Geologic units in Butler county, Alabama

Wilcox Group; Nanafalia Formation (Paleocene) at surface, covers 27 % of this area

Members of the Nanafalia Formation follow in descending order. Grampian Hills Member - medium-gray massive clay, claystone, sandy fossiliferous clay, and fossiliferous fine sand. "Ostrea thirsae beds" - glauconitic, abundantly fossiliferous, quartzose fine to medium sand. Gravel Creek Sand Member - pale-yellowish-orange to moderate-reddish-brown micaceous cross-bedded fine to very coarse sand containing gravel and clay pebbles in some exposures. Gravel Creek Member is absent locally and near the base may contain thin beds of lignite. Updip deposits in northern Henry County and southern Barbour County include beds of alternating medium-gray and white clay, carbonaceous clay, white and grayish-yellow fine to coarse sand and lenses of bauxite and bauxitic clay. Sand beds commonly are cross-bedded, gravelly, and contain numerous clay pebbles. The sequence of beds is often obscured by weathering and the collapse of beds into sinkholes in the underlying Clayton Formation.

Wilcox Group; Tuscahoma Sand (Paleocene) at surface, covers 24 % of this area

Light-gray to light-olive-gray laminated and thin-bedded carbonaceous silt and clay interbedded with fine sand; thin lignite beds occur locally. Lower part of the formation includes beds of fossiliferous, glauconitic fine quartz sand containing speroidal sandstone concretions, gravel and clay pebbles.

Midway Group; Porters Creek Formation (Paleocene) at surface, covers 19 % of this area

Dark-gray massive plastic clay in western AL with a thin bed of glauconitic shell marl at the top (Mathews Landing Marl Member). Becomes calcareous eastward grading into light-greenish-gray calcareous, micaceous, clayey fine to medium sand, medium-gray sandy, calcareous clay and white to light-gray thin bedded partly clayey, fossiliferous limestone. East of Crenshaw County, owing to lithologic similarity, beds correlative with the Porters Creek are included in the Clayton Formation.

Alluvial, coastal and low terrace deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Varicolored fine to coarse quartz sand containing clay lenses and gravel in places. Gravel composed of quartz and chert pebbles and assorted metmorphic and igneous rock fragments in streams near the Piedmont. In areas of the Valley and Ridge province gravel composed of angular to subrounded chert, quartz, and quartzite pebbles. Coastal deposits include fine to medium quartz sand with shell fragments and accessory heavy minerals along Gulf beaches and fine to medium quartz sand, silt, clay, peat, mud and ooze in the Mississippi Sound, Little Lagoon, bays, lakes, streams, and estuaries.

Midway Group; Clayton Formation (Paleocene) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

White to yellowsih-gray argillaceous limestone occurs in the upper part (McBryde Limestone Member): the lower part is medium-gray fossiliferous calcareous silt, glauconitic sand and thin beds of sandy limestone and calcareous sandstone (Pine Barren Member). At the base of the formation in southeast AL is a gravelly medium to coarse sand containing clay pebbles. The formation thins west of Wilcox County and westward from Thomaston in eastern Marengo County is mapped with the Porters Creek Formation. The formation is generally deeply weathered and fresh exposures are rare. In western areas exposures consist of weathered white to yellowish-gray argillaceous, fossiliferous sandy limestone, ferruginous sand, and fossiliferous sandstone. In eastern areas exposures consist of residual accumulations of chert boulders, moderate-reddish-orange sand, and clay containing masses and thin layers of iron minerals (limonite-goethite).

Claiborne Group; Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated in part (Eocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Greenish-gray calcareous, glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand; marl; carbonaceous sand; carbonaceous silty clay; and coarse glauconitic, fossiliferous, quartz sand.

Claiborne Group; Tallahatta Formation (Eocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

White to very light-greenish-gray thin-bedded to massive siliceous claystone; interbedded with thin layers of fossiliferous clay, sandy clay, and glauconitic sand and sandstone. White to light-greenish-gray fine to coarse sand and fine gravel occur at the base of the formation in southwest Alabama (Meridian Sand Member).

High terrace deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Varicolored lenticular beds of poorly sorted sand, ferruginous sand, silt, clay, and gravelly sand. Sand consists primarily of very fine to very coarse poorly sorted quartz grains; gravel composed of quartz, quartzite, and chert pebbles.

Selma Group; Providence Sand (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Upper part consists of cross-bedded fine to coarse sand and white, dark-gray and pale-red-purple mottled clay containing lignite, sand, and kaolin; lower part consists of dark-gray laminated to thin-bedded silty clay and abundantly micaceous, carbonaceous, fossiliferous very fine to fine sand. The Providence Sand extends eastward from southeastern Lowndes County into Georgia.

Wilcox Group; Hatchetigbee Formation (Eocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Light to dark-gray laminated carbonaceous clay, silt and very fine to fine sand, and cross-bedded glauconitic sand; one or more thin beds of fossiliferous marly glauconitic sand and sandstone occur in the upper part. Near the base is a prominent bed of glauconitic calcareous sand containing abundant fossils and spheroidal to pillow-shaped sandstone concretions (Bashi Marl Member). In parts of southeast AL the upper beds of the Th were either eroded or not deposited and the overlying Tt formation directly overlies the Bashi Marl Member.

Midway Group; Naheola Formation (Paleocene) at surface, covers 1.0 % of this area

The Naheola Formation is restricted to western AL and pinches out in western Butler County. Descriptions of the members of the formation follow in descending order. Coal Bluff Marl Member - glauconitic sand, thin-bedded silty clay, and sandy fossiliferous marl; Oak Hill Member - laminated silt, clay, and fine sand; contains a prominent bed of lignite near the top. The Coal Bluff Marl Member in Sumter County and in parts of Marengo County is mostly cross-bedded fine to coarse sand that is indistinguishable from the overlying lower beds of the Nanafalia Formation. Therefore, in these areas, the contact between the two is mapped at the top of the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola.

Claiborne/Jackson Group; Residuum (Eocene-Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

White to moderate-reddish-orange locally mottled sandy clay and residual clay with scattered layers of gravelly medium to coarse sand, fossiliferous chert and limestone boulders and limonitic sand masses. Derived from solution and collapse of limestone in the Jackson Group and Oligocene Series and the slumping of Pliocene and Miocene sediments.

Jackson Group undifferentiated (Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

The units of the Jackson Group are the Yazoo Clay and Crystal River and Moodys Branch Formations. Descriptions of the members of the Yazoo Clay follow in decending order. Shubuta Member - in western Alabama consists of light-greenish-gray to white plastic fossiliferous, calcareous clay containing irregular calcareous nodules. From the Tombigbee River eastward the Shubuta becomes more calcareous and grades into massive clayey glauconitic limestone. Eastward from the Alabama River, equivalent beds grade into the Crystal River Formation. Pachuta Marl Member - light-greenish-grey glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand and sandy limestone traceable from western Alabama eastward to Covington County where it grades into the Crystal River Formation. Cocoa Sand Member - yellowish-gray firm calcareous, fossiliferous fine to medium sand or sandy limestone or greenish-grey micaceous, calcareous, very clayey sand. Calcareous and clayey sand equivalent to the Cocoa is traceable from western Alabama to the Conecuh River area. North Twistwood Creek Clay Member - greenish-gray plastic calcareous, sparsely fossiliferous, blocky massive clay; grades into Crystal River formation in southeast AL. Crystal River Formation - white to yellowish-grey medium-grained to coquinoid limestone that is soft and chalky to compact and brittle; principally in southeastern AL but interfingers westward with members of the Yazoo Clay. Moodys Branch Formation - greenish-gray to pale-yellowish-orange glauconitic, calcareous, fossiliferous sand and sandy limestone; underlies the Yazoo Clay and the Crystal River Formation.