Unnamed (Windy Creek)

Occurrence, Inactive

Commodities and mineralogy

Main commodities Graphite
Ore minerals graphite
Gangue minerals biotite; feldspar; garnet; quartz; sillimanite

Geographic location

Quadrangle map, 1:250,000-scale NM
Quadrangle map, 1:63,360-scale D-1
Latitude 64.9547
Longitude -165.4635
Nearby scientific data Find additional scientific data near this location
Location and accuracy This graphite occurrence is on the ridge crest between Windy Creek and an unnamed east tributary to the Cobblestone River. It is at 2,400 feet elevation and about 500 feet south of saddle 2345. It is locality 36 of Hummel (1962 [MF 248]).

Geologic setting

Geologic description

This is one of three graphite occurrences (this occurrence, NM023, and NM113) mapped by Hummel (1962 [MF 248]) in this part of the Kigluaik Mountains. At NM023, graphite with biotite is disseminated in schist and also occurs in segregations to 18 inches thick. It also occurs as sparse disseminations in pegmatite. Moffit (1913, p. 135-136) described a graphite-rich layer 8 inches thick between pegmatite and schist walls. This occurrence probably also includes disseminations and segregations of graphite in the host schist.
The graphite-bearing rocks are upper amphibolite facies schist and gneiss that are probably derived from Precambrian protoliths (Sainsbury, 1972; Bunker and others, 1979; Till and Dumoulin, 1994). They are thought to have undergone regional high-pressure metamorphism along with many other rocks of Seward Peninsula in the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous (Sainsbury, Coleman, and Kachadoorian, 1970; Forbes and others, 1984; Thurston, 1985; Patrick, 1988; Patrick and Evans, 1989; Armstrong and others, 1986; Hannula and McWilliams, 1995). Higher temperature metamorphism overprinted these rocks in conjunction with regional extension, crustal melting, and magmatism in the mid-Cretaceous (Throckmorton and Hummel, 1979; Till, 1983; Evans and Patrick, 1987; Leiberman, 1988; Patrick and Leiberman, 1988; Miller and Hudson, 1991; Miller and others, 1992; Dumitru and others, 1995; Hannula and others, 1995; Hudson and Arth, 1983; Hudson, 1994; Amato and others, 1994; Amato and Wright, 1997, 1998). Uplift of the higher temperature metamorphic rocks took place in the mid- to Late Cretaceous and in the Eocene (Calvert, 1992; Dumitru and others, 1995).
Geologic map unit (-165.466135027795, 64.9539406550488)
Mineral deposit model Graphite disseminations and segregations in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks.
Age of mineralization Mid-Cretaceous; the age of high-grade metamorphism.

Production and reserves

Indication of production None


MRDS Number A012966


Armstrong, R.L., Harakal, J.E., Forbes, R.B., Evans, B.W., and Thurston, S.P., 1986, Rb-Sr and K-Ar study of metamorphic rocks of the Seward Peninsula and southern Brooks Range, Alaska, in Evans, B.W., and Brown, E.H., eds., Blueschists and eclogites: Geological Society of America Memoir 164, p. 184-203.
Calvert, A.T., 1992, Structural evolution and thermochronology of the Kigluaik Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Stanford, Calif., Stanford University, M.Sc. thesis, 50 p.
Evans, B.W. and Patrick, B.E., 1987, Phengite 3-T in high pressure metamorphosed granitic orthogneisses, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 25, part 1, p. 141-158.
Hannula, K.A., and McWilliams, M.O., 1995, Reconsideration of the age of blueschist facies metamorphism on the Seward Peninusla, Alaska, based on phengite 40Ar/39Ar results: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 13, p. 125-139.
Hannula, K.A., Miller, E.L., Dumitru, T.A., Lee, Jeffrey, and Rubin, C.M., 1995, Structural and metamorphic relations in the southwest Seward Peninsula, Alaska; Crustal extension and the unroofing of blueschists: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 107, p. 536-553.
Hudson, T.L., 1994, Crustal melting events in Alaska, in Plafker, G., and Berg, H. C., eds., The Geology of Alaska: Geological Society of America, DNAG, The Geology of North America, Vol. G-1, p. 657-670.
Hudson, T.L., and Arth, J. G., 1983, Tin granites of Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 94, p. 768-790.
Leiberman, J.E., 1988, Metamorphic and structural studies of the Kigluaik Mountains, western Alaska: Seattle, University of Washington, Ph.D. dissertation, 191 p.
Miller, E.L., Calvert, A.T., and Little, T.A., 1992, Strain-collapsed metamorphic isograds in a sillimanite gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Geology, v. 20, p. 487-490.
Patrick, B.E., 1988, Synmetamorphic structural evolution of the Seward Peninsula blueschist terrane, Alaska: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 10, p. 555-565.
Patrick, B.E., and Evans B.W., 1989, Metamorphic evolution of the Seward Peninsula blueschist terrane: Journal of Petrology, v. 30, p. 531-555.
Patrick, B.E., and Leiberman, J.E., 1988, Thermal overprint on blueschists of the Seward Peninsula, the Lepontine in Alaska: Geology, v. 16, p. 1100-1103.
Thurston, S.P., 1985, Structure, petrology, and metamorphic history of the Nome Group blueschist terrane, Salmon Lake area, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 96, p. 600-617.
Till, A.B., 1980, Crystalline rocks of the Kigluaik Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Seattle, University of Washington, M.Sc. thesis, 97 p.
Till, A.B., 1983, Granulite, peridotite, and blueschist--Precambrian to Mesozoic history of Seward Peninsula: Alaska Geological Society Journal, Proceedings of the 1982 Symposium on Western Alaska Resources and Geology, p. 59-65.
Reporters C.C. Hawley and Travis L. Hudson
Last report date 10/22/1999