Natural resource exploration

Techniques for locating deposits or stocks of useful minerals, water, and other resources using reconnaissance or instrumental methods.
This category is also used for dowsing, exploration, and prospecting.
Subtopics:
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Results listed by similarity [list alphabetically]
Historical Files from Federal Government Mineral Exploration-Assistance Programs, 1950 to 1974

Scanned documents describing applications for Federal assistance in exploring for certain strategic and critical minerals, including where the deposits were examined what minerals were found, and whether mining had occurred.

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International mineral exploration activities from 1995 through 2004

Extensive commentary but minimal location information for more than 4000 mineral exploration targets worldwide, by year.

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Alaska Resource Data File

A comprehensive database of Alaskan mineral deposits compiled from the published literature and from unpublished reports and data from industry, the US Bureau of Land Management, and USGS.

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Analytical Results and Sample Locality Map for Rock, Stream-Sediment, and Soil Samples, Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

A geochemical survey of the Bureau of Land Management's 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area

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Application of ground penetrating radar to estimate sand and gravel resources near Bow, southern New Hampshire

Includes application-specific radar data files.

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Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment

This paper reports on a methodology that is used with estimates of undiscovered copper resources to evaluate the likely contribution that the predicted resources will make to mineral supplies in the foreseeable future.

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First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

This report summarizes the assembly of pertinent data, determination of its limits, analysis of its properties, and the relations among the different data types in preparation for future modeling.

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Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

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Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

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Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas

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Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah

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Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

Uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010. Data are available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment

Regional locations and estimates of the probable amounts of undiscovered resources of copper, platinum-group elements, and potash in selected types of mineral deposits to depths of 1 to 3 kilometers below the surface of the earth worldwide.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment-Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits-an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan

This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type assuming some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, provided a user-specified correlation matrix.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Parwan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Parwan mineral district, which has gold and copper deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for this area, parts of which have anomalous spectral reflectance deserving of further study for their mineral potential.

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Map showing areas with potential for garnet resources in bedrock and placer in the Blacktail Mountains and the Gravelly, Greenhorn, Ruby, and Snowcrest ranges of southwestern Montana

Geological data in support of mineral resource assessment

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Preliminary non-fuel mineral resource assessment of Afghanistan 2007

Description and estimated amounts of resources with supporting data for use in GIS

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USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identifie

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A Review of Aeromagnetic Anomalies in the Sawatch Range, Central Colorado

The report contains digital data, primarily a layer of polygons linked to records summarizing previous interpretations of aeromagnetic anomalies. Data are presented in updated format for input to a GIS, standard graphics software, or map-plotting package.

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Antimony

Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications.

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Barite (Barium)

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society.

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Chemistry of Selected Core Samples, Concentrate, Tailings, and Tailings Pond Waters: Pea Ridge Iron (-Lanthanide-Gold) Deposit, Washington County, Missouri

This report examines potential sources of lanthanide elements [rare earth elements (REE)] with the objective of providing up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses due to its ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and color effects with silica.

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Cobalt Deposits in the United States

Descriptions of more than 60 mineral regions, mines, and mineral deposits within the United States and its territories that are reported to contain enrichments of cobalt.

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Constraining the location of the Archean--Proterozoic suture in the Great Basin based on magnetotelluric soundings

A regional profile on the Utah-Nevada State line reveals a deeply penetrating, broad electrical conductor suggesting the southwestern limit of intact Archean crust is farther north than previously reported with implications for future mineral exploration.

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Databases and simplified geology for mineralized areas, claims, mines, and prospects in Wyoming.

This data release contains mineral resource and geology data for metallic and nonmetallic mineral sites in Wyoming. Data is provided in both spreadsheet format (Microsoft Excel) and in GIS ArcView and MapInfo. Text available in PDF format.

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Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

This report describes compilation and evaluation results of data from the USGS global mineral assessment including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits.

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Field demonstrations of five geophysical methods that could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate

Data from seismic reflection and refraction, electromagnetic sounding, and resistivity profiling in a study area in Indiana. Exact location is not provided.

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Fluorine

Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale.

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Frac sand in the United States: a geological and industry overview

Discusses the physical properties of frac sand, its geologic origin and formation contributing processes, its use in industry, consumption history and a global outlook. US / Canadian producers are detailed and potential other sources delineated in a GIS

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Gallium

Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN).

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Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada

Detailed chemical and isotopic analysis of host and associated rocks within an area that is currently the largest producer of gold in the US. Part of a study of the hydrothermal activity leading to the formation of these gold deposits.

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Geochemical data for samples collected in 2007 near the concealed Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska

Analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs

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Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

Data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in this area.

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Germanium and Indium

Germanium and indium are used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays.

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Graphite

Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composites promise more uses.

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Large-area material maps of the conterminous United States

Maps of exposed surface mineral groups derived from automated spectral analysis of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data.

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Lead isotope determinations from sulfide mineral occurrences--Russian Far East

Data represent work completed when the study ended due to lack of funding. Geologic and site information on each specific deposit or occurrence are provided. Analytical and geologic data are summarized and site descriptions for samples analyzed are listed

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Lithium

Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

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Manganese

Manganese is used to make steel, where it serves as a purifying agent in iron-ore refining and as an alloy.

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Mining claim activity on Federal lands in the contiguous US and Alaska

Number and type of mine claims located on Federal lands and registered with the Bureau of Land Management, by year from 1976 through 2007.

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Niobium and Tantalum

Niobium and tantalum are found together in nature because they have similar physical and chemical properties. Niobium is used in high-strength steel alloys, while tantalum is used in electronic capacitors.

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Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

Locations of known phosphate occurrences in this area, with geologic units in which such deposits may occur.

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Phosphate occurrence and potential of south Asia

Locations of known phosphate occurrences in this area, with geologic units in which such deposits may occur.

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Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin

Study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia

Delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content

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Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia--China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Prospect- and mine-related features on USGS topographic maps

Symbols indicating mining-related features digitized from historical USGS topographic maps in the western part of the conterminous US. Includes prospect pits, mine shafts and adits, quarries, open-pit mines, tailings piles and ponds, gravel and borrow pit

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Rare-Earth Elements

Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications including glass, petroleum refining, automobiles, and magnets.

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Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical oper

Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration are presented on 10 separate plates available in either low or high resolution. A GIS package includes points features for potential porphyry copper sites also provided in tabular form.

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Results from the analysis of 723 stream-sediment samples from the Stikine Geophysical Survey area within the Petersburg, Sumdum, Bradfield Canal, and Sitka quadrangles, southeastern Alaska

Small regional scale geochemical mineral exploration results from field studies in Duncan Canal, Zarembo Island, and western Etolin Island.

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Rhenium

Rhenium is a rare metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. It is used in high-temperature superalloys, to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines and is a catalyst for petroleum refining.

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Rhenium occurrences in the United States

Mining districts, mines, and mineral occurrences (deposits and prospects) within the United States that are reported to contain enrichments of rhenium (Re)

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan

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Selenium

Selenium is a trace element in Earth's crust. Modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.

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Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

The report presents new maps from data collected in 2007 and the processing steps applied to that data. The maps are being used for natural resource development and to prioritize study areas of mineral distribution to assist with economic revitalization.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a rare element obtained as a byproduct of mining for other commodities whose main uses are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery.

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Tin

Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Its major uses today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder.

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Titanium

Titanium colors paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and its alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.

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USGS National Map of Surficial Mineralogy

Maps of exposed surface mineral groups derived from automated spectral analysis of satellite and airborne imaging systems; these data suggest areas that may contain mineral deposits of various types.

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Vanadium

Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity.

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Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques

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Zirconium and Hafnium

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals.

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