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L = the element was detected by the technique but at a level below the lower limit of determination for the method. The value of the lower limit of determination is given in the adjacent data field.
G = the element was measured at a concentration greater than the upper determination limit for the method. The upper limit of determination is given in the adjacent data field.
N = the element was not detected at concentrations above the lower limit of determination for the method. The value of the lower limit of determination is given in the adjacent data field.
B = the element was requested for analysis by the sample submitter, but for some reason the laboratories did not analyze for this element.
When appropriate, these qualifying values appear in this dataset as a separate field preceding each element. The attribute, or field name, for the qualifier field is always denoted by the letter "Q". For example, "N" in the "S_ASQ" field preceding an analytical data field labelled "S_AS" would indicate the actual concentration of arsenic (AS) is less than the data value listed, which is the lower limit of determination for the method.
Emission Spectrography: Grimes and Marranzino, 1968; Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr, Th, Ga, Ge, Pd, and Pt.
Atomic Absorption, partial extraction: O'Leary and Meier, 1986; O' Leary and Viets, 1986; Viets, 1978; Viets, Clark, and Campbell, 1984; Viets, O'Leary, and Clark, 1984; Ward and others, 1969: Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn.
The complete references for all analytical methods used are given below:
Adrian, B.A. and Carlson, R.R., personal communication, Platinum-group elements and gold by nickel-sulfide fire assay separation and optical emission spectroscopy
Alminas, H. and Mosier, E.L., 1976, Oxalic-acid leaching of rock, soil, and stream-sediment samples as an anomaly-accentuation technique: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-275. 26 p.
Chao, T.T., Sanzolone, R.F., and Hubert, A.E., 1978, Flame and flameless atomic absorption determination of tellurium in geologic materials: Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 96, p. 251-257.
Church, S.E., 1981, Multi-element analysis of fifty-four geochemical reference samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: Geostandards Newsletter, v. 5, p. 133-160.
Cooley, E.F., Curry, K.J., and Carlson, R.R., 1976, Analysis for the platinum-group metals and gold by fire-assay emission spectroscopy: Applied Spectroscopy, v. 30. P. 52-56.
Fishman, M.J., and Pyen, G., 1979, Determination of selected anions in water by ion chromatography: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 79-101, 30 p.
Grimes, D.J., and Marranzino, A.P., 1968, Direct-current arc and alternating-current spark emission spectrographic field methods for the semiquantitative analysis of geologic materials: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 591, 6 p.
Hubert, A.E., and Chao, T.T., 1985, Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction: Talanta, v. 32, no. 7, p. 568-570.
McKown, D.M., and Knight, R.J., 1990, Determination of uranium and thorium in geologic materials by delayed neutron counting, in Arbogast, B.F., editor, Quality assurance manual for the Branch of Geochemistry, U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-668, p. 146-15
Mosier, E.L., 1972, A method for semiquantitative spectrographic analysis of plant ash for use in biogeochemical and environmental studies: Applied Spectroscopy, v. 26, no. 6, p. 636-641.
Mosier, E.L., 1975, Use of emission spectroscopy for the semiquantitative analysis of trace elements in silver and native gold, in Ward, F.N., editor, New and refined methods of trace analysis useful in geochemical exploration: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1408, p. 97-105.
Mosier, E.L., and Motooka, J.M., 1984, Induction coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry-Analysis of subsurface Cambrian carbonate rocks for major, minor, and trace elements, in Proceedings volume of international conference on Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, Oct. 11-14: Rolla, MO, University of Missouri-Rolla, p. 155-165.
Myers, A.T., Havens, R.G., and Dunton, P.J., 1961, A spectrochemical method for the semiquantitative analysis of rocks, minerals, and ores: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1084-I, p. I207-I229.
O'Leary, R.M., 1990, Determination of sulfur in geologic materials by iodometric titration, in Arbogast, B.F., editor, Quality assurance manual for the Branch of Geochemistry, U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-668, p. 136-138.
O'Leary, R.M., and Meier, A.L., 1986, Analytical methods used in geochemical exploration in 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 948, 48 p.
O'Leary, R.M., and Meier, A.L., 1986, Bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, and zinc, organic extraction method, in Analytical methods used in geochemical exploration, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 948,p. 11-13.
O'Leary, R.M., and Viets, J.G., 1986, Determination of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry using a hydrochloric acid-hydrogen peroxide digestion: Atomic Spectroscopy, v. 7, no. 1, p. 4-8.
Orion Research, Inc., 1975, Orion Research Analytical Methods Guide, 7th edition: Cambridge, MA, 20 p.
Perkin-Elmer Corporation, 1976, Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Norwalk, CT, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 586 p.
Perkin-Elmer Corporation, 1977, Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using the HGA graphite furnace: Norwalk, CT, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 286 p.
Sutley, S.J., and Mosier, E.L., personal communication, Rb, Cs, Li, Tl by modification of optical emission spectroscopy method of Grimes and Marranzino, 1968
Thompson, C.E., Nakagawa, H.M., and VanSickle, G.H., 1968, Rapid analysis for gold in geologic materials: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 600-B, p. B130-B132.
Vaughn, W.W., and McCarthy, J.H., Jr., 1964, An instrumental technique for the determination of submicrogram concentrations of mercury in soils, rocks, and gas: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 501-D, p. D123-D127.
Viets, J.G., 1978, Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride: Analytical Chemistry, v. 50, no. 8, p. 1097-1101.
Viets, J.G., Clark, J.R., and Campbell, W.L., 1984, A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 20, p. 355-366.
Viets, J.G., O'Leary, R.M., and Clark, J.R., 1984, Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry: The Analyst, v. 109, p. 1589-1592.
Ward, F.N., Lakin, H.W., Canney, F.C., and others, 1963, Analytical methods used in geochemical exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1152, 100 p.
Ward, F.N., Nakagawa, H.M., VanSickle, G.H., and Harms, T.F., 1969, Atomic absorption methods useful in geochemical exploration: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1289, 45 p.
Watterson, J.R., 1976, Determination of tellurium and gold in rocks to 1 part per billion: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-531, 3 p.