Mathematical modeling

Operational representation of a system in which the characteristics and behaviors of the component processes, phenomena, or objects, understood using mathematical relationships, are represented by numerical values (measured or hypothetical), so that calculations carried out using them return numerical estimates of system parameters that were not measured directly.
This category is also used for computational modeling, fractal geometric methods, groundwater flow modeling, modeling (mathematical), numerical methods, numerical modeling, and statistical modeling.
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A bibliography of some geophysical computer programs, databases, and maps from the U.S. Geological Survey, 1971-1994

A collection of references of geophysical computer programs, databases, and maps from the USGS

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Aeromagnetic expression of buried basaltic volcanoes near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Mathematical modeling and analysis of aeromagnetic anomaly data (gridded data provide in another report).

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data and inverted resistivity models, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, May 2017

Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data were collected in 2017 along 347 line kilometers. Includes processed AEM and magnetic data and inverted resistivity depth sections. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data from the western Hualapai Indian Reservation near Grand Canyon West and Peach Springs, Arizona, 2018

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and magnetic survey data along 1,637 line-km at a nominal flight height of 30m above terrain (averaging 53m), with nominal line spacing 1 km or 4 km. Data provided are minimally processed AEM and magnetic measurements, fully processed AEM data were used to develop an included resistivity model.

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data, Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, June 2012

Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data in 2012 along 556 line-kilometers over this volcano flown at a nominal flight height of 30 meters (m) above terrain with a nominal spacing of 250 m. Data are provided in CSV and GeoTiff formats.

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data, northeast Wisconsin

Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data collected during 2021 over 3,170 line kilometers with nominal flight height of 30 - 40 m above terrain and nominal line spacing of 0.5 miles. Data are provided in Geosoft database, Geosoft grid, GeoTiff, Geosoft map, and netCDF formats.

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data, southeastern San Joaquin Valley near Cawelo, California, 2016

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and magnetic survey data to support groundwater salinity mapping and hydrogeologic framework development. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey, southwestern San Joaquin Valley near Lost Hills, California, 2016

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and magnetic survey data in this area to aid groundwater studies. Includes inverted resistivity model. Data are provided in CSV, plotted sections provided in PDF.

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Airborne electromagnetic data and processing within Leach Lake Basin, Fort Irwin, California

Releases airborne survey data, resistivity cross-sections and depth slices derived from data inversion. Resulting resistivity models confirm geologic framework, constrain hydrostratigraphy and depth to basement, and reveal fault and fold distribution.

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Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric survey of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, November 2018 - February 2019

Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were acquired in 2018-2019 along 16,816 line-kilometers flown at a nominal sensor flight height of 30 m above terrain with 6- to 12-kilometer spaced east-west flight lines to understand subsurface geologic structure and inform hydrologic models. Data are provided in CSV and GXF grid formats. Flight lines are provided in shapefile format.

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Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric survey of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, November 2019 - March 2020

Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were acquired from 2019 to 2020 along 24,030 line-kilometers over the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Survey was flown at a nominal height of 120 m above terrain with 6-kilometer spaced east-west flight lines. Data are provided in ASEG-GDF2 format.

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Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric survey, Shellmound, Mississippi, March 2018

Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were acquired in 2018 along 2,364 line-kilometers in this area at anominal sensor flight height of 30 m above terrain with 250 to 1,000-meter spaced flight lines. Data are provided in GXF grid, CSV, and GeoTiff formats.

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Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric survey, upper East River and surrounding watersheds near Crested Butte, Colorado, 2017

Airborne electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data collected in 2017 over 1,984 line-kilometers in this area. Data include inverted resistivity and IP models as well. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Processed Data and Models Data Release, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2016

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and magnetic survey data were collected in 2016 along 4,212 line-kilometers over this area as part of a study of the subsurface geologic structure and geothermal and groundwater resources of Yellowstone National Park. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

Identifies hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices and vulnerable areas downstream by mapping alteration on volcanoes, highlighting lahar prone watersheds using Global Digital Elevation Model data, and modeling via a lahar flow-fill modeling program

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Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Bayesian modeling of NURE airborne radiometric data for the conterminous United States: predictions and grids

Estimates of potassium, equivalent uranium, and equivalent thorium for the conterminous United States derived from the USGS national airborne radiometric data compilation analyzed using a Bayesian hierarchical model to produce new grids for this area. Data are provided in CSV and GeoTIFF formats.

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Combined results and derivative products of hydrogeologic structure and properties from airborne electromagnetic surveys in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

Electrical resistivity results from two regional airborne electromagnetic surveys were combined to produce three-dimensional gridded models and derivative hydrogeologic products. This high-resolution information about hydrogeologic structure and properties to aid interpretations and hydrologic models. Data are provided in netCDF and GeoTiff formats.

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Computer programs for forward and inverse modeling of acoustic and electromagnetic data

Source code and executables for Windows 7 64-bit; these command-line applications are likely portable to Linux as well. Memory intensive code, uses multiple processors.

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Crustal Architecture Beneath the Southern Midcontinent (USA) -- Data Grids and 3D Geophysical Models

Regional grid files and 3D voxel models were used to study crustal architecture. Includes grid files consist of surface grids used in the inversions, and calculated geophysical data grids produced by the inversions. Data are provided in GOCAD voxel and GXF grid formats.

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Descriptive models for epithermal gold-silver deposits: Chapter Q in <Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

Epithermal gold-silver deposits are vein, stockwork, disseminated, and replacement deposits that are mined primarily for their gold and silver contents; some deposits also contain substantial resources of lead, zinc, copper, and (or) mercury. These deposi

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Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

This report describes compilation and evaluation results of data from the USGS global mineral assessment including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits.

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Digital data from the Great Sand Dunes and Poncha Springs aeromagnetic surveys, south-central Colorado

Two high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in south-central Colorado compiled to assess the subsurface geologic framework of the San Luis basin for ground-water flow model construction, and to map concealed faults potentially related to geothermal resources

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Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment

This paper reports on a methodology that is used with estimates of undiscovered copper resources to evaluate the likely contribution that the predicted resources will make to mineral supplies in the foreseeable future.

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Geophysical Characterization of Subsurface Properties Relevant to the Hydrology of the Standard Mine in Elk Basin, Colorado

To help understand the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they affect surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings, electrical resistivity profile, self–potential, and magnetic measurement data are provided herein.

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Geophysical investigation of Red Devil mine using direct-current resistivity and electromagnetic induction, Red Devil, Alaska, August 2010

This large producer of mercury operated from 1933 to 1971. As part of remediation work, this survey used electromagnetic methods to study subsurface resistivity.

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Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado

Study focusing on the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in this area.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment

Regional locations and estimates of the probable amounts of undiscovered resources of copper, platinum-group elements, and potash in selected types of mineral deposits to depths of 1 to 3 kilometers below the surface of the earth worldwide.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment-Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits-an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan

This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type assuming some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, provided a user-specified correlation matrix.

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Ground-based time-domain electromagnetic data and resistivity models near Manistee National Forest, Michigan, 2020

Ground-based transient electromagnetic data were acquired near Manistee National Forest, Michigan, to define the resistivity structure of the subsurface rocks.

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High-angle faults in the basement of Yucca Flats, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on analysis of a constrained gravity inversion surface

A fault map and digital fault dataset were constructed based on offsets of the basement surface. Because these faults are, in large part, not present at the surface, they are interpreted to be inactive faults, older than the alluvial basin fill.

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Modeling of the Climax Stock and related plutons based on the inversion of magnetic data, southwest Nevada

Mathematical modeling, coupled with new observations of magnetic susceptibility, yield better estimates of the underground configuration of granite plutons.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin

Study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia

Delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content

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Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia--China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper deposits of the world

Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with data allowing locations of these deposits to be plotted using GIS.

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Porphyry copper deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models, 2008

Revised and updated information about mineral deposit models for porphyry copper deposits to facilitate assessment of undiscovered resources

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Porphyry copper deposits of the world: database, map, and grade and tonnage models

A compilation of worldwide mineral deposits of this type. This older version was revised and updated in OFR-2008-1155.

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Porphyry copper deposits of the world: database, maps, and preliminary analysis

A compilation of worldwide mineral deposits of this type. This older version was revised and updated in OFR-2008-1155.

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Potential-field geophysical software for the PC, version 2.2

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Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Provides data for the depth below the land surface,in meters, of the modeled location of the Pre-Tertiary basement surface.

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Preliminary potential-field constraints on the geometry of the San Fernando basin, southern California

Results of mathematical modeling of gravity and magnetic anomaly data to infer the geologic structure of the area

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan

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Time-domain electromagnetic surveys at Fort Irwin, San Bernardino County, California, 2010-12

Describes electromagnetic sounding locations, data acquisition, calibration, and modeling; compares data to borehole data, correlating model results; and summarizes the applications and limitations of the TEM method. Examples of models are provided.

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Tungsten skarn mineral resource assessment of the Great Basin region of western Nevada and eastern California - Simulation results

Mineral resource assessment information including the input data, parameters, and results output from software that calculates the assessment. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Two-event lode-ore deposition at Butte, USA: 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb documentation of Ag-Au-polymetallic lodes overprinted by younger stockwork Cu-Mo ores and penecontemporaneous Cu lodes

<p id="sp0015">The ore-genesis model for world-class deposits of the Butte mining district, Montana, USA, is deep pre-Main Stage porphyry Cu-Mo and overlying Main Stage Ag-Zn-Cu zoned-lode deposits, both of which formed from hydrothermal fluids driven by

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Users guide to Handlens--A computer program that calculates the chemistry of minerals in mixtures

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Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

This report releases data, cross section, and model information related to the identification of travel paths for groundwater supply and principal stratigraphic and structural features that serve as constraints or conduits for groundwater movement.

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