Physical processes by which previously-used materials are converted from scrap and waste to reusable forms.

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Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

Investigates the expanding LED industry and it’s manufacturing complexities. The sources and supply of the select mineral commodities used and the manufacturing process and supply chain are discussed.

Mineral commodity summaries 2021

Detailed summaries of the production, consumption, economic valuation, and use of a wide variety of non-fuel mineral commodities in the US through 2020. Includes notes on production and resources worldwide and issues affecting the commodities both within and outside the US.