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Aeromagnetic data for Mt. St. Helens Refly, Washington

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Interior and the National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA
Publication_Date: 2001
Title: Aeromagnetic data for Mt. St. Helens Refly, Washington
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, and the National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Digital flight-line aeromagnetic data sets of the Conterminous United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 02-0361
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver, CO
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-02-361/>
Description:
Abstract:
Aeromagnetic data were collected along flight lines by instruments in an aircraft that recorded magnetic-field values and locations. This dataset presents latitude, longitude, altitude, and magnetic-field values.
Purpose:
Aeromagnetic surveys are used for geophysical prospecting. Some variations in magnetic measurements are caused by rocks that contain significant amounts of magnetic minerals (magnetite being the most common). These anomalies reflect variations in the amount and type of magnetic material and the shape and depth of the body of rock. Aeromagnetic anomaly maps are important tools in mapping surficial and buried igneous rocks. The features and patterns of aeromagnetic anomalies can also be used to delineate details of subsurface geology including the locations of buried faults and the thickness of surficial sedimentary rocks.
Supplemental_Information:
The U.S. Geological Survey has contracted or flown numerous airborne surveys over a long period (1950's to present). Not all flight-line data have been released to the public because of lack of personnel to reformat data and service the requests. With the improvement in digital communication and the ability to store and transmit large data sets, the USGS is now able to release the flight-line data in a common format.

A companion CD-ROM/web site has been released containing magnetic data that were generated by digitizing analog maps. Digital flight-line data used to create the analog maps are unavailable. Reference is in the Cross-Reference section of this metadata file.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 198109
Ending_Date: 198109
Currentness_Reference:
Time period indicates dates of airborne survey data collection. Time period is expressed in the format YYYYMM or YYYYMMDD when further accuracy is available.
Status:
Progress: complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: none planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.30
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.08
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 46.25
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 46.12
Data_Set_G-Polygon:
Data_Set_G-Polygon_Outer_G-Ring:
G-Ring:
-122.30 46.25, -122.08 46.25, -122.08 46.12, -122.30 46.12, -122.30 46.25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: geophysics
Theme_Keyword: aeromagnetic surveying
Theme_Keyword: magnetic field (earth)
Theme_Keyword: remanent magnetism
Theme_Keyword: geospatial datasets
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: geophysical surveys
Theme_Keyword: aeromagnetic data
Theme_Keyword: airborne surveys
Theme_Keyword: magnetic surveys
Theme_Keyword: residual magnetic field
Theme_Keyword: total field
Theme_Keyword: magnetic
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NGDA Portfolio Themes
Theme_Keyword: Geology
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: WA
Place_Keyword: Mt. St. Helens Refly
Place_Keyword: Mount St. Helens
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
none. Acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Geophysical Data Center would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USGS Gravity and Magnetics Contact
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046 Mail Stop 964
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 303-236-1343
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: grav_mag@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/open-file-reports/ofr-02-0361>

Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
An image of the flight lines showing total magnetic intensity along the flight lines.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
These USGS employees contributed to reformatting and archiving these data:

Viki Bankey, Carol Finn, Pat Hill, Holly Hindle, Bob Kucks, Vicki Rystrom, Sarah Shearer

Cooperating contributors from the National Geophysical Data Center are:

Ronald Buhmann, David Dater, Susan McLean, Stewart Racey
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
These data were originally recorded on 9-track magnetic tapes and were transferred to CD-ROM.

Data processing took place on an HP workstation running a Windows NT operating system. Data were reformatted using the Geosoft, Inc., program Oasis Montaj version 4.3.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Digitized Aeromagnetic Datasets of the Conterminous United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 99-557
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver CO
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
CD-ROM or online files Complements this publication with analog data
Online_Linkage: <http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/open-file-reports/ofr-99-0557>

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1982
Title:
Aeromagnetic map of Mt. St. Helens, Washington - post May, 1980 eruption
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 82-659
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver, CO
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: map scale 1:62,500

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The data in this file have been processed using various formulas and methods that are not usually documented but that represent industry standard practices for airborne data reduction. For example, position is listed as latitude and longitude, but these values were derived from the raw navigation data depending on the system used. (see notes under horizontal accuracy). Line numbers were added to records, and unusable data at flight-line ends were discarded (as aircraft slowed and turned around). Separate recordings were correlated by time and assigned to the correct location.

The exact accuracies of these processing steps may not be known. They are discussed in the sections on attribute or positional accuracies.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The data in this file were collected by a single contractor or group who were responsible for collecting and processing the data.

The data from this survey were collected using the same instruments (magnetometers, altimeters, navigational systems) throughout the survey and were collected in a normal length of time with no long delays between survey beginning and end.

Survey contracts specified the conditions and specifications under which these data were collected. Standard industry practices of the time were followed in data collection and processing.

This survey is identical to the area flown in 1979, USGS OFR 81-932, except the data were collected after the May 1980 eruption.
Completeness_Report:
Data were taken from a previously processed file used in the Washington state compilation (Finn, et al, 1998). All of the channels were included, but the extent of typical editing (i.e. drop-outs, spikes) performed is unknown.

Loss of data due to poor transmission, channel dropout, obvious spiking, missing channels, and other obvious errors were replaced with the value -9999.9.

When profiled in Oasis, both the radar altimeter (radar) and barometric altimeter (barom) channels are very boxy due to having similar values within a small range.

Tie line 904 had a repeating section that was removed during USGS processing.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Flight Path Recovery

Horizontal position of the survey aircraft used to collect data were determined by reconciling down-looking photographs (recorded on continuous-strip film) with topographic maps and orthophotoquadrangle maps. Fiducial numbers and marks, impressed on any paper strips that were recording data or added to magnetic tape records, were included as a function of time to further reconcile location with instrumentation.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The aircraft vertical position was determined using the navigational positioning equipment on the aircraft, which were radar altimeter and barometric altimeter.

Radar altimeters are estimated to have an error of 2-5% of the altitude (Richard Hansen, PRJ, Inc., written communication).

Barometric altimeters are quite accurate, but are typically operated in an uncorrected mode. The diurnal variation in air pressure over the course of a flight can produce a 50-100 ft error in the barometric altimeter reading. In addition, pressure microcells create short-period air pressure changes equivalent to about 10 ft under typical conditions (Richard Hansen, PRJ, Inc., written communication)

This data set was collected at a fixed barometric altitude of 11500 ft.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Conversion of measured values to geographic position and magnetic values was performed by the contractor using industry standard practices.

Details are found under Attribute Accuracy Report, Horizontal_Position_Accuracy_Report, and Vertical_Position_Accuracy_Report

Unless noted, conversion processes were not reported to the USGS. Unpublished products generated by the contractor included magnetic tapes, a map of residual or total field magnetics, and perhaps some written documentation.
Process_Date: 1980
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
USGS reformatting of contractor data to standard format.

USGS personnel used the software package Oasis Montaj version 4.3 by Geosoft, Inc., to read in the original contractor's data. Latitude, longitude, altitude, and magnetic values were checked for obvious errors or spikes and values of -9999.9 were given where the value could not be reasonably corrected. Other errors in the data were not corrected. Horizontal positions were converted to latitude and longitude if the original values were UTM meters. Elevations were converted from meters to feet (1 m = 3.2808 ft). Information was added that was missing from the data file but was recorded elsewhere. The reformatted data file was written in the format described in the section on Entity_and_Attribute_Overview.
Process_Date: 200208

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: point

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: .0001
Longitude_Resolution: .0001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis: 6,378,206.4
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.98
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
Altitude_Resolution: 1
Altitude_Distance_Units: feet
Altitude_Encoding_Method:
Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Airborne survey specifications

These items are constant for the entire survey

Project number: 4088 Project name: Mt. St. Helens Refly, Washington Survey flown and compiled by: Applied Geophysics, Inc. Survey flown for: U.S. Geological Survey Approx. no. of line miles: 175 Survey height: 11500 ft Altitude method: Constant barometric elevation Flight-line spacing: 0.62 mi Flight-line direction: E-W Aircraft used: Piper Aztec Airport - arrival: unknown Airport - departure: unknown Magnetometer used: Geometrics G-811/813 Sensor tow distance: unknown
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Nettleton, L.L., 1971, Elementary Gravity and Magnetics for Geologists and Seismologists: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Monograph Series No. 1, p. 83-87.

Dobrin, M.B., 1976, Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, p. 505-517.
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Each record contains the following 11 attributes:

No abbrev.name contents

1 line_no flight line number 2 directn flight line direction, azimuth degrees from north (integer) 3 longitud longitude (decimal degrees) 4 latitude latitude (decimal degrees) 5 year year flown (integer) 6 jul_day Julian day flown (integer) 7 fiducial fiducial number (integer) 8 radar radar altimeter reading above ground (feet) 9 barom altitude above mean sea level (feet) 10 totmag corrected magnetic value (nT) 11 resmag residual magnetic value (nT)
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Nettleton, L.L., 1971, Elementary Gravity and Magnetics for Geologists and Seismologists: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Monograph Series No. 1, p. 83-87.

Dobrin, M.B., 1976, Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, p. 505-517.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: record for one magnetic data point
Entity_Type_Definition:
The set of all measurements reported for a magnetic data point having the same spatial location.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Standard aeromagnetic data collection procedures as written in the contract for survey collection.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: line_no
Attribute_Definition: flight line number

Attribute_Definition_Source: often assigned by airborne survey crew
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 151
Range_Domain_Maximum: 904
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: alphanumeric value
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: directn
Attribute_Definition:
direction of flight line, azimuth degrees clockwise from north
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 90
Range_Domain_Maximum: 270
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: longitud
Attribute_Definition: longitude - geographic coordinate
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -122.339
Range_Domain_Maximum: -122.049
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: decimal degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: latitude
Attribute_Definition: latitude - geographic coordinate
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 46.118
Range_Domain_Maximum: 46.3005
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: decimal degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: year
Attribute_Definition: year of data point collection
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1981
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1981
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: jul_day
Attribute_Definition:
Julian day, where Jan. 1 = 1 and Dec. 31 = 365 or 366 (leap year)
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 260
Range_Domain_Maximum: 260
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Information:
Attribute_Value_Accuracy: 31
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Explanation:
Both beginning and end julian dates were taken from dataset.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: fiducial
Attribute_Definition:
A fiducial number is a mark which indicates points of simultaneity. It is a user-defined integer used during airborne operations to correlate recording devices (magnetometers) with navigational records (altimeters, camera film, strip charts) that were recorded at the same time.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Sheriff, R.E., 1984, Encyclopedic dictionary of exploration geophysics: Tulsa, OK, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 89.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 30304
Range_Domain_Maximum: 31349
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: radar
Attribute_Definition:
radar altimetry reading, in feet

An aircraft navigational system in which short electromagnetic waves are transmitted, and the energy scattered back by reflection is detected. From this measurement, the distance between the aircraft and the ground is calculated and recorded as radar altimetry.

Values of -9999.9 indicate missing data.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Sheriff, R.E., 1984, Encyclopedic dictionary of exploration geophysics: Tulsa, OK, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 89.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 3392.3
Range_Domain_Maximum: 3402.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: feet
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: barom
Attribute_Definition:
altitude above mean sea level, in feet, measured using the barometer that is part of the aircraft navigation system

Values of -9999.9 indicate missing data.
Attribute_Definition_Source: self evident
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 11289.2
Range_Domain_Maximum: 11600.9
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: feet
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: totmag
Attribute_Definition:
Raw magnetic value with base magnetometer corrections applied.

Because the magnetic field of the earth varies diurnally, a stationary base magnetometer is maintained on the ground during airborne surveying. The base magnetometer records changes in the magnetic field (in nanoTeslas) as a function of time. The magnetic changes may have an amplitude of 20 to 50 nanoTeslas. If changes are more severe, as would occur from a magnetic storm, surveying is discontinued or the data recorded are not used.

Diurnal variations are then removed from the airborne magnetic data based on the common time.

Values of -9999.9 indicate missing data.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
see: Nettleton, L.L., 1971, Elementary Gravity and Magnetics for Geologists and Seismologists: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Monograph Series No. 1, p. 83-87.

A description of magnetometers and how they measure the total magnetic field can be found in:

Dobrin, M.B., 1976, Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, p. 505-517.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 55324.43
Range_Domain_Maximum: 55997.87
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: nanoTeslas
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Information:
Attribute_Value_Accuracy: 2
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Explanation:
The airborne magnetometer is accurate to about 1 nanoTesla, and the base magnetometer has the same accuracy. The accuracy of the base-corrected airborne value therefore is near 2 nanoTeslas or better.
Attribute_Measurement_Frequency:
The magnetometer has a recharging interval of 0.5 seconds. The data were recorded at 0.75 second intervals.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: resmag
Attribute_Definition:
residual magnetic value

The total magnetic value minus a geomagnetic reference field (GRF), which is a long-wavelength regional magnetic field. The most commonly used reference field is determined from a model developed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), is a predictive model adopted at the beginning of a model period (e.g. in 1989 for 1990-1995). After the model period, a revised definitive model is adopted, the DGRF. This is the preferred model to use for removing regional magnetic fields.

For this survey, the field removed was the IGRF 1975 updated to the date flown.

The OFR map states that a 5,000 nT DC offset was added.

Values of -9999.9 indicate missing data.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Nettleton, L.L., 1971, Elementary Gravity and Magnetics for Geologists and Seismologists: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Monograph Series No. 1, p. 83-87.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -216.95
Range_Domain_Maximum: 482.41
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: nanoTeslas
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Information:
Attribute_Value_Accuracy: 2
Attribute_Value_Accuracy_Explanation:
The Geomagnetic Reference Field that was subtracted from the total magnetic value is based on a model, which was updated to the date of the survey. New models are available at five year intervals. These models have varying degrees of accuracy in determining the local reference field.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: CD-ROM distributor: USGS Information Services
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Box 25286, Building 810
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
303-202-4700 or 1-888-ASK-USGS
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: www.usgs.gov/pubprod
Resource_Description: USGS Open-File Report OFR 02-0361
Distribution_Liability:
Although all data published on this CD-ROM have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Information_Content:
Each line contains data in the following format, beginning with line 1(no header included): line_no I5 directn I4 longitud F11.4 latitude F9.4 year I5 jul_day I4 fiducial I7 radar F8.1 barom F8.1 totmag F9.2 resmag F9.2, 1X
File_Decompression_Technique: gunzip
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: CD-ROM
Recording_Format: ISO 9660
Fees:
CD-ROM prices are subject to change. Please call or see <http://mapping.usgs.gov/esic/prices/>
Ordering_Instructions:
Detailed instructions can be found at www.usgs.gov/pubprod

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Web site administration: U.S Geological Survey Central Publications Group
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Central Publications Group
USGS MS 902, Box 25046 DFC
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 303-236-5486
Resource_Description: USGS Open-File Report OFR 02-0361
Distribution_Liability:
Although all data published on this CD-ROM have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Specification:
Each line contains data in the following format, beginning with line 1 (no header included): line_no I5 directn I4 longitud F11.4 latitude F9.4 year I5 jul_day I4 fiducial I7 radar F8.1 barom F8.1 totmag F9.2 resmag F9.2, 1X
File_Decompression_Technique: gunzip
Format_Version_Number: 1.1
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<ftp://ftpext.usgs.gov/pub/cr/co/denver/musette/pub/NA_MAGNETICS/digital_data/>

Online_Computer_and_Operating_System:
Hewlett Packard 9000/K220 UNIX server running HPUX 11.00
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20020812
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USGS Gravity and Magnetics contact
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046 Mail Stop 964
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 303-236-1343
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: grav_mag@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <http://mrdata.usgs.gov/metadata/ofr-2002-361-WA_4088.html>

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