Natural resource exploration

Techniques for locating deposits or stocks of useful minerals, water, and other resources using reconnaissance or instrumental methods.
This category is also used for dowsing, exploration, and prospecting.
Subtopics:
(none)


Results listed alphabetically [list by similarity]
Alaska Resource Data File

A comprehensive database of Alaskan mineral deposits compiled from the published literature and from unpublished reports and data from industry, the US Bureau of Land Management, and USGS.

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Analytical Results and Sample Locality Map for Rock, Stream-Sediment, and Soil Samples, Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

A geochemical survey of the Bureau of Land Management's 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area

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Antimony

Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications.

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Application of ground penetrating radar to estimate sand and gravel resources near Bow, southern New Hampshire

Includes application-specific radar data files.

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A Review of Aeromagnetic Anomalies in the Sawatch Range, Central Colorado

The report contains digital data, primarily a layer of polygons linked to records summarizing previous interpretations of aeromagnetic anomalies. Data are presented in updated format for input to a GIS, standard graphics software, or map-plotting package.

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Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Barite (Barium)

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a mineral commodity that is used in a variety of industries to make products that are essential for the smooth functioning of a modern society.

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Calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains, USA

The Southern High Plains (SHP) is a new and emerging U.S. uranium province. Here, uranyl vanadates form deposits in Pliocene to Pleistocene sandstone, dolomite, and limestone

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Chemistry of Selected Core Samples, Concentrate, Tailings, and Tailings Pond Waters: Pea Ridge Iron (-Lanthanide-Gold) Deposit, Washington County, Missouri

This report examines potential sources of lanthanide elements [rare earth elements (REE)] with the objective of providing up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses due to its ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and color effects with silica.

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Cobalt Deposits in the United States

Descriptions of more than 60 mineral regions, mines, and mineral deposits within the United States and its territories that are reported to contain enrichments of cobalt. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase, shapefile Microsoft Excel, and CSV formats.

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Compilation of Geospatial Data (GIS) for the Mineral Industries and Related Infrastructure of Africa

Locations and characteristics of important mineral and energy resource facilities, with some permissive tracts and resource assessment information. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase and shapefile formats.

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Constraining the location of the Archean--Proterozoic suture in the Great Basin based on magnetotelluric soundings

A regional profile on the Utah-Nevada State line reveals a deeply penetrating, broad electrical conductor suggesting the southwestern limit of intact Archean crust is farther north than previously reported with implications for future mineral exploration.

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Data and results for GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in Alaska

Analytical results and the evaluated source data files of a geospatial analysis for identifying areas in Alaska that may have potential for hosting mineral deposits of this type.

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Databases and simplified geology for mineralized areas, claims, mines, and prospects in Wyoming.

This data release contains mineral resource and geology data for metallic and nonmetallic mineral sites in Wyoming. Data is provided in both spreadsheet format (Microsoft Excel) and in GIS ArcView and MapInfo. Text available in PDF format.

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Descriptive models for epithermal gold-silver deposits: Chapter Q in <Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

Epithermal gold-silver deposits are vein, stockwork, disseminated, and replacement deposits that are mined primarily for their gold and silver contents; some deposits also contain substantial resources of lead, zinc, copper, and (or) mercury. These deposi

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Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

This report describes compilation and evaluation results of data from the USGS global mineral assessment including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits.

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Digital map of iron sulfate minerals, other mineral groups, and vegetation of the western United States derived from automated analysis of Landsat 8 satellite data

Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor were analyzed using an automated technique to generate surficial mineralogy and vegetation maps of the conterminous western United States. Data are provided in ERDAS Imagine format.

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Earth MRI data acquisition projects

Geological, geophysical, geochemical, or lidar data acquisition projects funded by the Earth Mapping Resource Initiative (Earth MRI) pertaining to the study of critical mineral resources in the US.

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Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment

This paper reports on a methodology that is used with estimates of undiscovered copper resources to evaluate the likely contribution that the predicted resources will make to mineral supplies in the foreseeable future.

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Field demonstrations of five geophysical methods that could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate

Data from seismic reflection and refraction, electromagnetic sounding, and resistivity profiling in a study area in Indiana. Exact location is not provided.

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First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

This report summarizes the assembly of pertinent data, determination of its limits, analysis of its properties, and the relations among the different data types in preparation for future modeling.

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Fluorine

Fluorine compounds are essential in numerous chemical and manufacturing processes. Fluorspar is the commercial name for fluorite (isometric CaF2), which is the only fluorine mineral that is mined on a large scale.

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Focus areas for data acquisition for potential domestic resources of 11 critical minerals in Alaska—Aluminum, cobalt, graphite, lithium, niobium, platinum group elements, rare earth elements, tantalum, tin, titanium, and tungsten

Geographic areas within Alaska where deposits of certain critical mineral resources might be found. With state agencies and other organizations, USGS intends to conduct studies that will help locate critical mineral resources within these areas.

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Focus areas for data acquisition for potential domestic resources of 11 critical minerals in the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico—Aluminum, cobalt, graphite, lithium, niobium, platinum-group elements, rare earth elements, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten

Geographic areas within the US where deposits of certain critical mineral resources might be found. With state agencies and other organizations, USGS intends to conduct studies that will help locate critical mineral resources within these areas.

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Focus areas for data acquisition for potential domestic sources of critical minerals—Rare earth elements

Explains background, data sources, and methodology used to identify focus areas for potential domestic sources of rare earth elements in non-fuel deposit types.

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Frac sand in the United States: a geological and industry overview

Discusses the physical properties of frac sand, its geologic origin and formation contributing processes, its use in industry, consumption history and a global outlook. US / Canadian producers are detailed and potential other sources delineated in a GIS

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Gallium

Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN).

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Geochemical analyses of rock samples collected from mineral deposits and intrusions of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

Major and trace element chemistry of rock samples collected in this area, where surrounding rocks host numerous mineral deposits and occurrences. Data are provided in Microsoft Excel and CSV formats.

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Geochemical analyses of rock samples collected from the Dora Bay peralkaline igneous complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

Geochemical analyses of rock samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from surface exposures of host rock and REE-mineralized pegmatites and felsic dikes in this area to provide information on potential sources of co-product and by-product critical elements in domestic mineral deposits and to allow comparison with other REE deposits in peralkaline igneous complexes. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada

Detailed chemical and isotopic analysis of host and associated rocks within an area that is currently the largest producer of gold in the US. Part of a study of the hydrothermal activity leading to the formation of these gold deposits.

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Geochemical data for samples collected in 2007 near the concealed Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska

Analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs

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Geochemistry and Environmental Tracer Data for Groundwater, Stream Water, and Ferricrete Samples from Handcart Gulch, Colorado

Stream water, groundwater, and ferricrete samples were collected and analyzed to constrain the location of a possible concealed mineral occurrence. Data are provided in CSV and shapefile formats.

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Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

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Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

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Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas

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Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah

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Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

Uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010. Data are available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

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Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

Data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in this area.

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Germanium and Indium

Germanium and indium are used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays.

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Germanium Deposits in the United States

Detailed descriptions of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history, production, resource estimates, and geographic features. Data are provided in CSV, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and Esri file geodatabase formats.

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GIS and data tables for focus areas for potential domestic nonfuel sources of rare earth elements

Locations of focus areas to be used for planning and collection of geophysical, geological, and topographic (lidar) data pertaining to the study of rare earth element resources in the US.

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GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in Alaska

Explains process by which data on rock type, minerals, geochemistry, and geophysics were analyzed to identify the potential for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Alaska. Includes descriptive information on the types of deposits studied and the results obtained from the analysis.

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GIS for focus areas of potential domestic resources of 11 critical minerals: aluminum, cobalt, graphite, lithium, niobium, platinum group elements, rare earth elements, tantalum, tin, titanium, and tungsten

Geographic areas identified to target acquisition of geologic mapping, geophysical data, geochemistry, or detailed topographic information to aid research, mineral exploration, and evaluation of critical mineral potential.

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GIS, supplemental data table, and references for focus areas of potential domestic resources of 13 critical minerals in the United States and Puerto Rico: antimony, barite, beryllium, chromium, fluorspar, hafnium, helium, magnesium, manganese, potash, uranium, vanadium, and zirconium

Broad areas within the United States to target acquisition of geologic mapping, geophysical data, geochemical analysis, or detailed topographic information to aid research, mineral exploration, and evaluation of critical mineral potential in these areas.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment

Regional locations and estimates of the probable amounts of undiscovered resources of copper, platinum-group elements, and potash in selected types of mineral deposits to depths of 1 to 3 kilometers below the surface of the earth worldwide.

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Global Mineral Resource Assessment-Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits-an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan

This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type assuming some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, provided a user-specified correlation matrix.

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Graphite

Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composites promise more uses.

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Historical Files from Federal Government Mineral Exploration-Assistance Programs, 1950 to 1974

Scanned documents describing applications for Federal assistance in exploring for certain strategic and critical minerals, including where the deposits were examined what minerals were found, and whether mining had occurred.

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Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska&rsquo;s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome t

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International mineral exploration activities from 1995 through 2004

Extensive commentary but minimal location information for more than 4000 mineral exploration targets worldwide, by year.

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Large-area material maps of the conterminous United States

Maps of exposed surface mineral groups derived from automated spectral analysis of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data.

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Lead isotope determinations from sulfide mineral occurrences--Russian Far East

Data represent work completed when the study ended due to lack of funding. Geologic and site information on each specific deposit or occurrence are provided. Analytical and geologic data are summarized and site descriptions for samples analyzed are listed

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Lithium

Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

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Lithium Deposits in the United States

Detailed descriptions of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history, production, resource estimates, and geographic features. Data are provided in CSV, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and Esri file geodatabase formats.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Parwan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Parwan mineral district, which has gold and copper deposits.

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Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

GeoTIFF rendition of locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for this area, parts of which have anomalous spectral reflectance deserving of further study for their mineral potential.

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Manganese

Manganese is used to make steel, where it serves as a purifying agent in iron-ore refining and as an alloy.

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Map showing areas with potential for garnet resources in bedrock and placer in the Blacktail Mountains and the Gravelly, Greenhorn, Ruby, and Snowcrest ranges of southwestern Montana

Geological data in support of mineral resource assessment

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Mineral exploration sites of Latin America and the Caribbean

Information about exploration sites relating to the mineral industries of these areas. Includes the mineral commodities present at the site, project name, project type, operator, owners of the site, geographic coordinates, and locational accuracy. Data provided in CSV format.

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Mineralogical and Chemical Data for Heavy-Mineral Concentrate Samples Collected in the Taylor Mountains Quadrangle, Alaska, 2004-2008

Geochemical and mineralogical measurements of 819 samples of heavy mineral concentrates. Data are provided in CSV format.

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Mineral Regions, Mines and Mineral Occurrences in the Carlin Area, Nevada

Locations of mines, mineral occurrences, and mining districts in this area of active gold mining, with additional information such as commodity, geology, deposit types, activity status, deposit resources, and mine production. Extent of surface workings is also included. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and CSV formats.

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Mineral resource inventory of North Dakota

Summary of geology and mineral resources of the state, both current and potential. Includes data drawn from existing inventories of mines and prospects, mining related features, and abandoned mine lands.

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Mining claim activity on Federal lands in the contiguous US and Alaska

Number and type of mine claims located on Federal lands and registered with the Bureau of Land Management, by year from 1976 through 2007.

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Multiscale hyperspectral imaging of the Orange Hill Porphyry Copper Deposit, Alaska, USA, with laboratory-, field-, and aircraft-based imaging spectrometers

High resolution mineralogical mapping from hyperspectral core imaging data allows us to illustrate the spatial distribution of key mineralogical vectors in and around a deposit. This knowledge aids in rapid assessment of exploration models and the development of precise resource domains.

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Niobium and Tantalum

Niobium and tantalum are found together in nature because they have similar physical and chemical properties. Niobium is used in high-strength steel alloys, while tantalum is used in electronic capacitors.

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Niobium Deposits in the United States

Detailed descriptions of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history, production, resource estimates, and geographic features. Data are provided in CSV, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and Esri file geodatabase formats.

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Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

Locations of known phosphate occurrences in this area, with geologic units in which such deposits may occur.

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Phosphate occurrence and potential of south Asia

Locations of known phosphate occurrences in this area, with geologic units in which such deposits may occur.

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Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin

Study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia

Delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content

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Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia--China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Preliminary non-fuel mineral resource assessment of Afghanistan 2007

Description and estimated amounts of resources with supporting data for use in GIS

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Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the United States

Locations and characteristics of map symbols pertinent to mining appearing on historical USGS topographic maps. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase and shapefile formats.

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Prospect- and mine-related features on USGS topographic maps

Symbols indicating mining-related features digitized from historical USGS topographic maps in the western part of the conterminous US. Includes prospect pits, mine shafts and adits, quarries, open-pit mines, tailings piles and ponds, gravel and borrow pit

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Rare-Earth Elements

Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications including glass, petroleum refining, automobiles, and magnets.

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Reanalysis of Selected Archived NURE-HSSR Sediment and Soil Samples from Alaska

New analysis of existing samples from this area, to improve precision and accuracy and consistency of the measurements with those made on newly-collected samples. Data are provided in Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, CSV, and shapefile formats.

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Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical oper

Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration are presented on 10 separate plates available in either low or high resolution. A GIS package includes points features for potential porphyry copper sites also provided in tabular form.

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Results from the analysis of 723 stream-sediment samples from the Stikine Geophysical Survey area within the Petersburg, Sumdum, Bradfield Canal, and Sitka quadrangles, southeastern Alaska

Small regional scale geochemical mineral exploration results from field studies in Duncan Canal, Zarembo Island, and western Etolin Island.

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Rhenium

Rhenium is a rare metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. It is used in high-temperature superalloys, to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines and is a catalyst for petroleum refining.

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Rhenium occurrences in the United States

Mining districts, mines, and mineral occurrences (deposits and prospects) within the United States that are reported to contain enrichments of rhenium (Re)

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan

This study delineated permissive areas for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits, compiled a database of known deposits and significant prospects, estimated undiscovered deposits within those areas and made probabilistic estimates of their metal content.

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Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan

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Selenium

Selenium is a trace element in Earth's crust. Modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.

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Spatial data associated with tungsten skarn resource assessment of the Northern Rocky Mountains, Montana and Idaho

Resource assessment and supporting data including permissive tracts, mineral sites in the study area, geologic units, geologic maps, stream sediment geochemistry, whole rock chemistry, airborne radiometric data, and lower frequency content EMAG2 data. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase, shapefile, and CSV formats.

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Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

The report presents new maps from data collected in 2007 and the processing steps applied to that data. The maps are being used for natural resource development and to prioritize study areas of mineral distribution to assist with economic revitalization.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a rare element obtained as a byproduct of mining for other commodities whose main uses are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery.

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Tellurium Deposits in the United States

Detailed descriptions of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history, production, resource estimates, and geographic features. Data are provided in CSV, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and Esri file geodatabase formats.

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The Earth Mapping Resources Initiative (Earth MRI): Mapping the Nation’s Critical Mineral Resources

A planned partnership between the USGS, the Association of American State Geologists, and other Federal, State, and private organizations to collect scientific information useful for finding and exploiting critical mineral resources in the US.

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Tin

Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Its major uses today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder.

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Tin Deposits in the United States

Locations, extent, and detailed characteristics and history of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history of production, resource estimates, and extent of surface workings. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase, shapefile, and CSV formats.

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Titanium

Titanium colors paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of its strength and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and its alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.

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Tungsten Deposits in the United States (ver. 2.0, August 2020)

Detailed descriptions of mineral deposits containing this commodity, including history, production, resource estimates, and geographic features. Data are provided in CSV, shapefile, Microsoft Excel, and Esri file geodatabase formats.

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USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identifie

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USMIN Mineral Resource Data for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment Project

Locations of mineral occurrences, mines, mining and mineral districts and sites of active mineral exploration within or near the Department of the Interior (DOI) Sagebrush Focal Areas in Montana, Wyoming and Utah, central Idaho, and the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border area. Data are provided in Esri file geodatabase and shapefile formats.

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Vanadium

Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity.

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Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques

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Zirconium and Hafnium

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals.

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