Unconsolidated deposits

Loosely bound sediments such as sand, gravel, and silt which tend to accumulate in low areas or valleys.
This category is also used for alluvium, eolian sediments, loess, sediments, and surficial deposits.
Subtopics:
Gravel deposits (5 items)
Mine waste (51 items)
Sand deposits (8 items)
Soil horizons (1 items)



Results listed by similarity [list alphabetically]
First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

This report summarizes the assembly of pertinent data, determination of its limits, analysis of its properties, and the relations among the different data types in preparation for future modeling.

Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: Sampling, analytical methods, and results

Chemical composition of sediments and soils are of interest because of the potential for human and wildlife health impacts from high metal contents due to over 100 years of mining activity.

Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont: U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Sampling procedures, analytical methodologies, and results to assess the potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health

Geochemistry of sediments in the US from the PLUTO database

Geochemical data for unconsolidated sediments (stream sediments, lake sediments, etc.) collected in the US and analyzed by the USGS. These data were originally entered in the PLUTO database, which is now merged into the National Geochemistry Database.

Geochemistry of stream sediments in the US from the NURE-HSSR database

National-scale geochemical analysis of stream sediments and soils in the US collected and analyzed under the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

Geochemistry of unconsolidated sediments in the US from the RASS database

Geochemical data for unconsolidated sediments (stream sediments, lake sediments, etc.) collected by USGS personnel and analyzed by USGS. These data were part of the Rock Analysis Storage System and are now merged into the National Geochemistry Database.

Lead-rich sediments, Coeur d'Alene River valley, Idaho; Area, volume, tonnage, and lead content: Surface-sediment geochemical data

Tables containing locations and lead concentrations of 998 surface-sediment geochemical sample sites

Mercury geochemistry of gold placer tailings, sediments, bedrock, and waters in the lower Clear Creek area, Shasta County, California; report of investigations, 2001-2003

Total mercury and methylmercury measured in sediments, tailings, and water in an area where historical gold mining has occurred; proposed habitat restoration work may release some of the mercury that is currently buried there.

Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

Presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in this area.

Sequential extraction results and mineralogy of mine waste and stream sediments associated with metal mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

Results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines.

Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho

Analysis of stream sediments to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the study area

Uranium in surface waters and sediments affected by historical mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 quadrangle, Colorado

Geochemical analysis of stream waters and sediments in mountainous areas immediately west of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate the concentration and distribution of uranium-bearing acid drainage originating from historical mines

Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

Geochemical analyses of rocks, mineral separates, bulk samples from lake and stream sediments, heavy mineral concentrates, and soils collected by USGS from 1962 to 2009.

Alaska Geochemical Database, Version 2.0 (AGDB2)--including "best value" data compilations for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

Geochemical analyses of rocks, mineral separates, bulk samples from lake and stream sediments, heavy mineral concentrates, and soils collected by USGS from 1962 to 2009.

Analytical Results and Sample Locations of Reanalyzed NURE Stream-Sediment and Soil Samples for the Humboldt River Basin Mineral-Environmental Assessment, Northern Nevada

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) collected stream-sediment and soil samples in order to evaluate the geochemistry of the Humboldt River Basin.

Analytical results for stream sediment and soil samples from the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Isla de Culebra, and Isla de Vieques

Geochemical data from 2560 stream sediment samples collected in Puerto Rico, 421 soil samples collected on Isla de Vieques, and 35 soil samples were collected on Isla de Culebra, analyzed by semiquantitative spectrographic methods.

Bedrock and soil geochemistry from Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

Analyses to establish the background and baseline geochemistry for bedrock and soil in the region, and to determine terrestrial mercury sources and sinks in the park

Bedrock soil and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

Geochemical analyses conducted as part of a larger study of the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior region.

Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

Chemical analysis of 47,478 samples of various geological materials to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, and similar regional environmental assessements.

Chemical analyses of soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous US

Geochemistry of soils and other regoliths collected and analyzed by Hans Shacklette and colleagues from 1958 until about 1976.

Chemical data for rock, sediment, biological, precipitate, and water samples from abandoned copper mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

Report containing tables of geochemical data

Determination of premining geochemical background and delineation of extent of sediment contamination in Blue Creek downstream from Midnite Mine, Stevens county, Washington

Geochemical and radionuclide analyses of surface samples and cores taken near the outflow of this old uranium mine.

Digital map of surficial geology, wetlands, and deepwater habitats, Coeur d'Alene river valley, Idaho

Details of materials and geologic environments in an area where a long history of mining has enriched stream sediments in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron.

Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska

Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental

Environmental impact of the Contact and Sonoma mercury mines on water, sediment, and biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek watersheds, Sonoma County, California

Data from field sampling of tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the mines, along with water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area, to help assess the chemical hazards due to historic mining.

Estimated gravel resources of the Soucook River valley, Loudon, New Hampshire, 7.5' Quadrangle using improved techniques for assessing gravel resources in glaciofluvial deposits

Images and text from a poster session (Geological Society of America Northeastern Section) showing methodology and results for an example

Field demonstrations of five geophysical methods that could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate

Data from seismic reflection and refraction, electromagnetic sounding, and resistivity profiling in a study area in Indiana. Exact location is not provided.

Geochemical data for core and bottom-sediment samples collected in 2007 from Grand Lake o' the Cherokees, northeast Oklahoma

In this area of historical lead-zinc mining activity, studies such as this help to assess the possibility of human exposure to cadmium and lead through eating fish.

Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico

Data from a study intended to explore how well the chemical analysis of water and sediment in an area reflects that of the rock from which the sediments are eroded and through which the water flows.

Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

Surficial geochemical methods used to identify subsurface mineral deposits covered by alluvium. Can a geophysical anomaly, interpreted as a buried granite pluton, be discerned from the geochemical characteristics of overlying Quaternary sediments?

Geochemistry of soils in the US from the PLUTO database

Geochemical data for soils collected in the United States and analyzed by the USGS. The data were originally entered into the in-house PLUTO database. This is a subset of DDS-47.

Geochemistry of soils in the US from the RASS database

Geochemical data for soils collected by USGS personnel and analyzed by the USGS. These data were originally entered into the Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS), a database that is now merged into the National Geochemistry Database.

Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

Chemical analyses of water and sediment samples, images depicting resistivity.

Mineralogic causes of variations in magnetic susceptibility of late Pleistocene and Holocene sediment from Great Salt Lake, Utah

Results of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements and magnetic mineralogy of sediments sampled in three cores from the south basin of Great Salt Lake

Multielement geochemical dataset of surficial materials for the northern Great Basin

Geochemical data generated during mineral and environmental assessments for the Bureau of Land Management in northern Nevada, northeastern California, southeastern Oregon, and southwestern Idaho.

National Geochemical Database: Sediment

Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in the continental US and Alaska.

Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world

Location, type, mineralogy, name, tonnage and grade, and geological setting for 120 deposits of this type. The US has no active nickel mines or nickel reserves.

Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world-database and grade and tonnage models

Location, type, mineralogy, name, tonnage and grade, and geological setting for 120 deposits of this type. The US has no active nickel mines or nickel reserves.

Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of mine tailings, in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo basin, Big Bend area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

Geochemical data for stream water, sediments, and mine tailings in this area

Reanalysis of Selected Archived NURE-HSSR Sediment and Soil Samples from Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah (ver. 3.0, October 2018)

Reanalysis, using modern methods, of nearly 60,000 NURE-HSSR archived samples collected over parts of Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

Reconnaissance soil geochemistry at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, Fremont County, Wyoming

The site, on the Wind River Indian Reservation, has Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribes concerned about groundwater and soil contamination. This effort studies geochemical soil variation and compares concentrations with levels established by EPA

Results from the analysis of 723 stream-sediment samples from the Stikine Geophysical Survey area within the Petersburg, Sumdum, Bradfield Canal, and Sitka quadrangles, southeastern Alaska

Small regional scale geochemical mineral exploration results from field studies in Duncan Canal, Zarembo Island, and western Etolin Island.

Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

Mine tailings here have high levels of arsenic. Experiments conducted on these sediments indicate that the arsenic can be released into the environment and become hazardous through chemical processes that occur when fine sediment is ingested by animals.

Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

Detailed study of mine waste material and sediments from streams passing through it. Arsenic is the main contaminant of interest here.

Review of samples of water, sediment, tailings, and biota at the Little Bonanza mercury mine, San Luis Obispo County, California

Data from field sampling of mine tailings, wasterock, sediment, water, and biota at the mine in 2010. Results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemicals that could produce elevated levels of monomethylmercury.

Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from seven 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-09

New analyses of 1,075 previously collected stream sediment samples, measuring more elements with better precision. Includes arsenic, gold, palladium, and platinum and 55 major, rare earth, and trace element concentrations.

Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from ten 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-08

New data for 366 previously collected stream-sediment samples, because recently developed analytical methods can detect additional elements of interest and have lower detection limits than the methods used when these samples were originally analyzed.

Temporal Chemical Data for Sediment, Water, and Biological Samples from the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada County, California-2006-2008

This report is a compilation of water and sediment chemical data generated by the USGS study of indigenous, arsenic-sequestering microbial communities. A total of 9 synoptic sampling efforts conducted at specific sites are described.

Alaska Geochemical Database, v2

Geochemical analyses of rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and heavy mineral concentrate samples in Alaska analyzed from 1962 through 2009, with best-value estimates.

Antimony

Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications.

Available sand and gravel resources in southern New Hampshire

Estimates thickness of sand and gravel resources available in this broad area using geology, topography, land cover, and ground-water level.

Barite (Barium)

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products.

Beryllium

Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society.

Case study of the environmental signature of a recently abandoned, carbonate-hosted replacement deposit: The Clayton Mine, Idaho

Multi-element geochemical analysis of host rock, ore, mine waste, flotation-mill tailings, slag, stream sediments, creek and adit waters, and leachates of mine waste and mill tailings.

Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

Geophysical study of the sediment under a river intended to help assess the susceptibility of this material to scour and the erosion of levees adjacent to the river.

Characterization of mine waste at the Elizabeth copper mine, Orange County, Vermont

Preliminary information about the concentration, spatial distribution and mineral hosting of metals and other elements in solid materials at the Elizabeth copper mine after 50 years (or more) of weathering and oxidation.

Chemical Composition of Samples Collected from Waste Rock Dumps and Other Mining-Related Features at Selected Phosphate Mines in Southeastern Idaho, Western Wyoming, and Northern Utah

Chemical analyses for 31 samples collected from various phosphate mine sites in southeastern Idaho (25), northern Utah (2), and western Wyoming (4)

Chemistry of Selected Core Samples, Concentrate, Tailings, and Tailings Pond Waters: Pea Ridge Iron (-Lanthanide-Gold) Deposit, Washington County, Missouri

This report examines potential sources of lanthanide elements [rare earth elements (REE)] with the objective of providing up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term.

Cobalt

Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses due to its ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and color effects with silica.

Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

A multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project focused on long-term resource planning by the mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks.

Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

Samples of surficial materials analyzed for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations.

Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

Geographic extent of sand and gravel deposits in this area as GIS data.

Dataset of Aggregate Producers in New Mexico

Location and descriptive data for aggregate producers in New Mexico that are believed to have been active during the period 1997-1999.

Digital data for construction material sources reported by the Arizona Department of Transportation in 1977 for Maricopa County, Arizona

Point features representing pit locations and attribution data captured from an atlas of map sheets and pit data sheets by the Arizona Highway Department

Digital data from the Great Sand Dunes airborne gravity gradient survey, south-central Colorado

Flight-line data and gravity grids with documentation.

Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho

Spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining.

Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

Sample locations and descriptions, with compositional analysis to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex.

Fluorine

Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale.

Frac sand in the United States: a geological and industry overview

Discusses the physical properties of frac sand, its geologic origin and formation contributing processes, its use in industry, consumption history and a global outlook. US / Canadian producers are detailed and potential other sources delineated in a GIS

Gallium

Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN).

Geochemical and mineral maps from soils of the conterminous United States: interactive web site

Interactive web site showing geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are provided in DS-801

Geochemical and mineralogic characterization of solids and their effects on waters in metal-mining environments, in Seal, R.R., II, and Foley, N.K., eds., Progress on geoenvironmental models for selected mineral deposit types

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch.

Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States

Systematic geochemical and mineralogical survey of soil horizons analyzed using a consistent set of methods, sample spacing 1 per 1,600 sq km.

Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States

Systematic geochemical and mineralogical survey of soil horizons analyzed using a consistent set of methods, sample spacing 1 per 1,600 sq km.

Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States

Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are provided in DS-801

Geochemical characterization of mine waste at the Ely Copper Mine superfund site, Orange County, Vermont

An environmental impact study is done for the abandoned Ely copper mine. The extent of contamination is studyed along with the type and chemical composition of the mine waste piles.

Geochemical data for Colorado soils-Results from the 2006 state-scale geochemical survey

Major and trace element concentration data for 960 sites, providing a baseline for the natural variation in soil geochemistry in Colorado.

Geochemical data for samples collected in 2007 near the concealed Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska

Analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs

Geochemical data for samples collected in 2008 near the concealed Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska

Chemical analysis of surface samples taken over a well known but concealed deposit to understand metal migration into the surface materials and to assess the power of surface sampling for detecting concealed deposits of this type.

Geochemical landscape of the conterminous US: maps of NURE-HSSR data

Maps derived from a subset of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data. Samples are from streams, lakes, ponds, springs, playas, and soils. Includes Na, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Ce, Hf, Pb, Th, and U.

Geochemical Results of Lysimeter Sampling at the Manning Canyon Repository in the Mercur Mining District, Utah

This report presents chemical characteristics of transient unsaturated-zone water collected by lysimeter from the Manning Canyon repository site in Utah. Data collected by U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Manageme

Geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, including parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale quadrangles

The map updates a major geologic map of the Cook Inlet region published in 1976 incorporating new and additional mapping and interpretation. This map is also a revision of areas of overlap with the geologic map completed for central Alaska.

Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

The region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. The map was compiled from existing mapping augmented by available new or revised data

Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

Uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010. Data are available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

Geophysical surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September, 2002

Detailed bathymetry, lake-floor acoustic imaging, and sample characteristics to infer bottom sediment characteristics.

Germanium and Indium

Germanium and indium are used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays.

Graphite

Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composites promise more uses.

History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

Overview explaining how and why six different geochemical data sets were produced, and why you might choose to use the data in any one of these instead of the others.

Hydrogeochemical investigations of historic mining districts, central western slope of Colorado, including influence on surface-water quality

Geochemical analysis of mine dumps, mill tailings, mine drainage, and surface waters indicate contamination from these historic mines is generally less than that asserted or suggested by some geochemical models

Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan county, Colorado

Major assessment of the environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed with GIS data files, tables, and plates.

Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

Geological, geochemical, hydrologic, and biological observations combined with geographic framework data, supporting a multidisciplinary assessment of the impact of historic mining in this area.

Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

Approximately 400 young children have died and thousands more are affected. This study clarifies lead sources and exposure pathways, identifies other toxicants of concern and people at risk, and examines potential for similar lead poisoning globally.

Lithium

Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from northern California: Results from the Geochemical Landscapes project pilot study

Regional-scale geochemical survey designed to serve as a baseline for further analyses, and to understand effects of historical mining in the area.

Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two geochemical surveys (1972 and 2005) of the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area

Analyses of about 900 samples by ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples collected in 2005 were also analyzed by a cold vapor-atomic absorption method for mercury.

Manganese

Manganese is used to make steel, where it serves as a purifying agent in iron-ore refining and as an alloy.

Map of sand and gravel mines, prospects, and occurrences, and the geologic units that host them in the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area, southwestern Wyoming

Comparison of the locations reported for these mineral deposits with mapped geologic units likely to host them; information comes from three different source compilations.

Map showing extent of glaciation in the Eagle quadrangle, east-central Alaska

This map covers the Eagle 1:250,000-scale quadrangle in the northeastern part of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in Alaska. It shows the extent of five major glacial advances, former glacial lakes, and present fragmented terrace deposits related to the advances.

Mercury release from the Rathburn Mine, Petray Mine, and Bear Valley saline springs, Colusa County, California 2004-2006

Summary of data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and waste rock and water and sediment in regional springs and tributaries that drain from the mine area into Bear Creek. Ground-water springs are also potential sources of mercury here.

Miscellaneous geochemical data from waters in the Upper Animas River Watershed, Colorado

This report releases data for waters in which naturally occurring acid-rock drainage occurs but acid-mine drainage from historical mining continues to contribute dissolved metals further degrading preexisting water quality.

National Geochemical Database: Concentrate

Geochemistry of concentrates from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and Alaska.

National Geochemical Database: Soil

Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and Alaska.

National geochemical survey database

National-scale geochemical analysis of stream sediments and soils in the US, from existing data, reanalysis of existing samples, and new sampling. Goal for sample density is one per 289 square km.

Niobium and Tantalum

Niobium and tantalum are found together in nature because they have similar physical and chemical properties. Niobium is used in high-strength steel alloys, while tantalum is used in electronic capacitors.

Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

One hundred years of historical mining has resulted in substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc into the environment. This surficial-soil sampling and coring study provides information needed to support remediation efforts.

Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from about 150 samples of soil A horizon and about 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east-west transect across the USA.

Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah.

Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications.

Radionuclide data and calculations and loss-on-ignition, X-ray fluorescence, and ICP-AES data from cores in catchments of the Animas river, Colorado

Results from sediment cores collected during 1997-1999 oxbow lakes and beaver ponds to assess impact of historic mining and exposed mineral deposits on the quality of the water and the aquatic and riparian habitats.

Rare-Earth Elements

Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications including glass, petroleum refining, automobiles, and magnets.

Reconnaissance geologic map of the Kuskokwim Bay region, southwest Alaska

A geologic map constructed primarily from reconnaissance studies from the 1950s to 1990s. The rocks of the map area range from Proterozoic age metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex to Quaternary age mafic volcanic rocks of Nunivak Island.

Rhenium

Rhenium is a rare metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. It is used in high-temperature superalloys, to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines and is a catalyst for petroleum refining.

Selenium

Selenium is a trace element in Earth's crust. Modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.

Solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, near Edgemont, South Dakota

Geochemical and mineralogical analysis of uranium-bearing sandstone in order to help understand mineral deposits of this type.

Tellurium

Tellurium is a rare element obtained as a byproduct of mining for other commodities whose main uses are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery.

Tin

Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Its major uses today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder.

Titanium

Titanium colors paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and its alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.

Vanadium

Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity.

Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

Investigates Cr and Ni geochemistry providing insight into the mobility and bioaccessibility of these toxic trace elements throughout northern California and perhaps the origin of elevated dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations in the western Sacramento Valley

Zirconium and Hafnium

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals.