Seal, Robert R. II

About the author

U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Region, Midwest area, Geology discipline
Abandoned mines and quarries, Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, Atomic absorption analysis, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Barium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Business and economics, Cadmium, Calcium, Capturing (animals), Carbon, Cerium, Cesium, Chemical analysis, Chlorine, Chromatography, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Data services, Datasets, Dissolved gases, Dissolved metals, Dysprosium, Economic geology, Ecosystem management, Ecotoxicology, Energy resources, Environmental assessment, Erbium, Europium, Fish, Fluorine, Gadolinium, Gallium, Geochemical processes, Geochemistry, Geologic history, Geospatial datasets, Germanium, Gold, Hafnium, Holmium, Hydrologic processes, Indium, Iodine, Iridium, Iron, Isotopic analysis, Lanthanum, Laws and regulations, Lead, Lithium, Lutetium, Macroinvertebrates, Magnesium, Management methods, Manganese, Mass spectroscopy, Mercury, Mercury contamination, Metallic mineral resources, Metamorphic rocks, Metamorphism (geological), Mine drainage, Mine waste, Mineral deposits, Mineral resources, Mineralogy, Mining and quarrying, Molybdenum, Natural resource assessment, Natural resource exploration, Neodymium, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Nonmetallic mineral resources, Osmium, Oxygen content (water), Palladium, Particle-beam spectroscopy, Petrography, Petrology, Phosphorus, Placer deposit mining, Platinum, Potassium, Praseodymium, Promethium, Rare earth elements, Resource supply and demand, Rhenium, Rhodium, Risk assessment, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Salinity, Samarium, Scandium, Scanning electron microscopy, Sedimentary rocks, Selenium, Silicon, Silver, Sodium, Soil chemistry, Stratigraphy, Strontium, Sulfur, Surface water quality, Tantalum, Tectonic processes, Tellurium, Terbium, Thallium, Thorium, Thulium, Tin, Titanium, Toxic trace element contamination, Tracer study, Tungsten, Unconsolidated deposits, Uranium, Vanadium, Waste treatment and disposal, Water chemistry, Water hardness, Water pH, Water quality, Water sampling, Water temperature, Web map services, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Xenon, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zinc, Zirconium, Lakes, Mine sites, Mineral deposit areas, Streams, Metamorphic rock, Sandstone, Sedimentary rock, Gold, Lead, Zinc, DBF, KML, OGC WFS, OGC WMS, File geodatabase (ESRI), Shapefile, Tab-delimited text, GeoscientificInformation, GeoscientificInformation, Antimony, Barite, Beryllium, Cobalt, Gallium, Germanium, Graphite (natural), Hafnium, Indium, Lithium, Manganese, Niobium, Platinum-group metals, Rare earths, Rhenium, Selenium, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tin, Titanium, Vanadium, Zirconium

Environmental characteristics of the abandoned Greenwood Mine area, Prince William Forest Park, Virginia; implications for mercury geochemistry

Water quality data for the area include pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, total acid soluble and dissolved major and trace element concentrations for sites around the mine workings.

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Geochemical data including mercury speciation for surface waters at the abandoned Greenwood Mine area, Prince William Forest Park, Virginia

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Preliminary report on water quality associated with the abandoned Fontana and Hazel Creek mines, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee

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Water quality and inorganic chemistry of Icewater Spring and Mount Le Conte Spring, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina

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Geochemical characterization of drainage prior to reclamation at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Geochemical analysis of water samples to provide a pre-reclamation assessment of seasonal variations of acid and metal concentrations in Knight's Branch help evaluate the reclamation project.

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Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

A wide variety of geochemical analyses show strong local impact on water quality in this area of historical copper mining.

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Antimony

Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications.

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Environmental Considerations Related to Mining of Nonfuel Minerals

A key aspect of identifying and mitigating environmental risks of mining is understanding how they vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.

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Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont: U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Sampling procedures, analytical methodologies, and results to assess the potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health

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Preliminary results of sequential extraction experiments for selenium on mine waste and stream sediments from Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand.

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Sequential extraction results and mineralogy of mine waste and stream sediments associated with metal mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

Results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines.

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Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) zinc-lead-silver deposit model

This report draws on previous syntheses and basic research studies of sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits to arrive at the defining criteria, both descriptive and genetic, for sedex-type deposits. Studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolut

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Oxide and cation compositions of feldspar grains from drill core of the Duluth Complex, Minnesota

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Rhenium

Rhenium is a rare metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. It is used in high-temperature superalloys, to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines and is a catalyst for petroleum refining.

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Oxide and cation compositions of pyroxene grains from drill core of the Duluth Complex, Minnesota

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Geochemical characterization of mine waste at the Ely Copper Mine superfund site, Orange County, Vermont

An environmental impact study is done for the abandoned Ely copper mine. The extent of contamination is studyed along with the type and chemical composition of the mine waste piles.

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Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch.

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A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits

Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including

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Characteristics and environmental aspects of slag: a review

Slag is a waste product from the pyrometallurgical processing of various ores. Based on over 150 published studies, this paper provides an overview of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of different types of slag and their enviro

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Global distribution of selected mines, deposits, and districts of critical minerals

Approximate locations and short descriptions of mines, deposits, and districts where critical minerals are found. The critical minerals are discussed in USGS Professional Paper 1802 many of these locations are described in further detail in that report.

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Major, minor, and trace element compositions of bulk drill core samples from the Duluth Complex

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Rare-Earth Elements

Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications including glass, petroleum refining, automobiles, and magnets.

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Oxide and cation compositions of olivine grains from drill core in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota

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Surface-water hydrology and quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

Synoptic water-quality and benthic macroinvertebrate sampling at 14 stream sites to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality.

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Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes

Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel and copper, with or without platinum-group elements, account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is deriv

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Critical Mineral Resources of the United States—An Introduction

An overview of the mineral resource classifications, terms, and definitions used in PP 1802. Includes a review of the history of the use and meaning of the term “critical” applied to minerals or materials.

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Selenium

Selenium is a trace element in Earth's crust. Modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a rare element obtained as a byproduct of mining for other commodities whose main uses are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery.

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The rare-earth elements: vital to modern technologies and lifestyles

Explains how and where rare-earth resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of rare-earths might be found.

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Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model

This report describes key features; identifies tectonic-sedimentary environments; illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics; evaluates deposit formation; presents exploration and assessment guides; and lists knowledge gaps

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Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications.

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Barite (Barium)

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses due to its ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and color effects with silica.

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Graphite

Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composites promise more uses.

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Manganese

Manganese is used to make steel, where it serves as a purifying agent in iron-ore refining and as an alloy.

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Niobium and Tantalum

Niobium and tantalum are found together in nature because they have similar physical and chemical properties. Niobium is used in high-strength steel alloys, while tantalum is used in electronic capacitors.

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Tin

Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Its major uses today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder.

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Titanium

Titanium colors paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and its alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.

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Zirconium and Hafnium

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals.

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Characterization of mine waste at the Elizabeth copper mine, Orange County, Vermont

Preliminary information about the concentration, spatial distribution and mineral hosting of metals and other elements in solid materials at the Elizabeth copper mine after 50 years (or more) of weathering and oxidation.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society.

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Fluorine

Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale.

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Gallium

Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN).

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Germanium and Indium

Germanium and indium are used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays.

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Vanadium

Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity.

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Lithium

Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

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Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

Describes resource management challenges and the providing of a scientific foundation for policy and decision making with respect to resource use, sustainability, environmental protection, and an adaptive resource management approach.

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