, silt, clay, peat, mud and ooze in the Mississippi Sound, Little Lagoon, bays, lakes, streams, and estuaries.
Hanover Schist - coarse to fine-grained feldspathic biotite-sericite-quartz-muscovite schist, commonly containing staurolite, garnet, and locally sillimanite in northeastern outcrop areas includes zones of aluminous graphite schist, hornblende quartzite, garnet quartzite, and rare amphibolite. Schist commonly retrograded to sericite-garnet-quartz schist. Numerous granitic pegmatites.
Jacksons Gap Group undivided - principally graphitic sericite (muscovite)-quartz schist; includes sericite-quartz phyllonite; sericite phyllonite, blastomylonite, porphyroclastic blastomylonite schist, and mylonite quartzite occur principally along margins in south and form most of unit northeast of Jacksons Gap, Tallapoosa County.
Ketchepedrakee Amphibolite - dark-green to black fine to coarse-grained, layered to massive amphibolite mixed with zones of chlorite actinolite schist, includes all amphibolite associated with the Poe Bridge Mountain Group.
Coker Formation - (Tuscaloosa Group), Light-colored micaceous very fine to medium sand, cross-bedded sand, varicolored micaceous clay, and a few thin gravel beds containing quartz and chert pebbles. Beds of thinly laminated finely glauconitic very fine to fine sand, silt and dark-gray carbonaceous clay (Eoline Member) occur locally in the lower part in western AL. Locally quartz and chert gravels at the base of the formation range in size from very fine pebbles to large cobbles. In southeastern Elmore County the formation includes marine sediments consisting of glauconitic, fossiliferous, quartzose fine to medium sand and medium-gray carbonaceous silty clay. Not mapped east of the Tallapoosa River.
Demopolis Chalk - (Selma Group), Light-gray to medium-light-gray compact, brittle chalk overlain by abundantly fossiliferous chalky marl, very clayey chalk, and calcareous clay (Bluffport Marl Member). In south-central Montgomery County the Demopolis is split into two eastward extending tongues by a westward-extending tongue of the Cusseta Sand Member of the Ripley Formation. The lower tongue is pale-olive to yellowish-gray silty to finely sand, micaceous, fossiliferous chalk that eastward becomes more sandy and merges with the Cusseta in central Bullock County. The upper tongue is yellowish-gray clayey, very finely sandy, micaceous chalk that merges with the Ripley in southeastern Montgomery County.
Eutaw Formation - Light-greenish-gray to yellowish-gray cross-bedded, well-sorted, micaceous, fine to medium quartz sand that is fossiliferous and glauconitic in part and contains beds of greenish-gray micaceous, silty clay and medium-dark-gray carbonaceous clay. Light-gray glauconitic fossiliferous sand, thin beds of sandstone, and massive accumulations of fossil oyster shells occur locally in the upper part of the formation in western AL (Tombigbee Sand Member). In eastern AL thin to thick-bedded accumulations of the fossil oyster Ostrea cretacea Morton occur throughout much of the formation.
Gordo Formation - (Tuscaloosa Group), Massive beds of cross-bedded sand, gravelly sand, and lenticular beds of locally carbonaceous partly mottled moderate-red and pale-red-purple clay; lower part is predominantly a gravelly sand consisting chiefly of chert and quartz pebbles. Not mapped east of the Tallapooza River.
Mooreville Chalk - (Selma Group), Yellowish-gray to olive-gray compact fossiliferous clayey chalk and chalky marl. The unconformable contact at the base is characterized by a bed of glauconitic, chalky sand containing phosphate pellets and molds of fossils. The Arcola Limestone Member at the top consists of two to four beds of light-gray brittle, dense, fossiliferous limestone separated by beds of light-gray to pale-olive calcareous clay.
Providence Sand - (Selma Group), Upper part consists of cross-bedded fine to coarse sand and white, dark-gray and pale-red-purple mottled clay containing lignite, sand, and kaolin; lower part consists of dark-gray laminated to thin-bedded silty clay and abundantly micaceous, carbonaceous, fossiliferous very fine to fine sand. The Providence Sand extends eastward from southeastern Lowndes County into Georgia.
Prairie Bluff Chalk - (Selma Group), Very light-gray to light-bluish-gray firm sandy, fossiliferous brittle chalk and grayish-black silty sandy calcareous glauconitic, fossiliferous clay; semi-indurated beds of sandy, clayey limestone are present in some exposures. Abscent locally in parts of Marengo, Dallas and Wilcox Counties where overlapped by the Clayton Formation or eroded. The Prairie Bluff thins eastward from southwestern Lowndes County to northern Pike County where it interfingers with the Providence Sand.
Blufftown Formation - (Selma Group), The Blufftown extends from the Chattahoochee River Valley westward into central Russell County where it is divided into two westward-extending tongues by an eastward-extending tongue of the Mooreville Chalk. In the Chattahoochee River Valley the Blufftown is mainly glauconitic calcareous fine sand, micaceous clay and marl, fossiliferous clay, gray calcareous fossiliferous sandstone, and carbonaceous clay and silt. To the west the lower tongue of the Blufftown is gravelly sand, glauconitic sand, calcareous clay, and sandy clay and merges with the lower part of the Mooreville Chalk in southwestern Macon County. The upper tongue is mainly calcareous sandy clay and micaceous silty fine sand with thin layers of limestone and sandstone. The upper tongue merges with the Mooreville Chalk and the lower part of the Demopolis Chalk in western Bullock County.
Cusseta Sand Member of the Ripley Formation - (Selma Group), Cross-bedded, medium to coarse sand; glauconitic, fossiliferous fine sand; and dark-gray fossiliferous, micaceous, carbonaceous clay. The member occurs at the base of the Ripley Formation and extends from Georgia westward into Montgomery County where it merges with the Demopolis Chalk.
Tuscaloosa Group undifferentiated - Light-gray to moderate-reddish-orange clayey, gravelly fine to very coarse sand; massive mottled sandy clay; local wood and leaf beds; and thin beds of indurated sandstone. Gravel consists mainly of quartz and quartzite and range in size from very fine pebbles to large cobbles. Mapped eats of the Tallapoosa River.
Bangor and Monteagle Limestones undivided in part - Bangor Limestone -- medium-gray bioclastic and oolitic limestone, containing interbeds of dusky-red and olive-green mudstone in upper part. Monteagle Limestone -- light-gray oolitic limestone containing interbedded argillaceous, bioclastic, or dolomitic limestone, dolomite, and medium-gray shale.
Mitchell Dam Amphibolite - dark-green to black fine to coarse-grained, thin-layered to massive hornblende-actinolite amphibolite; includes all amphibolite associated with the Higgins Ferry and Hatchet Creek Groups.
Floyd Shale(Mississippian)at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area
Floyd Shale - Dark-gray shale, sideritic in part; thin beds of sandstone, limestone and chert are locally present; beds of partly bioclastic, partly argillaceous limestone are abundant in parts of Calhoun and Cherokee Counties.
Fort Payne Chert - Very light to light-olive-gray, thin to thick-bedded fine to coarse-grained bioclastic (abundant pelmatozoans) limestone containing abundant nodules, lenses and beds of light to dark-grey chert. Upper part of formation locally consists of light-bluish-gray laminated siltstone containing vugs lined or filled with quartz and scattered throughout the formation are interbeds of medium to greenish-gray shale, shaly limestone and siltstone. Commonly present below the Fort Payne is a light-olive-gray claystone or shale (Maury Formation) which is mapped with the Fort Payne. The apparent thickness of the Fort Payne in this province varies due to differnetial dissolution of carbonate in the formation.
Mad Indian Group(Precambrian to Paleozoic)at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area
Mad Indian Group - fine-grained feldspathic biotite gneiss; medium to coarse-grained muscovite-biotite-garnet schist; locally kyanite and sillimanite. Many of the schists have been retrograded to chlorite-garnet-quartz-sericite schist. Both mi and migr extensively cut by feldspathic dikes and pegmatites.
Mad Indian Group; Irregular zones of sericite-quartz schist - irregular zones of sericite-quartz schist (+/- garnet) containing finely disseminated graphite, possibly infolded Wedowee Group equivalents. Both mi and migr extensively cut by feldspathic dikes and pegmatites.
Miocene Series undifferentiated - Moderate-yellowish-orange thin-bedded to massive fine to coarse sand, gravelly sand, thin-bedded to massive clay and sandy clay. Clays are plastic in part. Limonite pellets occur in places along clay-sand contacts. Gravel is composed of quartz and chert granules and pebbles. Locally the upper part of the unit is Pliocene in age.
Pennington Formation - Medium-gray shale, containing interbedded limestone, dolomite, argillaceous sandstone, dusky-red and grayish-olive mudstone, and minor shaly coal. Mainly restricted to eastern part of Interior Low Plateaus province and where less than 100 feet thick the formation is included in the Bangor Limestone.
Pride Mountain Formation - Medium to dark-gray shale, containing one to three units of a variable combination of sandstone and limestone in the lower part; locally contains rare interbeds of dusky-red and greenish-gray mudstone.
Tuscumbia Limestone - Light-gray limestone, partly oolitic near top; fine to very coarse-grained bioclastic crinoidal limestone common; light-gray chert nodules and concretions are scattered throughout and are abundant locally. The apparent thickness of the formation in this province varies due to differential dissolution of the carbonate in the unit.
Tuscumbia Limestone and Fort Payne Chert undivided - Tuscumbia Limestone -- light-gray partly oolitic limestone; very coarse bioclastic crinoidal limestone common; light-gray chert nodules and concretions locally abundant. Fort Payne Chert -- very light to light-olive-gray, thin to thick-bedded fine to coarse-grained bioclastic (abundant pelmatozoans) limestone containing abundant nodules, lenses and beds of light to dark-grey chert. Upper part of formation locally consists of light-bluish-gray laminated siltstone containing vugs lined or filled with quartz and scattered throughout the formation are interbeds of medium to greenish-gray shale, shaly limestone and siltstone. Lenses of dark-gray siliceous shale occur locally at the base of the Fort Payne in Wills Valley. Commonly present below the Fort Payne is a ligh-olive-gray claystone or shale (Maury Formation) which is mapped with the Fort Payne. The Tuscumbia and Fort Payne are undifferentiated in Murphrees and Wills Valleys.
Paleozoic shale undifferentiated - Dark-gray shale and mudstone, locally containing thin interbeds and lenses of dark-greenish-gray sandstone includes probable Floyd Shale in area east of Gadsden, Etowah County.
Metaclastic rocks of unknown affinity - in the area south of Talladega, Talladega County, the unit includes greenish-gray chlorite-sericite phyllite; in small area south of Childersburg the unit consists of greenish-gray chlorite-sericite phyllite and slate locally containing interbeds of metagraywacke; and in the area east of Columbiana, Shelby County, the unit includes dark-greenish-gray slate and metasiltstone containing interbedded coarse-grained to conglomerate quartzite.
Athens Shale and Lenoir Limestone undifferentiated - Athens Shale -- black graptolitic shale, locally contains interbedded dark-gray limestone. Lenoir Limestone -- dark-gray medium to thick-bedded argillaceous limestone; locally contains an interval of fenestral mudstone at the base (Mosheim Limestone Member).
Chickamauga Limestone - Medium to dark-gray thick to thin-bedded partly argillaceous, locally fossiliferous limestone. Restricted to the western part of the Valley and Ridge province and Murphrees Valley and Wills Valley anticlines. Locally includes a thin interval of Attalla Chert Conglomerate Member at base. Attalla Chert Conglomerate - conglomerate of pebbles, cobbles, and boulders of chert and rare dolomite and quartzite in a sand-sized matrix; thin beds of gray-green or dusky-red shale common at base.
Attalla Chert Conglomerate Member of the Chickamauga Limestone - conglomerate of pebbles, cobbles, and boulders of chert and rare dolomite and quartzite in a sand-sized chert and quartz matrix; thin beds of gray-green or dusky-red shale common at base.
Residuum - (Claiborne/Jackson Group), White to moderate-reddish-orange locally mottled sandy clay and residual clay with scattered layers of gravelly medium to coarse sand, fossiliferous chert and limestone boulders and limonitic sand masses. Derived from solution and collapse of limestone in the Jackson Group and Oligocene Series and the slumping of Pliocene and Miocene sediments.
Oligocene Series undifferentiated - Descriptions of the units of the Oligocene Series follow in descending order. Paynes Hammock Sand - locally fossiliferous, calcareous, argillaceous medium to coarse sand; pale-blue-green clay; and thin-bedded sandy limestone; exposed at Paynes Hammock and at St. Stephens. Chickasawhay Limestone - white to yellowish-gray fossiliferous, glauconitic limestone and soft marl. Byram Formation includes three members in descending order: Bucatunna Clay Member - dark, bentonitic, carbonaceous, sparsely fossiliferous clay and greyish-yellow sand; unnamed marl member - light-grey to yellowish-grey sandy, glauconitic , fossiliferous marl; Glendon Limestone Member - irregularly indurated coquinoid and crystalline limestone, weathering to indurated rock containing large tubular cavities, locally known as 'horsebone'. Marianna Limestone - white to yellowish-grey soft, porous, very fossiliferous limestone. Forest Hill sand - dark-greenish-grey carbonaceous clay with lenses of glauconitic fossiliferous sand; extends eastward from MS into Choctaw, Clarke and Washington Counties. Red Bluff Clay - greenish-gray calcareous clay locally containing selenite crystals, yellowish-grey glauconitic, fossiliferous limestone; and light-gray silty clay with interbeds of sand (Forest Hill equivalent); from Tombigbee River eastward grades into glauconitic fossiliferous limestone equivalent to the Bumpnose Limestone. Bumpnose Limestone - very light-gray to yellowish-gray chalky, subcoquinoid, glauconitic, argillaceous, fossiliferous limestone; intertongues with Red Bluff Clay in vicinity of the Alabama River and is readily differentiated eastward from the Sepulga River.
Loachapoka Schist - muscovite-quartz schist; locally contains biotite-garnet-muscovite schist, many layers conatin sillimanite (northeast of Mount Jefferson, Lee County); kyanite (west of Mount Jefferson); locally muscovite-rich schist and quartzite common.
Little Oak and Lenoir Limestones undifferentiated - dark-gray argillaceous, fossiliferous medium to thick-bedded limestone; locally contains rare chert in upper part and an interval of fenestral mudstone in lower part (Mosheim Limestone Member of the Lenoir Limestone). Between Siluria and Pelham in Shelby County, the Little Oak and Lenoir Limestones are separated by a tongue of the Athens Shale.
Little Oak and Newala Limestones undifferentiated - Little Oak Limestone -- dark-gray medium to thick-bedded fossiliferous, argillaceous to silty limestone containing chert nodules. Locally includes thin beds of bentonite in the upper part. Newala Limestone -- light to dark-gray thick-bedded micritic and peloidal limestone and minor dolomite.
Leipers Limestone - Leipers Limestone -- medium to dark-gray thin to medium-bedded fossiliferous limestone containing interbeds of thin argillaceous limestone. Mapped in Sequatchie Valley. Inman Formation -- interbedded greenish-gray or moderate to dusky-red shale and light-gray peloidal limestone. Mapped in Sequatchie Valley.
Nashville Group - medium- to dark-gray argillaceous and fossiliferous limestone overlain by yellowish-gray laminated silty limestone. Mapped seperately from the Stone River Group only in Jackson County.
Nashville and Stones River Groups undifferentiated - medium to dark-gray fossiliferous limestone, argillaceous in part; yellowish-gray laminated silty limestone in upper part. Contains one or more thin beds of bentonite and bentonitic shale.
Sequatchie Formation - Grayish-red, grayish-green, and yellowish-gray thin-bedded calcareous shale and calcareous mudstone containing interbedded fossiliferous limestone, and medium-gray to moderate-red partly sandy and glauconitic, medium to coarse-grained bioclastic limestone.
Sequatchie Formation, Colvin Mountain Sandstone, Greensport Formation undifferentiated - variegated dusky-red and pale-yellowish-orange shale, calcareous mudstone, dolomite, siltstone, and minor sandstone. Mapped in areas of facies transition with the Chickamauga Limestone (Canoe Creek, Dunaway, and Hensley Mountains).
Stones River Groups undifferentiated in part - medium to dark-gray thick to thin-bedded limestone, argillaceous in part, locally very fossiliferous. Contains a zone of bentonite and bentonitic shale near the top. Mapped seperately from the Nashville Group only in Jackson County.
Ordovician System undivided in part (Includes Sequatchie Formation, Elkmont Formation, Leipers Limestone, Inman Formation, Nashville Group, and Stones River Group) - Sequatchie Formation -- grayish-red and yellowish-gray calcareous shale containing interbedded fossiliferous limestone. Elkmont Formation -- medium to dark-gray phosphatic limestone with interbeds of light to medium-gray and black shale. Leipers Limestone -- medium to dark-gray thin to medium-bedded fossiliferous limestone containing interbeds of argillaceous limestone. Inman Formation -- interbedded greenish-gray or moderate to dusky-red shale and light-gray peloidal limestone. Nashville Group undifferentiated -- medium to dark-gray argillaceous and fossiliferous limestone overlain by yellowish-gray laminated silty limestone. Stones River Group -- medium to dark-gray thick to thin-bedded limestone, argillaceous in part, locally very fossiliferous.
Parkwood Formation and Floyd Shale undifferentiated - Parkwood Formation -- Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone; locally contains dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal. Floyd Shale -- Dark-gray shale, sideritic in part; thin beds of sandstone, limestone and chert are locally present; beds of partly bioclastic, partly argillaceous limestone are abundant in parts of Calhoun and Cherokee Counties.
Parkwood and Pennington Formations undifferentiated - Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone, locally contains lithic conglomerate, dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal.
Pottsville Formation (lower part) - Light-gray thick-bedded to massive pebbly quartzose sandstone, containing varying amounts of interbedded dark-gray shale, siltstone, and thin discontinuos coal. The Boyles Sandstone Member is a formally named unit in the lower part of the formation. Top of unit is mapped at the Black Creek coal.
Pottsville Formation (upper part) - Interbedded dark-gray shale, siltstone, medium-gray sandstone, and coal in cyclic sequences. In descending order the members include: Razburg Sandstone Member, Camp Branch Sandstone Member, Lick Creek Sandstone Member, and the Bremen Sandstone Member.
Pottsville Formation (lower part) - Light-gray thick-bedded to massive pebbly quartzose sandstone, containing varying amounts of interbedded dark-gray shale, siltstone, and thin discontinuos coal. In both the Cahaba and Coosa synclinoria the members in descending order include: the Pine Sandstone Member and the Shades Sandstone Member. Top of unit is mapped at top of Pine Sandstone Member.
Pottsville Formation (upper part) - Interbedded dark-gray shale, siltstone, medium-gray sandstone, and coal in cyclic sequences. The members present in the Cahaba synclinorium in descending order include: the Straven Conglomerate Member, Rocky Ridge Sandstone Member, and Chestnut Sandstone Member. The members present in the Coosa synclinorium in descending order include: Straight Ridge Sandstone Member and Wolf Ridge Sandstone Member.
Pottsville Formation - Light-gray thin to thick-bedded quartzose sandstone and conglomerate containing interbedded dark-gray shale, siltstone, and coal. Mapped on Lookout Mountain, Blount and Chandler Mountains, and Sand Mountain northeats of Blount County, and on the mountains of Jackson, Marshall and Madison Counties north and west of the TN river.
Poe Bridge Mountain Group - coarse to fine-grained feldspathic graphite schist, +/- staurolite +/- kyanite +/- sillimanite-muscovite-biotite schist, and garnet-biotite-muscovite schist, and gneiss; locally common pegmatites. Rocks in the area of Turkey Heaven Mountain in Cleburne and Randolph Counties that are here assigned to the Poe Bridge Mountain Group also have been interpreted as part of the Wedowee Group.
Poe Bridge Mountain Group; Roscoelite-graphite quartz schist and graphitic quartzite. Rocks in the area of Turkey Heaven Mountain in Cleburne and Randolph Counties that are here assigned to the Poe Bridge Mountain Group also have been interpreted as part of the Wedowee Group.
Poe Bridge Mountain Group; Garnet quartzite (garnetite) and garnitiferous altered mafic rock. Rocks in the area of Turkey Heaven Mountain in Cleburne and Randolph Counties that are here assigned to the Poe Bridge Mountain Group also have been interpreted as part of the Wedowee Group.
Clayton Formation - (Midway Group), White to yellowsih-gray argillaceous limestone occurs in the upper part (McBryde Limestone Member): the lower part is medium-gray fossiliferous calcareous silt, glauconitic sand and thin beds of sandy limestone and calcareous sandstone (Pine Barren Member). At the base of the formation in southeast AL is a gravelly medium to coarse sand containing clay pebbles. The formation thins west of Wilcox County and westward from Thomaston in eastern Marengo County is mapped with the Porters Creek Formation. The formation is generally deeply weathered and fresh exposures are rare. In western areas exposures consist of weathered white to yellowish-gray argillaceous, fossiliferous sandy limestone, ferruginous sand, and fossiliferous sandstone. In eastern areas exposures consist of residual accumulations of chert boulders, moderate-reddish-orange sand, and clay containing masses and thin layers of iron minerals (limonite-goethite).
Naheola Formation - (Midway Group), The Naheola Formation is restricted to western AL and pinches out in western Butler County. Descriptions of the members of the formation follow in descending order. Coal Bluff Marl Member - glauconitic sand, thin-bedded silty clay, and sandy fossiliferous marl; Oak Hill Member - laminated silt, clay, and fine sand; contains a prominent bed of lignite near the top. The Coal Bluff Marl Member in Sumter County and in parts of Marengo County is mostly cross-bedded fine to coarse sand that is indistinguishable from the overlying lower beds of the Nanafalia Formation. Therefore, in these areas, the contact between the two is mapped at the top of the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola.
Nanafalia Formation - (Wilcox Group), Members of the Nanafalia Formation follow in descending order. Grampian Hills Member - medium-gray massive clay, claystone, sandy fossiliferous clay, and fossiliferous fine sand. "Ostrea thirsae beds" - glauconitic, abundantly fossiliferous, quartzose fine to medium sand. Gravel Creek Sand Member - pale-yellowish-orange to moderate-reddish-brown micaceous cross-bedded fine to very coarse sand containing gravel and clay pebbles in some exposures. Gravel Creek Member is absent locally and near the base may contain thin beds of lignite. Updip deposits in northern Henry County and southern Barbour County include beds of alternating medium-gray and white clay, carbonaceous clay, white and grayish-yellow fine to coarse sand and lenses of bauxite and bauxitic clay. Sand beds commonly are cross-bedded, gravelly, and contain numerous clay pebbles. The sequence of beds is often obscured by weathering and the collapse of beds into sinkholes in the underlying Clayton Formation.
Porters Creek Formation - (Midway Group), dark-gray massive plastic clay in western AL with a thin bed of glauconitic shell marl at the top (Mathews Landing Marl Member). Becomes calcareous eastward grading into light-greenish-gray calcareous, micaceous, clayey fine to medium sand, medium-gray sandy, calcareous clay and white to light-gray thin bedded partly clayey, fossiliferous limestone. East of Crenshaw County, owing to lithologic similarity, beds correlative with the Porters Creek are included in the Clayton Formation.
Salt Mountain Limestone - (Wilcox Group), White massive, indurated fossiliferous limestone containing lenses and irregular beds of soft, friable limestone. Exposed only at Salt Mountain, on the upthrow side of the Jackson fault 5 miles south of Jackson, Clarke County.
Tuscahoma Sand - (Wilcox Group), Light-gray to light-olive-gray laminated and thin-bedded carbonaceous silt and clay interbedded with fine sand; thin lignite beds occur locally. Lower part of the formation includes beds of fossiliferous, glauconitic fine quartz sand containing speroidal sandstone concretions, gravel and clay pebbles.
Citronelle Formation - moderate-reddish-brown deeply weathered fine to very coarse quartz sand and varicolored typically mottled lenticular beds of clay and clayey gravel. Limonite pebbles and lenses of limonite cemented sand occur locally in weathered exposures. Gravel is composed of chert and quartz pebbles.
High terrace deposits - Varicolored lenticular beds of poorly sorted sand, ferruginous sand, silt, clay, and gravelly sand. Sand consists primarily of very fine to very coarse poorly sorted quartz grains; gravel composed of quartz, quartzite, and chert pebbles.
Red Mountain Formation - Interbedded yellowish-gray to moderate-red sandstone, siltstone and shale; greenish-gray to moderate-red fossiliferous partly silty and sandy limestone; few thin hematitic beds.
Silurian System undivided (Includes Wayne Group and Brassfield Limestone) - Wayne Group - medium-gray, greenish-gray, and moderate-red argillaceous limestone; moderate-red and greenish-gray shale; and grayish-green fossiliferous limestone with scattered pink calcite crystals. Brassfield Limestone - greenish-gray to light-brownish-gray argillaceous, dolomitic, cherty, sandy, glauconitic limestone.
Lay Dam Formation (Talladega Group) - interbedded dark-green phyllite, medium-gray to light-brown and black metasiltstone, dark-green feldspathic metagraywacke, and light-gray and dark-gray medium to coarse-grained arkosic quartzite and metaconglomerate; graphitic phyllite common in upper part. In Cleburne and Calhoun Counties, rocks mapped as the Lay Dam include the Abel Gap Formation of Bearce (1973) and consist of interbedded greenish-gray metasiltstone and quartzite, black phyllitic metasiltstone, medium-gray to greenish-gray arkosic quartzite, and dark-gray pyritic quartzite. In Clay Chounty the upper part of the Lay Dam includes black graphitic sericite phyllite and slate reportedly containing plant fossils (Erin Slate Member).
Talladega Group; Lay Dam Formation, unnamed diamictite facies - Unnamed diamictite facies of Lay Day Formation in Coosa and Chilton Counties consists of cobbles and boulders of carbonate, pelitic rocks, quartzite, chert, felsic plutonic rocks, and gneiss in a metagraywacke matrix.
Wedowee Group undifferentiated - Wedowee Group undifferentiated includes the Cragford Phyllite and Cutnose Gneiss. Cragford Phyllite -- interbedded fine-grained graphite-chlorite-sericite schist and phyllite, garnet-sericite schist and phyllite, graphite-quartz-sericite phyllite, locally feldspathic biotite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and quartzite. Cutnose Gneiss -- cyclically interbedded fine-grained quartz-biotite feldspathic gneiss, graphite-chlorite-sericite schist, locally thin interbeds of graphite-quartz-sericite phyllite, and quartzite. Rocks in the area northeast of Clanton in Chilton and Coosa Counties that are here assigned to the Wedowee Group also have been interpreted as part of the Higgins Ferry Group.
Hackneyville Schist - medium to coarse-grained quartz-plagioclase +/- almandine +/- kyanite +/- biotite-muscovite schist, graphite-muscovite-quartz schist, and quartzite containing biotite. Large porphyroblasts of muscovite, andalusite and/or chiastrolite common. Rocks in the areas between Goodwater in Coosa County and Millerville in Clay County that are here assigned to the Hackneyville Schist also have been interpreted as part of the Higgins Ferry Group.
Halawaka Schist - feldspathic muscovite-biotite schist and quartz-diorite gneiss; locally contains lenses of muscovite-graphite schist and amphibolite; commonly cut by feldspathic veins and pegmatites.
Ocala Limestone - Dall and Harris (1892) referred to the limestones exposed near Ocala, Marion County, in central peninsular Florida as the Ocala Limestone. Puri (1953, 1957) elevated the Ocala Limestone to group status recognizing its component formations on the basis of foraminiferal faunas (biozones). Scott (1991) reduced the Ocala Group to formational status in accordance with the North American Stratigraphic Code (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983). The Ocala Limestone consists of nearly pure limestones and occasional dolostones. It can be subdivided into lower and upper facies on the basis of lithology. The lower member is composed of a white to cream-colored, fine to medium grained, poorly to moderately indurated, very fossiliferous limestone (grainstone and packstone). The lower facies may not be present throughout the areal extent of the Ocala Limestone and may be partially to completely dolomitized in some regions (Miller, 1986). The upper facies is a white, poorly to well indurated, poorly sorted, very fossiliferous limestone (grainstone, packstone and wackestone). Silicified limestone (chert) is common in the upper facies. Fossils present in the Ocala Limestone include abundant large and smaller foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks. The large foraminifera Lepidocyclina sp. is abundant in the upper facies and extremely limited in the lower facies. The presence of these large foraminifers in the upper facies is quite distinctive. The Ocala Limestone is at or near the surface within the Ocala Karst District in the westcentral to northwestern peninsula and within the Dougherty Plain District in the north-central panhandle (Scott, in preparation). In these areas, the Ocala Limestone exhibits extensive karstification. These karst features often have tens of feet (meters) of relief, dramatically influencing the topography of the Ocala Karst District and the Dougherty Plain District (Scott, in preparation). Numerous disappearing streams and springs occur within these areas. The permeable, highly transmissive carbonates of the Ocala Limestone form an important part of the FAS. It is one of the most permeable rock units in the FAS (Miller, 1986).
Alum Bluff Group - West of the Apalachicola River, the Hawthorn Group is replaced by the Alum Bluff Group. The Alum Bluff Group includes the Chipola Formation, Oak Grove Sand, Shoal River Formation, Choctawhatchee Formation and the Jackson Bluff Formation (Huddlestun, 1984; Braunstein et al., 1988). The formations included in this group are generally defined on the basis of their molluscan faunas and stratigraphic position (Schmidt and Clark, 1980). Puri (1953) described sediment facies as they relate to the formations of the Alum Bluff Group These sediments are lithologically distinct as a group, not as individual units. Brooks (1982) mapped much of the Alum Bluff Group as the Shoal River Formation. The Alum Bluff Group crops out or is beneath a thin overburden in the western panhandle from river valleys in Okaloosa County eastward to western Jackson County. The Alum Bluff Group consists of clays, sands and shell beds which may vary from fossiliferous, sandy clays to unfossiliferous sands and clays and occasional carbonate beds (Huddlestun, 1984). Mica is a common constituent and glauconite and phosphate occur sporadically. Induration varies from essentially nonindurated in sands to well indurated in carbonate lenses. Colors range from cream to olive gray with mottled reddish brown in weathered sections. Sand grain size varies from very fine to very coarse with sporadic occurrences of gravel. These sediments generally have low permeabilities and are part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
Citronelle Formation - The Citronelle Formation is widespread in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The type section for the Citronelle Formation, named by Matson (1916), is near Citronelle, Alabama. The Citronelle Formation grades laterally, through a broad facies transition, into the Miccosukee Formation of the eastern Florida panhandle. Coe (1979) investigated the Citronelle Formation in portions of the western Florida panhandle. The Citronelle Formation is a siliciclastic, deltaic deposit that is lithologically similar to, and time equivalent with, the Cypresshead Formation and, at least in part, the Long Key Formation (Cunningham et al., 1998) of the peninsula. In the western panhandle, some of the sediments mapped as Citronelle Formation may be reworked Citronelle. The lithologies are the same and there are few fossils present to document a possible younger age. The Citronelle Formation consists of gray to orange, often mottled, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, very fine to very coarse, poorly sorted, clean to clayey sands. It contains significant amounts of clay, silt and gravel which may occur as beds and lenses and may vary considerably over short distances. Limonite nodules and limonite-cemented beds are common. Marine fossils are rare but fossil pollen, plant remains and occasional vertebrates are found. Much of the Citronelle Formation is highly permeable. It forms the Sand and Gravel Aquifer of the surficial aquifer system.
Alluvium(Pleistocene/Holocene)at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area
Alluvium - Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments - Much of Florida's surface is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics, organics and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments, those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal). Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately (Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped (refer to Healy  for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology. The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These carbonates often contain organics. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are mollusks.
Devonian-Missisippian undivided (DMu): Includes Fort Payne Chert, Chattanooga Shale in Dade Co.; Fort Payne Chert at top, Chattanooga Shale in middle and Armuchee Shale at bottom in all areas except Polk Co. and Dade Co.; Fort Payne Chert, and Armuchee Chert in Polk Co. CHATTANOOGA Shale (Dc)
Mississippian undifferentiated: Includes Pennington Shale, Bangor Limestone (except in Floyd County), Hartselle Sandstone, Golconda Formation, Gasper Limestone, Ste. Genevieve Limestone and St. Louis Limestone
Eutaw formation - More or less cross-bedded and thinly laminated glauconitic sand and clay; basal part includes the McShan formation, greenish-gray, micaceous, locally very glauconitic, very fine-grained sand and thin-bedded light-gray clay, small chert gravels may be present in basal beds, not recognized in northern Tishomingo County.
Catahoula formation - Irregularly bedded gray sand and sandstone; mottled red and gray, green, and chocolate-colored clay; some quartzite, and some gravel; the Paynes Hammock sand, sandy limestone cross-bedded fine green sand, and thin-bedded sand and clay, is mapped with the underlying Chickasawhay limestone in eastern MS.
Citronelle formation - Red sand and gravel and white clay; may be of Pliocene age; the formation mapped is equivalent to the Willis sand and does not include the terrace deposits, colluvium, and residuum commonly considered "Citronelle".
Devonian Formations - Characterized by marked north-south facies variations. Because of pre-Chattanooga and/or pre-Cretaceous warping and erosion, the distribution and thickness of Devonian formations is very irregular. Includes Pegram Formation - Thick-bedded, gray limestone and gray sandstone. Thickness 0 to 15 feet; Camden Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. Thickness 0 to about 100 feet; Harriman Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. (Harriman and Camden are differentiated paleontologically.) Thickness 0 to 50 feet; Flat Gap Limestone - Thick-bedded, coarse-grained limestone, gray with red and brown grains. Thickness 0 to 55 feet; Ross Formation - Siliceous limestone; gray and variegated shale; and medium-grained glauconitic limestone. Thickness 0 to 75 feet.
Eutaw Formation - Grayish-green sand, fine-grained, glauconitic, micaceous; interbedded with gray laminated clays which commonly contain carbonized or silicified wood. (Mapped with Coffee except in Hardin County and southeastern Decatur County.) Thickness 0 to 180 feet; thins northward
St. Louis Limestone - Residuum of nodules and blocks of chert in sandy clay. (Originally grayish-brown, medium-bedded limestone.) Maximum preserved thickness about 50 feet. Warsaw Limestone - Residuum of porous chert blocks in sandy clay. (Originally gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick- bedded limestone.) Thickness about 60 feet.
Nashville Group - Bigby-Cannon Limestone - Brownish-gray phosphatic calcarenite and light-gray to brownish-gray, cryptograined to medium- grained, even-bedded limestone. Thickness 50 to 125 feet; and Hermitage Formation - Thin-bedded to laminated, sandy and argillaceous limestone with shale; nodular shaly limestone; coquina; and phosphatic calcarenite. Thickness 50 to 100 feet.
Stones River Group; Carters Limestone - Fine-grained, yellowish-brown limestone; thin-bedded in upper part; thicker bedded and very slightly cherty with scattered mottlings of magnesian limestone in lower part. Contains thin bentonite beds. Thickness 50 to 100 feet.
(Onc) Unnamed (upper part of the Knox Group), including the (On) Newala Formation; (Oma) Mascot Dolomite - Light-gray, fine-grained, well-bedded cherty dolomite; mottled (red and green) dolomite characteristic; interbeds of bluish-gray limestone in upper part; chert-matrix quartz sandstone at base. Erosional unconformity at top. Thickness 350 to 800 feet; (Ok) Kingsport Formation - Gray, fine-grained, sparingly cherty dolomite with basal dense, gray limestone sequence. Thickness about 250 feet. and (Olc) Unnamed (middle part of the Knox Group), including (Olv) Longview Dolomite - Siliceous, gray, fine-grained, medium-bedded dolomite; interbeds of gray limestone in upper part. Thickness about 300 feet; (Oc) Chepultepec Dolomite - Light-gray, fine-grained, well-bedded dolomite, moderately cherty; fine-grained limestone locally in upper part; quartz sandstone beds at base. Average thickness about 800 feet.
Ordovician [units] including Richmond Group (which includes Mannie Shale - Olive-gray shale. Thickness 0 to 20 feet; Fernvale Limestone - Massive, coarsely crystalline, gray limestone with varicolored grains. Thickness 0 to 50 feet; Sequatchie Formation - Olive-gray and greenish-gray shale, mudstone, and argillaceous limestone; dolomitic, laminated, and sandy. Thickness 0 to 100 feet; and Arnheim Formation Nodular, shaly, gray limestone. Thickness 0 to 20 feet; the Maysville Group (which includes Leipers Formation - Nodular, shaly limestone; fine- to coarse-grained limestone; and phosphatic calcarenite locally. Thickness 0 to 150 feet); the Eden Group (which includes the Inman Formation - Thin-bedded to laminated, fine-grained, gray limestone with shale partings. Thickness 0 to 50 feet); and the Nashville Group (which includes Catheys Formation - Nodular, shaly limestone; fine- to coarse-grained limestone; phosphatic calcarenite; and light-gray cryptograined limestone. Thickness 50 to 175 feet.)
Gizzard Group - Sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, siltstone, shale, and minor coal. Thickness 100 to 200 feet. Includes Warren Point Sandstone - Gray to brown sandstone and minor conglomeratic sandstone. Thickness 60 to 160 feet; Raccoon Mountain Formation - Siltstone, sandstone, shale, and minor coal. Thickness 0 to 65 feet.
Silurian Formations - A complete section of Silurian formations is not common because of pre-Chattanooga and/or pre- Cretaceous erosion. Where preserved, Silurian formations are remarkably uniform in thickness and are characteristically light olive-gray to greenish-gray with variable reddish-brown color in some area;. Decatur Limestone - Thick-bedded, medium- to coarse-grained limestone, gray with reddish-brown grains. Thickness 0 to 70 feet; Brownsport Group which includes 1) Lobelville Formation - Shale with thin beds of limestone. Thickness 0 to 40 feet; 2) Bob Limestone - Thick-bedded, medium-grained limestone, locally oolitic. Thickness 0 to 25 feet; and 3) Beech River Formation - Shale with thin beds of limestone. Thickness 0 to 60 feet; Wayne Group which includes: 1) Dixon Formation - Green and reddish-brown argillaceous limestone, shale, and mudstone. Thickness 0 to 40 feet; 2) Lego Limestone - Even-bedded, olive-gray limestone with scattered reddish-brown grains. Thickness 0 to 30 feet; 3) Waldron Shale - Greenish-gray fossiliferous shale. Thickness 0 to 5 feet; 4) Laurel Limestone - Even-bedded, gray limestone with scattered reddish-brown grains. Thickness 0 to 30 feet; 5) Osgood Formation - Greenish- and reddish-gray shale and argillaceous limestone. Thickness 0 to 15 feet.; and Brassfield Limestone - Thin-bedded cherty limestone, locally glauconitic. Thickness 0 to 20 feet.