Culture and demographics

Information on human behavior, ways of living and thinking, and characteristics of human populations.
This category is also used for socioeconomics and demographics.
Subtopics:
Related topics:


Results listed by similarity [list alphabetically]
An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

Investigates the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and shows how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, and information networks supplying materials and parts for production.

Antimony

Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications.

Antimony: a flame fighter

Explains how and where antimony resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of antimony might be found.

Background information to accompany the atlas of some metal and nonmetal mineral provinces in the conterminous United States

Explains how a set of mineral resource province maps were compiled, what sort of information went into them, how they should be interpreted, and why they are important.

Barite (Barium)

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products.

Beryllium

Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society.

Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

Investigates the expanding LED industry and it’s manufacturing complexities. The sources and supply of the select mineral commodities used and the manufacturing process and supply chain are discussed.

Cobalt

Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses due to its ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and color effects with silica.

Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tantalum processing plants, a critical part of the tantalum supply chain

Sources are discussed to identify risks to the United States associated with critical supply of this strategic mineral / metal and to provide supply chain transparency to policymakers. Focus is on the post-mining, pre-consumer-product part of the chain.

Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

Sources are discussed to identify risks to the United States associated with critical supply of this strategic mineral / metal and to provide supply chain transparency to policymakers. Focus is on the post-mining, pre-consumer-product part of the chain.

Critical Mineral Resources of the United States—An Introduction

An overview of the mineral resource classifications, terms, and definitions used in PP 1802. Includes a review of the history of the use and meaning of the term “critical” applied to minerals or materials.

Environmental Considerations Related to Mining of Nonfuel Minerals

A key aspect of identifying and mitigating environmental risks of mining is understanding how they vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.

Fluorine

Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale.

Gallium

Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN).

Germanium and Indium

Germanium and indium are used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays.

Germanium: giving microelectronics an efficiency boost

Explains how and where germanium resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of germanium might be found.

Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

Amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities.

Graphite

Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composites promise more uses.

Indium: bringing liquid-crystal displays into focus

Explains how and where indium resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of indium might be found.

International mineral exploration activities from 1995 through 2004

Extensive commentary but minimal location information for more than 4000 mineral exploration targets worldwide, by year.

Lithium

Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

Manganese

Manganese is used to make steel, where it serves as a purifying agent in iron-ore refining and as an alloy.

Manganese: it turns iron into steel (and does so much more)

Explains how and where manganese resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of manganese might be found.

Mineral commodity summaries 2016

Data sheets with information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 non-fuel mineral commodities.

Mineral industry surveys: Abrasives, manufactured

Quarterly reports describing salient statistics and industry events pertaining to this mineral commodity.

Mineral industry surveys: Aluminum

Monthly reports describing salient statistics and industry events pertaining to this commodity.

Mineral industry surveys: Antimony

Monthly or Quarterly reports describing salient statistics and industry events pertaining to this mineral commodity.

Mineral operations outside the United States

Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS.

Niobium and Tantalum

Niobium and tantalum are found together in nature because they have similar physical and chemical properties. Niobium is used in high-strength steel alloys, while tantalum is used in electronic capacitors.

Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

Explains how we use these chemical elements, where they come from, and characteristics of the global supply and demand for them.

Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah.

Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications.

Rare-Earth Elements

Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications including glass, petroleum refining, automobiles, and magnets.

Rhenium

Rhenium is a rare metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. It is used in high-temperature superalloys, to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines and is a catalyst for petroleum refining.

Rhenium: a rare metal critical in modern transportation

Explains how and where rhenium resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of rhenium might be found.

Selenium

Selenium is a trace element in Earth's crust. Modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.

Tellurium

Tellurium is a rare element obtained as a byproduct of mining for other commodities whose main uses are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery.

Tellurium: providing a bright future for solar energy

Explains how and where tellurium resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of tellurium might be found.

The rare-earth elements: vital to modern technologies and lifestyles

Explains how and where rare-earth resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of rare-earths might be found.

Tin

Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Its major uses today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder.

Titanium

Titanium colors paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and its alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.

Titanium--Light, strong, and white

Explains how and where titanium resources form and concentrate and how they are used and interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Discusses supply and demand trends and where undiscovered sources of titanium might be found.

U.S. mineral dependence—Statistical compilation of U.S. and world mineral production, consumption, and trade, 1990–2010

The report provides insight into the dependence of the United States on foreign supply to meet the country’s mineral needs. This overview highlights the importance of understanding what is happening at each point along the supply chain.

United States copper metal and scrap use and trade patterns, 1995‒2014

Explains supply and demand for US copper. Worldwide demand increased, much of that from China. Chinese demand for copper scrap from the US has decreased recently, which could lead to an oversupply and declining prices.

Value of mineral production by state in the US

The value of mineral production by state in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Vanadium

Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity.

Zirconium and Hafnium

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals.