The Richardson area is characterized by gentle slopes and broad, alluvium-filled valleys (Prindle and Katz, 1913, p. 140). The area is unglaciated and largely overlain by windblown silt, sand, and loess, locally up to 50 meters thick (Foster and others, 1979). The bedrock in the region comprises greenschist to amphibolite facies schist, marble, and gneiss that have been intruded by various igneous bodies (Bundtzen and Reger, 1977, p. 29). The schist and marble are probably Paleozoic, and the gneiss has a probable protolith of Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks (Weber and others, 1978). The intrusive bodies in the area range in composition from rhyolite to andesite. The most commonly observed igneous rock in the area is fine-grained rhyolite containing quartz and feldspar phenocrysts (Olson and others, 1985). At the nearby Democrat Lode (BD014), the rhyolite contains arsenopyrite, gold, and pyrite, and is albitic, clay, and sericite altered (R.J. Newberry, oral communication, 1998). Structurally, the Richardson region is cut by a northwest-trending fracture system termed the Richardson Lineament. However, in the Redmond Creek and Junction Creek area, the structures tend to bend more to the west (Swainbank and others, 1984). The lineament appears to correspond to the distribution of the rhyolite and other intrusive bodies and placer gold deposits (Bundtzen and Reger, 1977, p. 29). Also, the lineament tends to separate gneissic rocks to the northeast from schistose rocks to the southwest (Swainbank and others, 1984). At the confluence of Mosquito Creek and Junction Creek, the depth to bedrock is reported to be 40 to 50 feet (Ellsworth, 1910). The placer gold mined from the Redmond Creek area ranged from 639.5 to 785 in fineness (Menzie and Foster, 1979).Placer gold was first discovered in the Richardson district in 1905. Mining initially occurred on Tenderfoot Creek and soon expanded to nearby creeks and associated tributaries. After peak gold production in 1908, mining in the area declined (Olson and others, 1985). The Alaska Division of Mining Kardex file system records active claims on Redmond Creek as recent as 1980. From 1905 through 1921, production for the Richardson district was approximately 95,000 ounces of gold and 24,000 ounces of silver (Bundtzen and Reger, 1977). Since 1980, the district has produced approximately 10,000 additional ounces of gold from intermittent mining (Olson and others, 1985). It is unclear how much gold was produced from Redmond Creek.