Gile Mountain Formation - Gray, slightly rusty, poorly bedded phyllite and schist containing 20 cm to 2 m beds of light-gray, fine-grained quartzite, local punky-brown weathering calcareous granofels or quartzose marble, and pods and stringers of vein quartz.
Waits River Formation - Interbedded medium- to dark-gray, moderately rusty weathering, highly contorted, unbedded schist and punky-weathering calcareous granofels or quartzose marble, and pods and stringers of vein quartz.
Hawley Formation - Black, fine-grained, splintery, rusty-weathering schist and thin dark quartzite; interlayered amphibolite commonly has plagioclase megacrysts. As used here the Hawley includes amphibolite, sulfidic rusty schists, abundant coticules, silvery schists, quartzites and quartz conglomerates, and quartz, feldspar, biotite granulites. The quartzites and quartz conglomerates occur at two positions in rocks here assigned to the Hawley. Those occurring near the top have been mapped previously as Russell Mountain Formation or as Shaw Mountain Formation. The Hawley overlies the Ordovician Barnard Gneiss and underlies Silurian and Devonian "calciferous schists" that include the westernmost Goshen Formation in MA and Northfield Formation in southern VT, the central Waits River Formation and the eastern Gile Mountain Formation. Authors believe that the Goshen, Northfield, and Waits River are facies equivalents, while the Gile Mountain is slightly younger. Map symbol indicates that Hawley is Ordovician and Silurian. 40Ar/3Ar hornblende release spectrum date of 433+/-3 Ma obtained by Spear and Harrison (1989) (Trzcienski and others, 1992).
Hawley Formation - Pale-buff, light-green or white, medium-grained plagioclase gneiss. As used here the Hawley includes amphibolite, sulfidic rusty schists, abundant coticules, silvery schists, quartzites and quartz conglomerates, and quartz, feldspar, biotite granulites. The quartzites and quartz conglomerates occur at two positions in rocks here assigned to the Hawley. Those occurring near the top have been mapped previously as Russell Mountain Formation or as Shaw Mountain Formation. The Hawley overlies the Ordovician Barnard Gneiss and underlies Silurian and Devonian "calciferous schists" that include the westernmost Goshen Formation in MA and Northfield Formation in southern VT, the central Waits River Formation and the eastern Gile Mountain Formation. Authors believe that the Goshen, Northfield, and Waits River are facies equivalents, while the Gile Mountain is slightly younger. Map symbol indicates that Hawley is Ordovician and Silurian. 40Ar/3Ar hornblende release spectrum date of 433+/-3 Ma obtained by Spear and Harrison (1989) (Trzcienski and others, 1992).
Gile Mountain Formation, undivided - Gray to tan metawacke and schist or phyllite; gradational into Meetinghouse Slate Member but more thickly bedded and less pelitic than the member. Includes minor metavolcanic lentils.
Ironbound Mountain Formation, Grits at Halls Stream in northern New Hampshire - Thickly bedded feldspathic volcaniclastic grit and interbedded gray slate. Equivalent to Grenier Ponds Member of the Ironbound Mountain Formation in western Maine.
Littleton Formation undivided - Gray metapelite and metawacke and subordinate metavolcanic rocks; generally, but not everywhere, conformable with underlying Fitch or Madrid Formations. Fossiliferous in western New Hampshire.
Partridge Formation, undivided - Black, rusty-weathering sulfidic-graphitic slate or schist and sparse to abundant metagraywacke. Lies stratigraphically between upper and lower parts of the Ammonoosuc Volcanics.
Lower part of Rangeley Formation - Gray, thinly laminated (5-25 mm) metapelite with local lentils of turbidites and thin quartz conglomerates in western New Hampshire. Sparse calc-silicate pods and coticule. Probably equivalent to member B of Rangeley Formation of Maine.
Beekmantown Group (in part) - In St. Lawrence Valley: Ogdensburg Dolostone (Beauharnois Dolostone in Canada); In Champlain Valley: Providence Island Dolostone; Fort Cassin Formation-limestone, dolostone; Fort Ann Formation (Spellman of Clinton and Essex Counties)-limestone, dolostone; Cutting Formation-dolostone (locally cherty), limestone, siltstone. In Vermont: includes Bridport, Bascom, Cutting, and Shelburne carbonates.
Taconic Melange - chaotic mixture of Early Cambrian thru Middle Ordovician pebble to block-size clasts in a pelitic matrix of Middle Ordovician (Barneveld) age. Rims and floors earlier submarine gravity slides of Taconian Orogeny.
Brezee Formation - Dark gray to black phyllite with beds of blue-gray marble, dark gray dolomite, sandy dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone, in upper part; beds of massive quartzite as much as 20 ft thick occur locally and in places contain pebbles of blue quartz. Phyllites are locally highly albitic.
Cheshire Quartzite - Very massive, white to faintly pink or buff vitreous quartzite near the top in west-central and southwestern VT; predominantly a less massive appearing mottled gray, somewhat phyllitic quartzite; dolomitic sandstone and conglomerate near the base of the formation in west-central VT apparently grades southward into the Dalton Formation. Mapping in Bristol Notch and along the Green Mountain front indicate that the Cheshire Quartzite appears to be at least 2500 ft thick, which is about 2.5 times the original estimated thickness to the north and south. Near the base, the Cheshire is a massive argillaceous feldspathic meta-sandstone, containing recrystallized quartz and K-feldspar in a muscovite and biotite matrix. These lithologies grade upward through medium to thick-bedded schistose feldspathic meta-sandstones to clean, massive 'quartzites' of the Green Mountain front. Rocks currently mapped as the eastern-most Cheshire Quartzite probably belong to the Pinnacle Formation and are in fault contact with the Cheshire (Condon, 1993).
Cavendish Formation, Bull Hill Gneiss - Quartz-plagioclase-microcline-biotite gneiss characterized in many areas by augen of microcline as much as 2 inches long; fine- to medium-grained quartz-plagioclase-biotite or biotite-muscovite gneiss. Cardinal Brook Intrusive Suite is here named in the cores of the Chester-Athens dome and Rayponda-Sadawga dome in the eastern and southern Green Mountains, VT, and the northern part of the Berkshire massif, MA. Includes the Stamford Granite of Hitchcock (1861), the Somerset Reservoir Granite (new name), the Harriman Reservoir Granite (new name), and the Bull Hill Gneiss of Richardson (1929-30). Because of uncertainty regarding the geologic position of the Bull Hill, it is restricted to the Chester and Athens domes and the original definition of Richardson is retained. Rocks mapped as Bull Hill in the Jamaica area are assigned to the Somerset Reservoir Granite and those in the Rayponda-Sadawga dome are assigned to the Harriman Reservoir Granite. Structural position is unclear. U-Pb zircon age is Middle Proterozoic (960-950 Ma). . [GNU Staff note--This report mistakenly uses the phrasing "Bull Hill Gneiss of Richardson (1929-30)" which would normally imply that the unit has not been adopted for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) because of inadequate definition by Richardson or successive workers in the area. However, in this report, the phrasing simply means that Richardson's definition and use are preferred over the usage on the VT State Geologic Map of Doll and others (1961) and that the unit meets the requirements for formal usage by the USGS.] (Ratcliffe, 1991).
Cavendish Formation, Dolomite and Marble - Buff dolomite; minor white to pink calcite marble; actinolitic and diopsidic marbles and beds of actinolite diopside granulite common in Chester dome. The Cavendish Formation is reinstated and considered part of the Mount Holly Complex in VT. Usage follows Thompson (1950), but is extended to include some rocks on Star Hill, including inner and outer cover rocks assigned by Downie (1982) to Hoosac and Pinney Hollow Formations. Formation is divided into four map units: calc-silicate rock and gneiss, marble, feldspathic schist or granofels, and the Gassetts Schist Member. The Cavendish correlates with the Wilcox Formation of the Mount Holly Complex in the Green Mountain massif, and therefore, is of Middle Proterozoic age (Ratcliffe, in press).
Cavendish Formation, Readsboro Member - Quartz-muscovite schist containing biotite or chlorite and characterized by conspicuous porphyroblasts of sodic plagioclase; less commonly quartz-muscovite-paragonite schist containing chlorite, garnet, or chloritoid, or, in Chester dome, quartz-muscovite-paragonite schist containing garnet, staurolite, and locally kyanite (Gassetts schist). The Cavendish Formation is reinstated and considered part of the Mount Holly Complex in VT. Usage follows Thompson (1950), but is extended to include some rocks on Star Hill, including inner and outer cover rocks assigned by Downie (1982) to Hoosac and Pinney Hollow Formations. Formation is divided into four map units: calc-silicate rock and gneiss, marble, feldspathic schist or granofels, and the Gassetts Schist Member. The Cavendish correlates with the Wilcox Formation of the Mount Holly Complex in the Green Mountain massif, and therefore, is of Middle Proterozoic age (Ratcliffe, in press).
Clarendon Springs, Ticonderoga, and Rock River Dolomite; Gorge Formation - Fairly uniform, massive, smooth weathered gray dolomite characterized by numerous geodes and knots of white quartz; quartz sandstone and irregular masses of chert are near the top. Called the Ticonderoga west of Orwell and Champlain thrusts and the Rock River east of Philipsburg thrust. The Gorge is a partly conglomeratic facies on the west limb of the St. Albans synclinorium..
Danby and Potsdam Formations - The Danby is comprised of interbedded quartzite and dolomite; white quartzite beds, more than a foot thick, separated by 10 to 12 feet of dolomite in eastern areas, increase westward to continuous sections of white to pink weathered, massively bedded Potsdam quartzite, west of Orwell thrust.
Dalton Formation - Schistose quartzite containing pebbles of feldspar and blue quartz; impure dolomite containing pebbles of quartz and feldspar occurs locally; conglomerate common near base. Occurs in southwestern Vertmont.
Forestdale Marble - Buff to rusty-weathered white, buff, and pink and white mottled dolomite containing local interbeds of dolomitic sandstone, gray-green phyllitic quartzite, and crossbedded sandy dolomite.
Hazens Notch Formation - Interbedded carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schist; grades to quartzite and gneiss. (Northern and Central Vermont). According to author, the name Hazens Notch is a big problem in VT stratigraphic nomenclature. In northern VT, it consists of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous schist associated with ultramafics, mafic schists, and blueschists, while in the Camels Hump quad, it is considered to be strictly a carbonaceous albitic schist with associated mafic schist. The use of the name Hazens Notch is not recommended for the white albitic schist of the Fayston-Buels Gore area. Those rocks are here assigned to the newly named Fayston Formation (Walsh, 1992).
Hazens Notch Formation, Belvidere Mountain Amphibolite Member - Coarse- to fine-grained hornblende-epidote-albite rock; grades to epidote-chlorite-actinolite-albite greenstone where less metamorphosed. (Northern and Central Vermont).
Hoosac Formation - Quartz-sericite-albite-biotite-chlorite schist characterized by albite porphyroblasts - biotite and garnet porphyroblasts common southward; locally carbonaceous. (Southern and Central Vermont). First revision is restriction of Tyson Formation and its replacement by Hoosac Formation in this quad. Cover rocks overlying basement of West River antiformal sheath fold (in hanging-wall of Ball Mountain thrust) consist of albitic schist locally containing pods of white dolomite and discontinuous basal beds of vitreous quartzite and interbedded dolomite as much as 15 m thick. These rocks were previously mapped as Tyson Formation by Doll and others (1961, State geologic map) and Karabinos (1984) and are now mapped as Hoosac Formation in this quad because of the presence of quartzite and dolomite locally contained within rusty albitic schist and granofels rocks typical of Hoosac. Similarly, cover rocks of Jamaica antiformal sheath fold consist of a 10-m-thick basal and quite continuous belt of dolomite marble that contains thin beds of vitreous quartzite. This unit was also mapped as Tyson by Doll and others (1961) and by Karabinos (1984) and is now mapped as Hoosac. Second revision is that Turkey Mountain Member is formalized as a member of Hoosac Formation to include all metabasalts within the formation. Exposed for a distance of 3 km northwest of Townshend. Consists of a collection of massive black amphibolite layers, 1 to 2 m thick, interlayered with epidotitic and quartz-rich, laminated greenstones. Total thickness of interbedded amphibolite and associated metasedimentary rock on Turkey Mountain is as much as 200 m. Termination of Turkey Mountain Member northward appears to result from thinning to the north although fault truncation along its lower contact cannot be ruled out. To the south, Turkey Mountain Member also appears to thin by interbedding with enclosing metasedimentary rocks, and pinches out north of Townshend. Where several layers in a limited region can be mapped separately, they are each referred to informally by use of subscripts in the letter symbol; this, however, does not imply correlation of numbered layers between different areas of the map (Ratcliffe, in press).
Hoosac Formation, Turkey Mountain Member - Amphibolite and actinolitic greenstone characterized by oval, 1/8 to 3/8 inch spots, chiefly of epidote. (Southern and Central Vermont). Discontinuous lenses of metabasalt, informally referred to as Turkey Mountain metabasalt member of Hoosac Formation, actually occur at different stratigraphic positions extending through a stratigraphic distance of 100 to 400 m above base of Hoosac Formation. From type area on Turkey Mountain in Saxtons River quad south to Massachusetts State line, basalts form at least three relatively persistent units (Ratcliffe, 1991). Basalt mapped in northeast corner of this map, above Wilmington thrust system, correlates with type Turkey Mountain. As used here, Turkey Mountain metabasalt member consists of several laterally and vertically discontinuous, nonidentical flows and volcaniclastic deposits including, but not restricted to, type Turkey Mountain Member of Hoosac Formation as used by Doll and others (1961) and by Skehan (1961). They mapped the lower basalts as unnamed greenstones in Hoosac Formation. Turkey Mountain metabasalt member consists of light-green to dark-green epidote-amphibole greenstones and amphibolite metabasalts. Metabasalt varies from massive to very well layered. Finely laminated, quartzose and epidotitic volcaniclastic beds several centimeters thick are interlayered with more massive, strongly foliated, black amphibolite. Where in contact with surrounding metasedimentary rocks, layering within metabasalt and volcaniclastic beds is concordant and gradational with enclosing metasediment. Light-gray or yellowish-greenish-gray, well-laminated quartzite or, less commonly, gritty, pebbly conglomerate 0.5 to 5 m thick marks upper contact with unnamed granofels member of Hoosac Formation. Base of Turkey Mountain metabasalt member in contact with rusty muscovite-albite-biotite schist. Metabasalts probably originated as thin composite basalt lava flows that contained intercalated basaltic volcaniclastic rocks. Age is Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian (Ratcliffe, 1993).
Hatch Hill and West Castleton Formations, Undifferentiated - The Hatch Hill, a relatively thin formation that succeeds the West Castleton, is characterized by rusty and spongy weathered gray calcareous quartzite traversed by numerous white-quartz viens. The West Castleton is a gray to black, siliceous, carbonaceous, and pyritiferous slate containing paper-thin white sandy laminae. Black slates are common to both formations. A blue-gray weathered black limestone is near the base of the West Castleton in a few places.
Monkton Quartzite - Distinctively red quartzite interbedded with lesser buff and white quartzite and relatively thick sections of dolomite like that of the Winooski; the quartzites thin to the east, and they become gray and phyllitic to the east and south.
Ottauquechee Formation - Black carbonaceous phyllite or schist containing interbeds of massive quartzite commonly criss-crossed by veins of white quartz; quartzite is dark gray and carbonaceous, light gray, or white; also includes light green quartz-sericite-chlorite phyllite or schist and sercitic quartzite; beds of phyllitic graywacke and feldspar granule conglomerate are north of Lamoille River. Schist contains abundant porphyroblasts of garnet and biotite from Ludlow south. The Ottauquechee contains two major units: A black phyllite and the Thatcher Brook Member. The black phyllite contains a previously unreported sub-unit of gray carbonate schist. The Thatcher Brook Member (named in an abstract by Armstrong and others, 1988) is a carbonaceous albitic schist with greenstones and ultramafics. These rocks have previously been included in the Ottauquechee but have never been differentiated from the black phyllite. Member is in fault contact with the silvery green schist of the Pinney Hollow Formation to the west. Age is Cambrian (Ratcliff, in press).
Ottauquechee Formation, Greenstone and Amphibolite. The Ottauquechee contains two major units: A black phyllite and the Thatcher Brook Member. The black phyllite contains a previously unreported sub-unit of gray carbonate schist. The Thatcher Brook Member (named in an abstract by Armstrong and others, 1988) is a carbonaceous albitic schist with greenstones and ultramafics. These rocks have previously been included in the Ottauquechee but have never been differentiated from the black phyllite. Member is in fault contact with the silvery green schist of the Pinney Hollow Formation to the west. Age is Cambrian (Ratcliff, in press).
Pinnacle Formation - Schistose graywacke, gray to buff, commonly striped, quartz-albite-sericite-biotite-chlorite rock predominates; quartz-cobble and boulder conglomerate is common, chiefly near base. (Northern and Central Vermont).
Pinney Hollow Formation, Chester Amphibolite Member - Thin-layered, ligniform amphibolite and hornblende schist; includes actinolitic greenstone and greenstone north of Windham. (Southern and Central Vermont).
Pinney Hollow Formation - Pale green quartz-sericite (muscovite-paragonite)-chlorite phyllite and schist with abundant magnetite, chloritoid phyllite and schist, quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schist, and rare beds of carbonaceous and schistose quartzite; garnet porphyroblasts common south of Ottauquechee River. (Southern and Central Vermont).
St. Catherine Formation - Purple, gray-green, and variegated slate and phyllite containing minor interbeds of white to green quartzite; locally albitic. Purple and green chloritoid-bearing slate and phyllite is within dashed line in northern Taconic Range, but not separated farther south.
Sweetsburg Formation, Skeels Corners Slate and Mill River Conglomerate Members Undifferentiated - Black slate; local dolomite, sandstone, dolomite conglomerate, limestone bioherm, limestone, and calcareous shale. The Mill River is a basal limestone conglomerate.
Tyson Formation - Feldspathic quartz-mica schist containing biotite, chlorite, and carbonate; many beds contain pebbles of quartz and feldspar; cobble or boulder conglomerate commonly at base; thin beds of quartzite, carbonaceous phyllite, and schistose dolomite in upper part, overlain at top by massive buff dolomite as much as 30 ft thick. (Southern and Central Vermont). The Tyson Formation contains grits and conglomerates at its base that unconformably overlie basement. The conglomerates and grits are as much as 150 m thick and contain lenses of dolomitic quartzite and feldspathic grit. Unit also contains black carbonaceous phyllite and interbedded dolostone as much as 100 m thick, followed by beige to tan weathering beds of dolostone that increase in abundance toward the top of the unit and pass into punky weathering dolomitic and feldspathic quartzite at the top. From a point near the southwest corner of the Andover quad, the rocks of the Tyson Formation are laterally replaced by albitic schists and granofels of the Hoosac Formation to the south. Therefore, Tyson laterally replaces the Hoosac from south to north along the eastern margin of the Green Mountain massif. The Tyson Formation is of Late Proterozoic(?) and Early Cambrian age (Ratcliffe, 1994).
Underhill Formation - Silvery, gray-green, quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite-biotite schist, containing abundant lenticular segregations of granular white quartz; locally quartz-sercite-albite-chlorite phyllite; porphyroblasts of albite, garnet, and magnetite are common and locally very abundant in gneissic facies in axial anticlines of the Green Mountain anticlinorium . (Northern and Central Vermont). In study area consists mainly of greenish quartz-chlorite-sericite phyllites lying stratigraphically between Pinnacle and Cheshire Formations, where author would place rocks of type locality within Underhill facies of Pinnacle Formation, for they are clearly stratigraphically equivalent to rocks of Pinnacle Formation in Enosburg area, being below an excellent horizon marker, the Whitebrook dolomite and slate. However, Underhill facies of the Pinnacle and phyllites of Underhill Formation are practically indistinguishable in the field, and it is unavoidable, wherever dividing White Brook dolomite and slate are absent, to map all rocks of Underhill facies as one unit. In western part of outcrop belt, Underhill rocks are well defined between White Brook Dolomite or coarse Pinnacle graywacke below and Cheshire Formation above. Rocks in this clearly defined area are here recognized as Fairfield Pond Member. As mapped, the Underhill includes Fairfield Pond Member, Bakersfield Greenstone, Peaked Mountain Greenstone, White Brook Member, Jay Peak Member, and West Sutton Slate Member. Eastern facies of Underhill is named Bonsecours facies (Dennis, 1964).
Underhill Formation, Mount Abraham Schist Member - Light gray sericite (muscovite-paragonite)-quartz-chloritoid rock with silvery sheen; porphyroblasts of magnetite are common and porphyroblasts of chlorite, chloritoid, garnet, and kyanite occur locally. (Northern and Central Vermont). Four distinctive units of Mount Abraham Schist occur within the Fayston-Buels Gore area, which are recognized on the basis of mineralogy, contact relationships, and geographic distribution. All are composed predominantly of white mica (muscovite and paragonite)-quartz-chlorite-chloritoid schist. One unit contains intraformational greenstone and metawacke; a second is a similar white mica schist but without the greenstone and metawacke; the third contains allanite; and the fourth, kyanite (Walsh, 1992).
Underhill Formation, Battell Member - Carbonaceous sericite-quartz-albite-chlorite schist and schistose quartzite, also carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous limestone; quartz-sericite-chlorite-albite schist. (Northern and Central Vermont). The Battell is raised to Formation rank by T.R. Armstrong (in press) [not in bibliography] to describe graphitic schists with carbonates that depositionally overlie the Monastery Formation in the Granville-Hancock area of central VT. The name Battell Formation is tentatively assigned in this report to a distinct group of graphitic rocks with limited occurrence in the study area. The basal portion of the Battell is assigned by Armstrong to the White River Member (new name) and following that nomenclature, the White River is the only part of the Battell seen in the Fayston-Buels Gore area. The White River appears to be in fault contact with the Underhill Formation along the eastern boundary of the Underhill in Buels Gore. The member also appears to be in depositional contact with the Monastery Formation at all observed locations and occurs as small bodies within the schists of the Monastery (Walsh, 1992).
Underhill Formation, Fairfield Pond Member - Greenish quartzitic schist (quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite-biotite); sericite-quartz-chlorite phyllite, locally purple or red, common in lower part. (Northern and Central Vermont).
Underhill Formation, White Brook Member - Chiefly brown-weathered whitish, tan and gray sandy dolomite, locally only a hematitic zone; includes carbonaceous crystalline limestone in Cambridge syncline. (Northern and Central Vermont).
Gile Mountain Formation - Gray quartz-muscovite phyllite or schist, interbedded and intergradational with gray micaceous quartzite (graywacke northeast of Nulhegan River), calcareous mica schist, and, locally, quartzose and micaceous crystalline limestone like that of the Waits River formation. The phyllite and schist commonly contain porphyroblasts of biotite, garnet, or staurolite, and locally kyanite, andalusite, or sillimanite. Used as Early Devonian Gile Mountain Formation. Generally consists of gray to tan metawacke and schist or phyllite, gradational into its Meetinghouse Slate Member, but much more thickly bedded and less pelitic. Contains minor metavolcanic lentils. Unnamed metavolcanic member is possibly equivalent to Putney Volcanics of southeastern VT. Separately mapped interbedded gray slate or phyllite and brown-weathering calcite-ankerite metasiltstone, and minor marble and quartzite, resembles Waits River Formation of VT. Meetinghouse Slate Member consists of gray to black phyllite and silty metasandstone turbidite. Report includes geologic map, cross sections, correlation chart, and four 1:500,000-scale derivative maps (Lyons and others, 1997).
Gile Mountain Formation, Meetinghouse Slate Member - Chiefly gray slate or phyllite characterized by beds of gray schistose quartzite 1/8 inch to 3 inches thick. Gile Mountain Formation and its Meetinghouse Slate Member were previously considered to be Early Devonian based on Emsian plant fossils from Compton Formation of QUE (Hueber and others, 1990; Hatch, 1991). Age assignment here changed to Early Devonian(?) because recent mapping indicates that Gile Mountain and Compton are not coextensive across VT-QUE border as formerly believed by Doll and others (1961, State map) and St. Julien and Slivitsky (1987). Instead, the formations are separated by Ironbound Mountain Formation. Ironbound Mountain Formation is conformably overlain by Compton, but it is not yet known whether Ironbound Mountain is overlain or underlain by Gile Mountain; this is shown by queried Ironbound Mountain-Gile Mountain contact in area of Averill 7.5-min quad, VT. Correlation of Gile Mountain and Compton is justified only if Gile Mountain in this area conclusively is shown to be underlain by Ironbound Mountain; otherwise, Gile Mountain (with possible exception of its Meetinghouse Slate Member) would be coeval with Silurian Frontenac Formation. Hatch (1988) proposed that Meetinghouse represents upper part of Gile Mountain on basis of graded bedding seen south of map area. This relationship is not proven, however, because Gile Mountain-Meetinghouse contact is difficult to define and graded beds are not always easily interpreted. On this map, Meetinghouse is tentatively shown to occur below main body of Gile Mountain on basis of remarkable similarity between it and Ironbound Mountain Formation. This relationship easily explains highly pelitic character of the Meetinghouse with upward-coarsening character of Lower Devonian sequences elsewhere in map area. Meetinghouse Slate Member includes volcanic facies (Moench and others, 1995).
Littleton Formation - Gray slate and phyllite containing interbeds of gray schistose quartzite 1/4 inch to 6 inches thick. West of Guildhall are lustrous, light to dark gray biotite-garnet phyllite and schist, some slate, and subordinate quartzite and impure quartzite. South of Bellows Falls gray phyllite passes eastward into gray mica schist containing porphyroblasts of biotite, garnet, and staurolite.
Northfield Formation - Dark gray to black quartz-sericite slate or phyllite with fairly widely-spaced interbeds a few inches thick of siltstone and silty crystalline limestone like that of the Waits River Formation; calcareous slate north of Lamoille River; phyllite passes into gray quartz-sericite schist containing abundant porphyroblasts of biotite and garnet in southern Vermont.
Waits River Formation - Gray quartzose and micaceous crystalline limestone weathered to distinctive brown earthy crust; interbedded and intergradational with gray quartz-muscovite phyllite or schist. Where more metamorphosed the limestones contain actinolite, hornblende, zoisite, diopside, wollastonite, and garnet, and the phyllite and schist, biotite, garnet, and locally andalusite, kyanite or sillimanite.
Waits River Formation, Barton River Member - Interbedded siliceous crystalline limestone and sercite-quartz-chlorite phyllite in northern Vermont; diopsidic limestone and cordierite hornfels at contacts with granitic dikes and sills.
Waits River formation, Standing Pond Volcanic Member - Amphibolite, garnet amphibolite, coarse garnet schist with fasciculitic hornblende, and hornblende maculite; contains pillow lavas near St. Johnsbury and passes eastward into actinolitic greenstone and greenstone south of Windsor.
Bethlehem Gneiss - Two-mica granodiorite gneiss. Revised as the Bethlehem Granodiorite to emphasize its average granodiorite composition. Mapped as the Haverhill, Mount Clough, Indian Pond, and Fairlee plutons. Consists of strongly metamorphosed, foliated, gray, medium-grained biotite granodiorite and local tonalite and granite. Age is Devonian based on isotopic age of 410+/-5 Ma (J.N. Aleinikoff, this report, from Fairlee pluton), which is also consistent with age of 409+/-5 Ma reported by Kohn and others (1992) from Indian Pond pluton and Bellows Falls pluton (the latter is outside of map area in southwestern NH) (Moench and others, 1995).
Albee Formation - Massive, gray, white-weathered quartzite and feldspathic quartzite interbedded with greenish-gray slate, phyllite, feldspthic phyllite and quartzose argillaceous phyllite. Micaceous quartzite, quartz-mica schist, mica schist and hornfels contining porphyroblasts of biotite, garnet, staurolite and sillimanite in the vicinity of granitic plutons. Soda-rhyolite tuff occurs locally. Micaceous quartzite characterized by thin, schistose "pinstripe" partings is common in many areas.
Bascom Formation, and undifferentiated Luke Hill, Naylor Ledge and Hastings Creek Limestones - Interbedded dolomite, limestone or marble, calcareous sandstone, quartzite and limestone breccia; irregular dolomitic layers, thin sandy laminae, and slaty or phyllitic partings characterize limestone and marble of lower, middle, and upper parts of the Bascom, respectively; south of West Rutland it includes some of the Chipman formation. The combined Luke Hill, Naylor Ledge, and Hastings Creek, east of Philipsburg thrust, are stratigraphically equivalent to the Bascom.
Bascom Formation , and undifferentiated Luke Hill, Naylor Ledge and Hastings Creek Limestones; Brownell Mtn Phyllite Member - Calcareous phyllite in upper part of the Bascom Formation of east limb of Hinesburg synclinorium.
Cutting Dolomite, and Undifferentiated Morgan Corner and Wallace Creek Formations - Typical Cutting is a massive, gray weathered, nondescript dolomite with finely laminated calcareous sandstone at base. The combined Morgan Corner and Wallace Creek Formations, east of Philipsburg thrust, are stratigraphically equivalent to the Cutting. Cutting Formation of Cady (1945) is stratigraphically extended to include Division D, member 1 of Brainerd and Seeley, 1890, (now called Smith Basin Member), and is here renamed Cutting Hill Formation. No new type section is designated. Redefined unit includes Winchell Creek Sandstone Member, East Shoreham Member (named), and Smith Basin Member (Washington and Chisick, 1988).
Stowe Formation(Cambrian-Ordovician)at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area
Stowe Formation - Quartz-sericite (muscovite-paragonite)-chlorite phyllite and schist; porphyroblasts of albite, garnet, chloritoid, or kyanite common locally; includes phyllitic graywacke north of Lamoille River. Schist contains abundant segregations of granular white quartz. The Stowe Formation in the study are contains two unnamed members: a silvery green schist and a greenstone. The schist is a fine-grained, silvery to dark green quartz-muscovite-albite-chlorite schist. It is in fault contact with the black phyllite of the Ottauquechee Formation. The greenstone is a homogenous, fine-grained, light green actinolite-albite-epidote-calcite-chlorite schist. Large outcrops of the resistant greenstone are common. Age according to map symbols is Proterozoic and Cambrian. Unit is correlated with the Rowe Schist (of Zen, 1983). [Rowe Schist on 1983 MA map is Cambrian and Ordovician. No explanation here for older age.] (Walsh, 1992).
Pinney Hollow Formation, Ottauquechee, and Stowe Formations, Undifferentiated - Includes quartz-muscovite-garnet-chlorite-biotite schist, rusty carbonaceous schist, amphibolite, and schistose quartzite. Schist locally contains porphyroblasts of staurolite and kyanite. On flanks of Chester and Athens domes.
Chipman, Bridport, and Beldens Formations, Providence Island Dolomite; Burchards Member - Blue-gray limestone with irregular spots of light buff dolomite that give weathered surface a mottled appearance.
Chipman, Bridport, and Beldens Formations, Providence Island Dolomite; Beldens Member - Interbedded buff to brown heavily scored dolomite and white to blue-gray marble and limestone; designated Beldens Formation east of Highgate Springs thrust.
Chipman, Bridport, and Beldens Formation, Providence Island Dolomite; Bridport Dolomite Member - Buff to brown weathered, sharply defined and laterally persistent beds chiefly of medium bedded to massive, scored dolomite; variously designated Bridport Formation and Providence Island Dolomite in northwestern Vermont.
Cumberland Head Formation - Interbedded calcareous black shale and fine-grained homogenous, dark-gray limestone; shown only in Grand Isle County where it is thick enough and well enough exposed to map.
Glens Falls and Orwell Limestones, Undifferentiated - Combined where deformation has made the thin bedded Glens Falls undistinguishable from the thick bedded Orwell; from West Rutland south may contain rocks as low as the Middlebury.
Glens Falls Formation, Shoreham Member - Interbedded limestone and shale, contains Cryptolithus tesselatus and Prasopora orientalis. (Glens Falls Formation: Thin bedded, dark blue-gray, rather coarsely granular and highly fossiliferous limestone.)
Hortonville Formation - Black, carbonaceous and pyritic slate and phyllite, locally sandy; brown weathered limy beds are common near base. Occurs east of Highgate Springs, Champlain, and Orwell thrusts.
Hortonville, or Cumberland Head, and Glens Falls Formations, Undifferentiated - Hortonville or Cumberland Head is combined with Glens Falls where the boundary with the Glens Falls is widely covered by surficial deposits, also where the Cumberland Head thins.
Mount Hamilton Formation - White weatherd black, gray, green, purple, and red hard slates, some interbedded with thin cherty appearing quartzites and ribbon limestones a few vinches apart; smooth, soft, red slate; beds of ankeritic quartzite a few inches to several feet thick, locally containg layers of edgewise conglomerate; and a polymict limestone conglomerate. Lithic features vary laterally and are in many places indistinguishable from those of the underlying Hatch Hill and West Castleton Formations.
Middlebury and Chazy Limestone, Undifferentiated Youngman and Carman Formations - Dark blue-gray, somewhat nodular and granular limestone with buff dolomite and shaly interbeds a fraction of an inch thick and 2 to 4 inches apart. The Middlebury, which is east of Champlain and Orwell thrusts, and the Youngman, which is east of Highgate Springs thrust, are, due partly to deformation, more slaty in appearance than the Chazy, which is west of the major thrusts. The Carman is a quartz sandstone with shaly partings that underlies the Youngman. The Chazy contains 3 members.
Middlebury and Chazy Limestone, Undifferentiated Youngman and Carman Formations, Day Point Member - Calcareous quartz sandstone, and calcarenite; orange-weathered dolomitic siltstones are common in eastern areas.
Middlebury and Chazy Limestone, Undifferentiated Youngman and Carman Formations, Valcour Member - Dark gray calcarenite succeeded by medium to light gray, buff-weathered silty, partly coquinal limestone.
Missisquoi Formation, Moretown Member - Quartzite and quartz-plagioclase granulite, in layers 1/8 to several inches thick, separated by "pinstripe" partings that contain muscovite, chlorite, epidote, biotite, and locally garnet; also greenish quartz-sericite-chlorite phyllite and schist, and minor carbonaceous phyllite. Schist and phyllite commonly contain biotite and garnet porphyroblasts in southern Vermont.
Missisquoi Formation, Whetstone Hill Member - Carbonaceous black to light gray phyllite and schist containing porphyroblasts of biotite and garnet; beds of gray micaceous quartzite, fine-grained biotite gneiss and amphibolite.
Orwell Limestone and Isle la Motte and Lowville Limestones - Smooth ledged, sublithographic and lithographic, dove gray weathered limestone commonly cut by veins of white calcite; beds filled with fossil shell fragments are characteristic. The Lowville is a thin, undifferentieated unit near the base of the Orwell that is characteristically ashen gray and contains abundant Phytopsis tubulosum. The Isle La Motte is about the equivalent of the Orwell in areas west of Champlain thrust, on Isle La Motte and near South Hero, Highgate, Swanton, and St. Albans; it is locally underlain by the Lowville, which is too thin to show on map. The Sawyer Bay is herein defined as a member of the Lowville Formation of the Black River Group. Occurs approximately in the middle of the Lowville throughout the Champlain Valley and represents a significant deepening event. Lower part of the Lowville was deposited in a shallow lagoonal environment, while the Sawyer Bay was deposited in a subtidal normal marine environment. Deposition probably the result of high angle block faulting in the Champlain basin. Member is very dark gray to black micrite to sparite in composition with irregular "lumpy" bedding, wavy lamination, cross-lamination, and ripple marks. Irregularly shaped, scattered chert nodules are concentrated in specific horizons. Contains a few large and small brachiopods, trilobite fragments and some fossil hash. Member is approximately 6 ft thick at Sawyer Point, South Hero Island, northwestern VT; thins to 2 ft at Arnold Bay, and becomes an indistinct rubbly unit at Crown Point, northeastern NY. The Lowville, at Crown Point, also contains the House Creek Member. The House Creek is also present in northwestern NY, southern Ontario, and the Black River Valley, but is not seen at Sawyer Point or Arnold Bay. The Lowville reaches a maximum thickness of 50 ft at Crown Point and a minimum of 24 ft at Sawyer Point. The Lowville overlies the Pamelia Formation and underlies the Chaumont Formation. Age is Middle Ordovician (Blackriveran). (Bechtel and Mehrtens, 1995).
Orfordville Formation, Post Pond Volcanics - Greenstone, green chloritic schist interbedded with schistose felsite, quartz-feldspar-sericite schist; fine-grained chloritic, biotitic gneiss, all west of Ammonoosuc fault; mainly amphibolite east of the Ammonoosuc fault.
Pawlet Formation - Silver gray to jet black, locally carbonaceous and pyritiferous, micaceous silty slate; interbedded, at intervals of a few inches to tens of feet, by beds of dark gray rusty weathered graywacke a few inches to 6 feet thick. The graywacke contains subangular grains of quartz, and less abundant feldspar and slate fragments, in a gray argillaceous matrix that is locally calcareous.
Shelburne, Whitehall, and Strites Pond Formations - The Shelburne is chiefly a white marble or gray limestone characterized by raised reticulate lines of gray dolomite on the weathered surface; includes Sutherland Falls marble, intermediate dolomite and Columbian marble of the marble quarries. Interbedded massive dolomite increases westward and predominates in the Whitehall formation, west of Champlain and Orwell thrusts. The Strites Pond, which is identical to the Shelburne, is east of Philipsburg thrust.
Mount Holly Complex - Mainly fine- to medium-grained biotitic gneiss, locally muscovitic, and in western areas chloritic; massive and granitoid in some localities, fine-grained or schistose and compositionally layered in others; also abundant amphibolite and hornblende gneiss, and minor beds of mica schist, quartzite, and calc-silicate granulite; includes numerous small bodies of pegmatite and gneissoid granitic rock. Includes a suite of metatonalites, metatrondhjemite, and possible metadacite with chemical characteristics of a calc-alkaline volcanic-plutonic suite. Mappable units are College Hill Granite Gneiss and 10 unnamed subdivisions including several varieties of gneiss as well as schist, amphibolite, and quartzite. U-Pb zircon upper intercept ages of 1.35 to 1.30 Ga have been determined and interpreted as age of crystallization (Ratcliffe and others, unpub. data). Cores of abraded zircon obtained from College Hill Granite Gneiss of Mount Holly Complex have a U-Pb upper intercept age of 1245 +/-14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization age for that granite (Aleinikoff and others, 1990). Dust collected by abrasion of zircons, thought to represent migmatitic overgrowth, has a Pb-Pb age of approx 1100 Ma. These data suggest that College Hill Granite Gneiss was intruded at 1245 Ma and migmatized at 1100 Ma. On north and south slopes of College Hill, College Hill Granite Gneiss grades outward into migmatitic biotite granite gneiss of Mount Holly Complex. College Hill is discordant to contacts and folds in paragneiss units of Mount Holly Complex. Dacitic metavolcanics are found within Washington Gneiss of Berkshire massif of MA (Ratcliffe and Zartman, 1968). They are interbedded with thick succession of rusty-weathering, quartz-pebble gneisses, calc-silicate rocks and garnet-sillimanite schist similar to, but much thicker than, the rusty-weathering gneiss and schist unit of Mount Holly Complex exposed in Green Mountains of VT. It is possible that the metadacitic and metatrondhjemitic suite of VT constitutes a lateral, south-to-north facies of the Washington Gneiss of MA (Ratcliffe, in press).
Mount Holly Complex, calcite and dolomite marbles - locally coarse grained; commonly contain phlogopite, actinolite, and diopside, and are interbedded with medium- to coarse-grained calc-silicate granulite; includes minor amounts of other types of Precambrian rock.
Stamford Gneiss - Granitic biotite gneiss with megacrysts of microcline. A dike-like feature of Stamford Granite, found near eastern margin of Green Mountain massif near locality 1 on this map (represented by sample 172), was incorrectly referred to as a probable Late Proterozoic diabase dike by Ratcliffe on his section of the Bedrock Map of Massachusetts (Zen and others, 1983). U-Pb zircon dates from Karabinos and Aleinikoff (1988, 1990) yield an age of 959+/-4 Ma. Unpublished data from Harding and Mukasa yield a U-Pb zircon date of about 950 Ma (Ratcliffe and others, 1993).
Mount Holly Complex, quartzite and schist - Quartzite, locally in massive beds as much as 30 ft thick, micaceous quartzite, and quartz-mica schist that commonly contains garnet or pseudomorphs (largely chlorite) after garnet; schists are locally rusty weathered and contain conspicuous flakes of graphite; also includes amphibolite and minor hornblende gneiss, biotite gneiss, and pegmatite.
Fitch Formation - Quartz-plagioclase-biotite granulite; actinolite-diopside granulite; impure limestone and dolomite; mica schist; the carbonate-rich beds are typically an inch or two thick and segmented so as to give the weathered outcrop a characteristic pitted appearance. (Southeastern Vermont).