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Geologic units containing arkose

Earth material > Sedimentary rock > Clastic rock > Sandstone
Arkose
A feldspar-rich sandstone, commonly coarse-grained and pink or reddish, that is typically composed of angular to subangular grains that may be either poorly or moderately well sorted... Quartz is usually the dominant mineral, with feldspars constituting at least 25%.
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Alabama - Arizona - Connecticut - Idaho - Kansas - Massachusetts - Maine - Michigan - Minnesota - New Jersey - New Mexico - Nevada - New York - Pennsylvania - Rhode Island - South Dakota - Tennessee - Texas - Virginia - Vermont - Washington - Wisconsin - West Virginia
Alabama
Cochran Formation (Cambrian)
Cochran Formation - poorly sorted arkosic sandstone and conglomerate containing interbedded greenish-gray siltstone and mudstone. The Cochran Formation is exposed only in northeastern Calhoun and northwestern Cleburne Counties.
Arizona
Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks (Early Proterozoic)
Metasedimentary rocks, mostly derived from sandstone and shale, with minor conglomerate and carbonate rock. Includes quartz-rich, mostly nonvolcanic Pinal Schist in southeastern Arizona and variably volcanic-lithic sedimentary rocks in the Yavapai and Tonto Basin supergroups in central Arizona. (1600-1800 Ma)
Jurassic volcanic rocks (Jurassic)
Massive quartz-feldspar porphyry, generally interpreted as thick, welded rhyolitic tuffs, with locally abundant lava, and sandstone and conglomerate derived from volcanic rocks. Rare eolian quartzite units are interbedded in southern Arizona. Includes Ali Molina Formation, Mount Wrightson Formation, part of the Canelo Hills Volcanics, Cobre Ridge tuff, Black Rock volcanics, Planet Volcanics, and equivalent rocks. (160-200 Ma)
Middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks (Middle Proterozoic)
Red-brown shale and sandstone, buff to orange quartzite, limestone, basalt, black shale, and sparse conglomerate. This unit includes the Grand Canyon Supergroup, Apache Group, and Troy Quartzite. These rocks were deposited in shallow marine, coastal nonmarine, and fluvial settings. (700-1300)
Mississippian, Devonian, and Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Cambrian, Devonian, and Mississippian)
Brown to dark gray sandstone grades upward into green and gray shale, overlain by light to medium gray or tan limestone and dolostone. This unit includes the Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, Muav Limestone, Temple Butte Formation and Redwall Limestone in northern Arizona, and the Bolsa Quartzite, Abrigo Formation, Martin Formation, and Escabrosa Limestone in southern Arizona. These rocks record intermittent sea-level rise and inundation in early Paleozoic time. (330-540 Ma)
Sedimentary rocks of the Late Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Late Cretaceous)
Gray to buff sandstone with interbedded shale and coal. These rocks, which are similar to slightly younger rocks that form Mesa Verde in southwestern Colorado, were deposited on the margin of a shallow sea. Rocks of this map unit host the only large coal deposits in Arizona. (84-88 Ma)
Connecticut
East Berlin Formation (Lower Jurassic)
East Berlin Formation - Maroon siltstone, silty and sandy shale, and fine-grained silty sandstone, generally well laminated and commonly well indurated, alternating with dark fissile shale; dolomitic carbonate common in cement, concretions, and thin argillaceous laminae. Local arkose; grades eastward into coarse conglomerate close to eastern border fault. The East Berlin Formation of the Hartford basin contains eight facies: trough cross-bedded sandstones, horizontally stratified sandstones, interbedded sandstones and mudrocks, ripple cross-laminated siltstones, black shales, stratified mudrocks, disrupted shales, and disrupted mudstones. These facies are interpreted as a continental depositional system and are divided into two assemblages. Sandflat/alluvial plain facies assemblage (sandstones and siltstones) is composed of sheet-flood deposits. The lacustrine assemblage (shales and mudrocks) represents a saline lake-playa system (Gierlowski-Kordesch and Rust, 1994).
New Haven Arkose (Upper Triassic; possibly Lower Jurassic at top)
New Haven Arkose - Red, pink, and gray coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, poorly sorted and indurated arkose, interbedded with brick-red micaceous, locally shaly siltstone and fine-grained feldspathic clayey sandstone.
New Haven Arkose plus Buttress Dolerite (Upper Triassic; possibly Lower Jurassic at top plus Middle? Jurassic)
New Haven Arkose plus Buttress Dolerite - New Haven Arkose - Red, pink, and gray coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, poorly sorted and indurated arkose, interbedded with brick-red micaceous, locally shaly siltstone and fine-grained feldspathic clayey sandstone. Buttress Dolerite (Middle? Jurassic) - Dark-gray to greenish-gray (weathers brown or gray), medium- to fine-grained, commonly porphyritic, generally massive with well-developed columnar jointing, grading from basalt near contacts to fine-grained gabbro in the interior, composed of plagioclase and pyroxene with accessory opaques and locally devitrified glass, quartz, or olivine.
Portland Arkose (Lower Jurassic)
Portland Arkose - Reddish-brown to maroon micaceous arkose and siltstone and red to black fissile silty shale. Grades eastward into coarse conglomerate (fanglomerate).
Idaho
Conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone; Eocene to Late Cretaceous alluvial-fan deposits; east-central Idaho, Cordilleran fold-thrust belt, piggyback basins (Eocene to Late Cretaceous )
Lower Tertiary to Upper Mesozoic breccia, conglomerate and sandstone; syntectonic in part.
Tuff, arkose, claystone, siltstone, conglomerate, lignite; Miocene alluvial and lacustrine deposits (Miocene)
Miocene stream and lake deposits; generally associated with volcanic episodes.
Kansas
Ogallala Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
massive to cross-bedded, generally arkosic sand, silt and gravel, locally cemented with calcium carbonate; also contains limestone, volcanic ash, diatomaceous marl, opaline sandstone and bentonitic clay
Massachusetts
Coal Mine Brook Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian)
Coal Mine Brook Formation - Fossiliferous, carbonaceous slate and garnet phyllite with a lens of meta-anthracite; conglomerate and arkose.
Hitchcock Volcanics (Lower Jurassic)
Hitchcock Volcanics - Nested cones of basaltic breccia containing abundant fragments of New Haven Arkose (Jn, TRn), locally intrusive into arkose near base; overlain by lava flow of Holyoke Basalt (Jhb) and/or Shuttle Meadow Formation (Jsm).
Mount Toby Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Mount Toby Formation - Reddish-brown to pale red arkosic sandstone, and gray sandstone, gray siltstone, and black shale interpreted as lake beds.
Mount Toby Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Mount Toby Formation - Pale red conglomerate and arkosic sandstone, coarsens eastward. The Mount Toby Conglomerate is here revised and renamed the Mount Toby Formation of the Newark Supergroup. It includes only the sedimentary strata in the Deerfield basin above the slump zone unconformity defined by Cornet (1977), or its projected equivalent at its contact with the underlying Turners Falls Sandstone. It includes conglomerates at the type locality, landslide deposits within the conglomerate, and sandstone and lake beds above the slump zone unconformity, which were formerly included in the Turners Falls Sandstone. Other rocks mapped as Mount Toby Conglomerate by Emerson (1898) in the Hartford, Deerfield, and Northfield basins have been assigned to the Portland, Sugarloaf, and Turners Falls Formations. Age is Sinemurian and Pliensbachian, based on the discovery by Cornet (1977) of palynoflora in these strata (Robinson and Luttrell, 1985).
New Haven Arkose (Upper Triassic)
New Haven Arkose - Red, pink, and gray coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic arkose interbedded with brick-red shaley siltstone and fine-grained arkosic sandstone; boundary between Lower Jurassic (Jn) and Upper Triassic (TRn) parts is arbitrarily drawn through clastic rocks of similar lithology below gray mudstone containing Lower Jurassic palynofloral zone; TRn is continuous with and lithically similar to TRs near Northampton. Assigned to Newark Supergroup (Robinson and Luttrell, 1985).
New Haven Arkose (Lower Jurassic)
New Haven Arkose - Red, pink, and gray coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic arkose interbedded with brick-red shaley siltstone and fine-grained arkosic sandstone; boundary between Lower Jurassic (Jn) and Upper Triassic (TRn) parts is arbitrarily drawn through clastic rocks of similar lithology below gray mudstone containing Lower Jurassic palynofloral zone. Assigned to Newark Supergroup (Robinson and Luttrell, 1985).
Pondville Conglomerate (Lower Pennsylvanian)
Pondville Conglomerate - Quartz conglomerate having abundant sandy matrix; boulder conglomerate, arkose; fossil plants. Pondville Conglomerate is present in Narragansett and Norfolk basins. Although Chute (1964, 1966, 1969) recognized a lower boulder conglomerate member and an upper sandstone to pebble conglomerate member in the Pondville in the northeast part of the basin, such a division is not readily made to the southwest because of facies changes. Upper member grades into and interfingers with Wamsutta Formation. Basal beds nonconformably overlie Dedham Granite in northern part of Narragansett basin. Age of deposits in Narragansett and Norfolk basins ranges from Early to Late Pennsylvanian; however, Skehan and Murray (1980) assigned lower part of Pondville to Mississippian. Further study may reveal even older Paleozoic sediments in Narragansett basin (Goldsmith, 1991).
Portland Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Portland Formation - Reddish-brown to pale red conglomerate and arkose.
Portland Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Portland Formation - Reddish-brown to pale red arkose and siltstone, and gray sandstone, gray siltstone, and black shale interpreted as lake beds.
Sugarloaf Formation (Upper Triassic)
Sugarloaf Formation - Red, pink, and gray coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic arkose, interbedded with brick-red shaley siltstone and fine-grained arkosic sandstone; boundary between Lower Jurassic (Js, Jsc) and Upper Triassic (TRs) parts are arbitrarily drawn through rocks of similar lithology on basis of Lower Jurassic palynofloral zone in gray mudstone immediately below Deerfield (Jdb); TRs is continuous with and lithically similar to TRn near Northampton. Assigned to Newark Supergroup and revised to include all sedimentary strata in the Deerfield basin below the Deerfield Basalt or its projected horizon. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic boundary is arbitrarily drawn through clastic rocks consisting of coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic arkose interbedded with sandstone and siltstone below a Lower Jurassic palynofloral zone in gray mudstone just below the base of the Deerfield Basalt. The Sugarloaf is continuous with and lithologically similar to the New Haven Arkose in the Hartford basin (Robinson and Luttrell, 1985).
Sugarloaf Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Sugarloaf Formation - Reddish-brown to pale red arkose, and gray sandstone, gray siltstone, and black shale interpreted as lake beds.
Maine
Devonian Hobbstown Formation (Devonian)
Devonian Hobbstown Formation
Silurian Oak Bay formation (Silurian)
Silurian Oak Bay formation
Michigan
Oronto Group; Freda Sandstone (Middle Proterozoic)
Oronto Group; Freda Sandstone - Mainly reddish-brown, medium- to fine-grained lithic arkosic sandstone, siltstone, and micaceous silty shale.
Minnesota
Fond du Lac Formation (Middle Proterozoic)
Fond du Lac Formation - Red to dark-brown shale, feldspathic sandstone, and arkose of fluvial origin. Includes the Oldenberg Point Member, a pronounced basal unit of quartz-pebble conglomerate in the Duluth area.
New Jersey
Basalt-clast Conglomerate (Lower Jurassic)
Basalt-clast Conglomerate - Dark to very-dark-gray conglomerate with clasts mostly of sub-angular to subrounded greenish-black basalt cobbles and boulders. Other clasts (about 10 to 15%) are pebbles to boulders of hornblende granite with pink feldspar. Matrix is dark-pinkish-gray arkosic sand. Locally onlaps the Hook Mountain Basalt along the Ramapo Fault in northeast part of map area. Maximum thickness of unit unknown.
Chestnut Hill Formation (Late Proterozoic)
Chestnut Hill Formation (Drake, 1984) - Interbedded arkose, ferruginous quartzite, quartzite conglomerate, metarhyolite, and metasaprolite. Confined to a few small areas north and east of Phillipsburg, on the western side of Bowling Green Mountain, northwest of High Bridge, and a few areas too small to show at this map scale.
Green Pond Conglomerate (Lower (?) and Middle Silurian)
Green Pond Conglomerate (Rogers, 1836) - Medium- to coarse-grained quartz-pebble conglomerate, quartzitic arkose and orthoquartzite, and thin- to thick-bedded reddish-brown siltstone. Grades downward into gray, very dark-red, or grayish-purple, medium- to coarse-grained, thin- to very thick bedded pebble to cobble conglomerate containing clasts of red shale, siltstone, and chert; yellowish-gray sandstone and chert; dark-gray shale and chert; and white-gray and pink milky quartz. Quartz cobbles are as long as 10 cm (4 in.), and rare red shale clasts as much as 46 cm (18 in.) across. Milky quartz pebbles average 2.5 cm (1 in.) in length. Red arkosic quartz-pebble conglomerate and quartzite are more abundant than gray and grayish-green quartzite. Unconformably overlies Martinsburg Formation, Allentown Dolomite, Leithsville Formation, or Proterozoic rocks. About 305 m (1000 ft) thick.
Lockatong Formation Arkosic Sandstone facies (Upper Triassic)
Lockatong Formation Arkosic Sandstone facies - Cycles in northern Newark basin are thinner and have arkosic sandstone in lower and upper parts. Upper part of formation in northern basin composed mostly of light-gray to light-pinkish-gray or light-brown, coarse- to fine-grained, thick- to massive-bedded arkosic sandstone (Trla). Thermally metamorphosed into hornfels where intruded by diabase (Jd).
Stockton Formation (Upper Triassic)
Stockton Formation - Predominantly medium- to coarse-grained, light-gray, light-grayish-brown, or yellowish- to pinkish-gray arkosic sandstone and medium- to fine-grained, violet-gray to reddish-brown arkosic sandstone; with lesser, reddish to purplish-brown, silty mudstone, argillaceous siltstone, and shale. Some coarse-grained sandstone in lower part contains thick beds of conglomerate (Trsc) which have been mapped in the vicinity of Stockton. Sandstone, deposited in high-gradient stream channels, is mostly planar bedded with scoured bases containing pebble lags and mudstone rip-up clasts. Upper part of channel beds are burrowed. Large-scale trough crossbeds occur in some very coarse grained sandstone beds; smaller scale trough and climbing-ripple cross lamination occur in the upper part of channel sequences and in finer grained sandstone beds. Typical floodplain mudstones are irregularly thin bedded and extensively burrowed. Floodplain beds are thicker and more numerous in the central Newark basin, near the Delaware River. Thickness of the unit (including Trsc) near Stockton is about 1,240 m (4,068 ft).
Stockton Formation (Upper Triassic)
Stockton Formation (Kummel, 1897) - Light-gray, light-grayishbrown, yellowish- to pinkish-gray, or violet-gray to reddish-brown, medium- to coarse-grained arkosic sandstone and reddish- to purplish-brown mudstone, silty mudstone, argillaceous siltstone, and shale. Mudstone, siltstone and shale beds thicker and more numerous in central Newark basin west of Round Valley Reservoir. Sandstones mostly planar-bedded, with scoured bases containing pebble lags and mudstone rip-ups. Unit is coarser near Newark basin border fault, where poorly exposed, reddish-brown to pinkish-white, medium- to coarse-grained, feldspathic pebbly sandstone and conglomerate (Trss) and pebble to cobble quartzite conglomerate (Trscq). Maximum thickness of formation about 1,240 m (4,070 ft).
New Mexico
Point Lookout Sandstone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous)
Point Lookout Sandstone; regressive marine sandstone in McKinley and Sandoval Counties. The lower, Hosta Tongue, of Point Lookout is transgressive and is separated from main body by the Satan Tongue of Mancos Shale; Santonian - Campanian
Nevada
Elder Sandstone (Silurian)
ELDER SANDSTONE-Feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, shale, and chert. Lander County.
New York
Black River Group (Middle Ordovician)
Black River Group - In Black River Valley: Chaumont Limestone-locally cherty; Lowville Limestone; Pamelia Formation-dolostone, shale, arkose. In Champlain Valley: Amsterdam, Isle La Motte, and Lowville Limestones: Pamelia Dolostone.
Brunswick Formation (Upper Triassic)
Brunswick Formation - mudstone, sandstone and arkose.
Brunswick Formation, undivided (Upper Triassic)
Brunswick Formation, undivided - includes the units: TRbg: sandstone and conglomerate; TRbs: sandstone, siltstone, mudstone; TRba: mudstone, sandstone, and arkose.
Stockton Formation (Upper Triassic)
Stockton Formation - arkose, conglomerate, and mudstone.
Pennsylvania
Heidlersburg Member of Gettysburg Formation (Triassic)
Heidlersburg Member of Gettysburg Formation - Red, green, and gray shale and argillite, and minor thin beds of gray arkosic sandstone; some quartz conglomerate and limestone conglomerate.
New Oxford Formation (Triassic)
New Oxford Formation - Light-gray to buff, commonly arkosic sandstone interbedded with red shale, mudstone, and fine-grained sandstone
Sedimentary strata at Jacksonwald and Aspers (Jurassic)
Sedimentary strata at Jacksonwald and Aspers - Arkosic sandstone; fossiliferous, gray to black shale and limestone; ripple-cross-laminated siltstone; and boulder conglomerate.
Stockton Formation (Triassic)
Stockton Formation - Light-gray to buff, coarse-grained, arkosic sandstone; includes reddish-brown to grayish-purple sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone.
Weverton and Loudoun Formations, undivided (Cambrian)
Weverton and Loudoun Formations, undivided - In descending order: Weverton--gray to purplish-gray quartzite and quartzose conglomerate containing rounded pebbles. Loudoun--sericitic slate and purplish-gray, crumbly, poorly sorted, arkosic sandstone and conglomerate.
Rhode Island
Narragansett Bay Group - Pondville Conglomerate (Pennsylvanian)
Narragansett Bay Group - Pondville Conglomerate - Gray to greenish conglomerate with sand-sized matrix, interbedded with quartz arenite and litharenite; typically lenticular and discontinuous. At type locality (Pondville Station, Massachusetts), unit consists of interbedded red and green slate, siltstone, arkose, and quartzite-pebble conglomerate.
South Dakota
Batesland Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
Tan to green, calcareous siltstone, claystone, channel sandstone, conglomerate, and arkose. Thickness up to 50 ft (15 m).
Tennessee
Chilhowee Group; Cochran Conglomerate (Cambrian)
Chilhowee Gourp; Cochran Conglomerate - Quartz-pebble conglomerate, gray pebbly arkose, siltstone and shale; irregular bedding, scour features, crossbedding common; maroon micaceous arkose and shale near middle and base. Thickness about 1,200 feet.
Chilhowee Group, including Erwin Formation, Hesse Sandstone, Murray Shale, Nebo Sandstone, Nichols Shale, Cochran Conglomerate, Hampton Formation, and Unicoi Formation (Cambrian)
Chilhowee Group - Conformable sequence of dominantly clastic sediments. Thickness 3,000 to 7,500 feet; including Erwin Formation - White, vitreous quartzite, massive, with interbeds of dark-green silty and sandy shale, minor siltstone, and very fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 1,000 to 1,500 feet; Hesse Sandstone - White, vitreous quartzite, medium- to coarse-grained, occurs in massive ledges; Helenmode Member at top is gray to greenish sandstone and shale. Thickness about 600 feet; Murray Shale - Shale, silty, sandy, dull-green to brown, micaceous. Thickness about 500 feet; Nebo Sandstone - Medium-bedded, fine-grained, white, vitreous quartzite, in part feldspathic. Thickness 250 feet; Nichols Shale - Olive-gray to green, silty and sandy, micaceous shale and siltstone; local lenses of fine-grained feldspathic quartzite. Thickness about 700 feet; Cochran Conglomerate - Quartz-pebble conglomerate, gray pebbly arkose, siltstone and shale; irregular bedding, scour features, crossbedding common; maroon micaceous arkose and shale near middle and base. Thickness about 1,200 feet; Hampton Formation - Dark greenish-gray, silty and sandy, micaceous shale; numerous layers of medium-grained, feldspathic, thinly bedded sandstone. Thickness 500 to 2,000 feet; Unicoi Formation - Sequence of gray feldspathic sandstone, arkose, conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone and shale; greenish amygdaloidal basalt flows near middle and base. Thickness 2,000 to 5,000 feet.
Cochran Conglomerate (Cambrian)
Cochran Conglomerate - Quartz-pebble conglomerate, gray pebbly arkose, siltstone and shale; irregular bedding, scour features, crossbedding common; maroon micaceous arkose and shale near middle and base. Thickness about 1,200 feet.
Great Smoky Group, includes Unnamed Sandstone Unit, Anakeesta Formation, Thunderhead Sandstone, and Elkmont Sandstone (Precambrian)
Great Smoky Group - Characterized by very massive layers of coarse graywacke and arkose. The formations at right have been mapped only in region of the Great Smoky Mountains. Thickness 14,000 to about 25,000 feet; includes Unnamed Sandstone Unit - Gray, coarse sandstone and fine conglomerate, similar to Thunderhead Sandstone. Thickness about 4,500 feet; Anakeesta Formation - Dark-gray, bluish-gray, and black slate with dark-gray interbeds of fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 3,000 to 4,500 feet; Thunderhead Sandstone - Coarse, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and conglomerate; occurs in massive ledges; graded bedding and blue quartz characteristic. Thickness 5,500 to 6,300 feet; Elkmont Sandstone - Coarse to fine, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and fine conglomerate; generally finer grained beds in lower part; graded bedding typical. Thickness 1,000 to 8,000 feet.
Great Smoky Group, including Anakeesta Formation, Thunderhead Sandstone, and Elkmont Sandstone (Precambrian)
Great Smoky Group - Characterized by very massive layers of coarse graywacke and arkose. The formations have been mapped only in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. Near Ducktown, in ascending order, the Copperhill, Hughes Gap, Hothouse, and Dean Formations are recognized. Thickness 14,000 to about 40,000 feet. Includes Anakeesta Formation - Dark-gray, bluish-gray, and black slate with dark-gray interbeds of fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 3,000 to 4,500 feet; Thunderhead Sandstone - Coarse, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and conglomerate; occurs in massive ledges; graded bedding and blue quartz characteristic. Thickness 5,500 to 6,300 feet; Elkmont Sandstone - Coarse to fine, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and fine conglomerate; generally finer grained beds in lower part; graded bedding typical. Thickness 1,000 to 8,000 feet
Snowbird Group, including Pigeon Siltstone, Roaring Fork Sandstone, Metcalf Phyllite, Longarm Quartzite, and Wading Branch Formation (Precambrian)
Snowbird Group - The formations at right are applicable chiefly in the area of the Great Smoky Mountains. Thickness 13,000 to about 20,000 feet. Includes Pigeon Siltstone - Laminated, greenish quartzose and feldspathic siltstone; minor fine-grained gray sandstone. Thickness as much as 10,000 feet; Roaring Fork Sandstone - Interbedded massive feldspathic sandstone, greenish siltstone, and greenish phyllite. Maximum thickness 7,000 feet; Metcalf Phyllite - Lustrous, pale-green and silvery sericitic and chloritic phyllite; siltstone interbeds abundant. Thickness uncertain; at least 5,000 feet; Longarm Quartzite - Feldspathic quartzite and arkose, conspicuously light-colored, current bedded and crossbedded. Thickness about 5,000 feet; Wading Branch Formation - Medium- to dark-gray sandy slate to coarse, pebbly feldspathic sandstone and graywacke; basal part is quartz-sericite phyllite; graded bedding common. Thickness about 1,500 feet.
Unicoi Formation (Cambrian)
Unicoi Formation - Sequence of gray feldspathic sandstone, arkose, conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone and shale; greenish amygdaloidal basalt flows near middle and base. Thickness 2,000 to 5,000 feet.
Texas
Haymond Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Early)
Haymond Formation
Hazel Formation (preCambrian-Proterozoic [Grenville])
Hazel Formation
Tesnus Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Mississippian-Late Pennsylvanian-Early)
Tesnus Formation
Van Horn Sandstone (preCambrian-Proterozoic [Grenville])
Van Horn Sandstone
Virginia
Konnarock Formation (Proterozoic Z)
Konnarock Formation - Maroon diamictite, rhythmite, and arkose.
Newark Supergroup; Conglomerate, arkosic maatrix (Upper Triassic)
Conglomerate, arkosic matrix
Vermont
St. Catherine Formation, Bomoseen Graywacke Member (Cambrian)
St. Catherine Formation, Bomoseen Graywacke Member - Green to olive-colored arkose and graywacke that weathers pale red to white; contains visible flakes of mica and rock fragments.
Washington
Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian; some Jurassic)
Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Cherty and slaty argillite, siltstone, graywacke, chert, greenstone, tuff, andesite, and spilitic volcanics.
Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian, minor Mesozoic)
Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and slate; includes minor marble, siltstone, arkose, conglomerate, ribbon cherts, and volcanic rocks. Some Devonian rocks may be included in northwestern Washington.
Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, mostly marine (Cretaceous)
Upper Cretaceous black siltstone, graywacke, and silica pebble conglomerate in western Okanogan County.
Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, mostly marine (Cretaceous)
Lower Cretaceous greenish-gray massive arkosic sandstone and light-gray sandy shale in western Okanogan County. Includes phyllite in eastern Whatcom County.
Eocene nonmarine rocks (Eocene)
Predominantly sandstone and shale. Includes some conglomerate in the Cle Elum area in Kittilas County. Contains extensive coal seams near Roslyn and carbonaceous shale and coal beds in White Pass area. Contains tuff beds in northwestern Ferry County.
Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks (Eocene-Oligocene)
Predominantly light-green, bedded andesite breccia with interbedded andesite and basalt flows, mudflows, and tuff beds; becomes more tuffaceous near top of unit. Includes tuffaceous and arkosic sandstone, shale, and carbonaceous shale beds in central and southern Cascade Mountians. Rhyodacite and quartz latite flows in northwestern Ferry County.
Mesozoic-Tertiary marine rocks, undivided (Miocene to Eocene)
Dark-gray, massive to poorly bedded gray-wacke of the interior Olympic Peninsula; commonly with interbedded slate, argillite, volcanic rocks, and minor arkosic sandstone. Includes rocks both older and younger than Ev2, some of which may be Paleozoic.
Paleocene-Cretaceous nonmarine rocks (Eocene (see age coding))
Brown-gray to light-gray, medium- to course-grained massive cross-bedded arkose with interbedded conglomerate and siltstone. Contains several coal seams in Whatcom County. Iron-rich laterite at base near Cle Elum and Blewett Pass in Kittitas and Chelan Counties.
Pliocene nonmarine rocks (Pliocene)
Conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and mudstone. Tuffaceous in part; contains alluvial fan type material locally.
Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous)
Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and siltstone with some slate and phyllite; includes graywacke breccia and ribbon chert with minor local limestone lenses and basalt flows.
Wisconsin
Bayfield Group; Chequamegon Sandstone (Middle Proterozoic)
Bayfield Group; Chequamegon Sandstone - Poorly sorted arkosic sandstone
Bayfield Group; Orienta Sandstone (Middle Proterozoic)
Bayfield Group; Orienta Sandstone - Poorly sorted arkosic sandstone
Oronto Group; Freda Sandstone (Middle Proterozoic)
Oronto Group; Freda Sandstone - Mainly reddish-brown, medium- to fine-grained lithic arkosic sandstone, siltstone, and micaceous silty shale.
West Virginia
Catoctin Formation (Cambrian/Precambrian)
Catoctin Formation - predominantly a greenstone. Basic lava flows, schist and gneiss, containing chlorite, plagioclase, amphibolite, and epidote. Includes minor quantities of arkose and thin clastics. Western subsurface extension presently unknown.

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