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Geologic units containing coarse-grained mixed clastic
Coarse-grained mixed clastic rock
A mixture of clastic sedimentary rocks varying from siltstone to conglomerate, dominated by rocks containing coarse sand-sized or gravel-sized particles.
This category is also used for coarse-grained mixed clastic.
- Flaxville gravel (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary)
- Flaxville gravel: Brown, yellow, and gray gravel, sand, and silt with marl and volcanic ash locally.
- Tertiary sedimentary rocks, undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary)
- Tertiary sedimentary rocks, undifferentiated: clastic deposits in western Montana, mostly in valleys, and in most places not divided into formations; mostly poorly consolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay; includes some tuffaceous material and locally lenses of lignite and bentonite; a little hot spring tufa; and in areas not yet mapped in detail, lava may be included. These rocks were in part laid down in lakes but a large part was formed in streams and alluvial fans. These rocks are Tertiary in age and as now mapped may even include some beds of Cretaceous age. Some late Tertiary terrace deposits may be included.
- New Jersey
- Cohansey Formation (Middle Miocene, Serravallian)
- Cohansey Formation - Sand, white to yellow with local gravel and clay. Locally stained red or orange brown by iron oxides and (or) cemented into large blocks of ironstone. Unweathered clay is typically dark gray, but commonly weathers white where interbedded with thin beds of ironstone. Unit is a complex of interfingering marine and nonmarine facies. Sand is typically medium grained and moderately sorted although it ranges from fine to very coarse grained and from poorly to well sorted. Sand consists of quartz and siliceous rock fragments. Some beds are locally micaceous, and in the Lakehurst area, Ocean County, some beds have high concentrations of "black" sand (pseudorutile) that was once extensively mined. In general, the sand is crossbedded, although the style of crossbedding varies significantly with the paleoenvironment. Trough crossbedding predominates, especially in the nonmarine channel fill deposits, and the scale of the crossbeds varies from small to large. In some areas, planar bedding is well developed in sections that have abundant marine burrows (mostly the clay-lined trace fossil Ophiomorpha nodosa). Such marine-influenced beds (largely foreshore deposits) occur on the central sheet west of Asbury Park, near Adelphia, Monmouth County, north of the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, Ocean County, and at Juliustown, Burlington County (Owens and Sohl, 1969), and on the southern sheet as far north as Salem, Salem County. Gravel beds occur locally, especially in updip areas such as near New Egypt, Ocean County, in the Atlantic Highlands and in the highlands west of Barnegat, Ocean County, in the southern part of the central sheet and in mixed marine and nonmarine facies in the northeastern part of the southern sheet where gravel occurs in well-defined channels. Most of the gravel is 1.3 to 2.5 cm (0.5-1.0 in) in diameter, but pieces as long as 10 cm (4 in) are present. The gravel is composed of quartz with small amounts of black chert and quartzite. Clay commonly occurs as discrete, thin, discontinuous beds, is dark gray where unweathered, white or red where weathered. Lesser, thin laminated clay strata also are present. Locally, as near Lakehurst, thick, dark-gray, very lignitic clay was uncovered during the mining of ilmenite and is informally called the Legler lignite (Rachele, 1976). An extensive, well-preserved leaf flora was collected from a thick clay lens in a pit near Millville, Cumberland County. The leaf flora was dominated by Alangium sp., a tree no longer growing in eastern North America (J.A. Wolfe, written commun., 1992). Maximum thickness in the map area is about 60 m (197 ft); however, thickness is difficult to determine because of the irregular basal contact and extensive post-depositional erosion. There is as much as 18 m (59 ft) of relief along the basal contact. The basal contact is sharp, undulatory, and directly overlain by a thin gravel bed. The Cohansey Formation unconformably overlies the Kirkwood Formation and is found in channels cut down into the Kirkwood. Where the Kirkwood consists of sandy, light-colored sediments, the basal contact of the Cohansey is drawn below crossbedded sediments. Where the Kirkwood consists of dark-colored silty beds, the basal contact is drawn between light-colored Cohansey sediments and the underlying dark-colored sediments. The Cohansey was markedly thinned because of erosion prior to deposition of overlying units in the western and southern parts of the southern sheet (Owens and Minard, 1975). The unit has been extensively eroded and stripped from large areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, particularly in the central sheet where outliers are common. In spite of its widespread nature, the Cohansey is poorly exposed because of its loose sandy composition, which causes it to erode easily (Newell and others, in press). Because of this same sandy nature, the Cohansey has been widely mined for sand, and manmade exposures are common in many areas. The age of the Cohansey is controversial because no calcareous microfauna or macrofauna have been found in this formation. The best indication of age comes from pollen and spores obtained from dark carbonaceous clay. Rachele (1976) analyzed the microflora from the Legler site and noted that the Cohansey had a rich and varied assemblage including several genera labeled "exotics" which no longer occur in the northeastern United States: Engelhardia, Pterocarya, Podocarpus, and Cyathea. Greller and Rachele (1984) estimated a middle Miocene age. Ager's (in Owens and others, 1988) analysis of the Cohansey from a corehole at Mays Landing also suggests a middle Miocene (Serravallian) age.
- New Mexico
- Fence Lake Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary)
- Fence Lake Formation; conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone, coarse fluvial volcanoclastic sediments, minor eolian facies, and pedogenic carbonates of the southern Colorado Plateau region; Miocene
- Lead Camp Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
- Lead Camp Formation; San Andres and Organ Mountains
- Lower and Middle Santa Fe Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary)
- Lower and Middle Santa Fe Group. Includes Hayner Ranch, Rincon Valley, Popotosa, Cochiti, Tesuque, Chamita, Abiquiu, and other Formations; Miocene and uppermost Oligocene
- Sangre de Cristo Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Permian)
- Sangre de Cristo Formation, in Sangre de Cristo Mountains
- Trujillo Formation of Chinle Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic)
- Trujillo Formation; Norian
- Pottsville Formation (Pennsylvanian)
- Pottsville Formation - Gray conglomerate, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, and siltstone and shale containing minable anthracite coals. Includes three members, in descending order: Sharp Mountain--conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone; Schuylkill--sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone; Tumbling Run--conglomeratic sandstone and sandstone.
- Cienequita Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Middle Pennsylvanian-Late)
- Cienequita Formation
- upper Cretaceous rocks, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
- upper Cretaceous rocks, undivided
- Van Horn Mountains caldera volcanic rocks (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
- Van Horn Mountains caldera volcanic rocks
- Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks in southwestern Utah (Late Cretaceous to Paleocene)
- Tertiary (4) sedimentary rocks in western Utah (Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene)
- Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup: Hominy Peak Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
- ABSAROKA VOLCANIC SUPERGROUP--HOMINY PEAK FORMATION (AGE ABOUT 49 Ma)--Mafic volcaniclastic conglomerate and tuff; sparse claystone in upper part; gold-bearing quartzite conglomerate at base.
- Transitional unit between Battle Spring and Wasatch Formations (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
- TRANSITIONAL UNIT BETWEEN BATTLE SPRING AND WASATCH FORMATIONS--Contains interbedded lithologies of Battle Spring (Tbs) and Wasatch (Tw2) Formations.