Geologic units in Cochise county, Arizona

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Quaternary surficial deposits, undivided (Quaternary) at surface, covers 40 % of this area

Unconsolidated to strongly consolidated alluvial and eolian deposits. This unit includes: coarse, poorly sorted alluvial fan and terrace deposits on middle and upper piedmonts and along large drainages; sand, silt and clay on alluvial plains and playas; and wind-blown sand deposits. (0-2 Ma)

Pliocene to middle Miocene deposits (Middle Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 14 % of this area

Moderately to strongly consolidated conglomerate and sandstone deposited in basins during and after late Tertiary faulting. Includes lesser amounts of mudstone, siltstone, limestone, and gypsum. These deposits are generally light gray or tan. They commonly form high rounded hills and ridges in modern basins, and locally form prominent bluffs. Deposits of this unit are widely exposed in the dissected basins of southeastern and central Arizona. (2-16 Ma)

Middle Miocene to Oligocene volcanic rocks (Oligocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

Lava, tuff, fine-grained intrusive rock, and diverse pyroclastic rocks. These compositionally variable volcanic rocks include basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Thick felsic volcanic sequences form prominent cliffs and range fronts in the Black (Mohave County), Superstition, Kofa, Eagletail, Galiuro, and Chiricahua Mountains. This unit includes regionally extensive ash-flow tuffs, such as the Peach Springs tuff of northwestern Arizona and the Apache Leap tuff east of Phoenix. Most volcanic rocks are 20-30 Ma in southeastern Arizona and 15 to 25 Ma in central and western Arizona, but this unit includes some late Eocene rocks near the New Mexico border in east-central Arizona. (11-38 Ma)

Cretaceous to Late Jurassic sedimentary rocks with minor volcanic rocks (Late Jurassic to Cretaceous) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Sandstone and conglomerate, rarely forms prominent outcrops; massive conglomerate is typical near base of unit and locally in upper part. These deposits are nonmarine except in southeastern Arizona, where prominent gray marine limestone (Mural Limestone) forms the middle of the Bisbee Group. Sandstones are typically medium-bedded, drab brown, lithic-feldspathic arenites. Includes Bisbee Group (largely Early Cretaceous) and related rocks, Temporal, Bathtub, and Sand Wells formations, rocks of Gu Achi, McCoy Mountains Formation, and Upper Cretaceous Fort Crittenden Formation and equivalent rocks. (80-160 Ma)

Holocene surficial deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Unconsolidated deposits associated with modern fluvial systems. This unit consists primarily of fine-grained, well-sorted sediment on alluvial plains, but also includes gravelly channel, terrace, and alluvial fan deposits on middle and upper piedmonts. (0-10 ka)

Holocene to middle Pliocene basaltic rocks (Middle Pliocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Mostly dark-colored basaltic lava and cinders young enough that some original volcanic landforms are still apparent. Includes a small amount of andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Rocks of this map unit are largely restricted to six areas widely distributed in Arizona: San Francisco and Uinkaret volcanic fields in northern Arizona (0-4 Ma); Springerville (0-4 Ma) and San Carlos (0-2 Ma) volcanic fields in east-central Arizona; and San Bernardino (0-1 Ma) and Sentinel (1-4 Ma) volcanic fields in southern Arizona. Rocks of this unit are also present in the extreme southwestern part of Arizona where they were erupted at the edge of the Pinacate volcanic field (0-2 Ma) in northwestern Sonora. (0-4 Ma)

Early Pleistocene to latest Pliocene surficial deposits (Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Coarse relict alluvial fan deposits that form rounded ridges or flat, isolated surfaces that are moderately to deeply incised by streams. These deposits are generally topographically high and have undergone substantial erosion. Deposits are moderately to strongly consolidated, and commonly contain coarser grained sediment than younger deposits in the same area. (0.75-3 Ma)

Middle Proterozoic granitic rocks (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Mostly porphyritic biotite granite with large microcline phenocrysts, with local fine-grained border phases and aplite. Associated pegmatite and quartz veins are rare. This unit forms large plutons, including the Oracle Granite, Ruin Granite, granite in the Pinnacle Peak - Carefree area northeast of Phoenix, and several bodies west of Prescott. (1400-1450 Ma)

Permian to Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks (Pennsylvanian to Permian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Interbedded sandstone, shale, and limestone usually characterized by ledgy outcrops. Orange to reddish sandstone forms cliffs near Sedona. This unit includes Supai Group and Hermit Shale in northern Arizona and Naco Group in southern Arizona. It was deposited in coastal-plain to shallow-marine settings during time of variable and changing sea level. Rocks of this map unit in southern Arizona may be in part equivalent to Permian rocks of map unit P in central and northern Arizona. (280-310 Ma)

Mississippian, Devonian, and Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Cambrian, Devonian, and Mississippian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Brown to dark gray sandstone grades upward into green and gray shale, overlain by light to medium gray or tan limestone and dolostone. This unit includes the Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, Muav Limestone, Temple Butte Formation and Redwall Limestone in northern Arizona, and the Bolsa Quartzite, Abrigo Formation, Martin Formation, and Escabrosa Limestone in southern Arizona. These rocks record intermittent sea-level rise and inundation in early Paleozoic time. (330-540 Ma)

Early Tertiary to Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks (Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Rhyolite to andesite and closely associated sedimentary and near-surface intrusive rocks; commonly dark gray to dark greenish gray or greenish brown. In the ranges west of Tucson, this unit includes thick welded ash-flow tuffs. Volcanic rocks of this unit are inferred to be derived from vents and volcanoes above magma chambers that solidified to form the granitic rocks of map unit TKg. These rocks are restricted to southeastern Arizona except for a small outcrop near Bagdad. (50-82 Ma)

Early Proterozoic metamorphic rocks (Early Proterozoic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Undivided metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and gneissic rocks. (1600-1800 Ma)

Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (Paleozoic) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Undivided Paleozoic limestone, dolostone, quartzite, shale, and related sedimentary rocks. (248-544 Ma)

Holocene river alluvium (Holocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Unconsolidated to weakly consolidated sand and gravel in river channels and sand, silt, and clay on floodplains. Also includes young terrace deposits fringing floodplains. (0-10 ka)

Middle Miocene to Oligocene shallow intrusions (Oligocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Generally very fine-grained, porphyritic rhyolite to dacite in small, irregular-shaped bodies formed as subvolcanic intrusions in volcanic fields of southern and western Arizona, or in concentrated zones of dikes in the Mohave and Black Mountains of northwestern Arizona. The unit consists of mafic tuff, breccia and shallow intrusions at Buell Park in northeastern Arizona. (14-35 Ma)

Jurassic granitic rocks (Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Granite to diorite, locally foliated and locally alkalic; includes Triassic(?) granitoids in the Trigo Mountains. This unit includes two dominant assemblages of igneous rocks. The Kitt Peak-Trigo Peaks superunit includes, from oldest to youngest: dark, foliated or gneissic diorite, medium-grained equigranular to porphyritic granodiorite, and small, irregular intrusions of light-colored, fine-grained granite. The Ko Vaya superunit, limited to south-central Arizona, includes texturally heterogeneous K-feldspar-rich granitic rocks. (150-180 Ma)

Middle Miocene to Oligocene granitic rocks (Oligocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Granite to diorite representing solidified magma chambers that were the likely source of overlying and nearby volcanic rocks of map unit Tv. The granitic rocks are typically equigranular and fine- to medium-grained. (14-26 Ma)

Middle Miocene to Oligocene sedimentary rocks (Oligocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Con-glomerate, sandstone, mudstone, limestone, and rock-avalanche breccia (sheet-like deposits of crushed rock) deposited and tilted during widespread normal faulting and basin development. Sediments, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, are commonly medium to dark brown, reddish brown, or brownish gray; younger strata are generally lighter colors. Most deposits are 20 to 30 Ma in southeastern Arizona and 15 to 25 Ma in central and western Arizona. (11-32 Ma)

Early Proterozoic granitic rocks (Early Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Wide variety of granitic rocks, including granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz diorite, diorite, and gabbro. These rocks commonly are characterized by steep, northeast-striking foliation. (1600-1800 Ma)

Late and middle Pleistocene surficial deposits (Middle to Late Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Unconsolidated to weakly consolidated alluvial fan, terrace, and basin-floor deposits with moderate to strong soil development. Fan and terrace deposits are primarily poorly sorted, moderately bedded gravel and sand, and basin-floor deposits are primarily sand, silt, and clay. (10-750 ka)

Early Tertiary to Late Cretaceous granitic rocks (Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Porphyritic to equigranular granite to diorite emplaced during the Laramide orogeny. Larger plutons are characteristically medium-grained, biotite +/- hornblende granodiorite to granite. Smaller, shallow-level intrusions are typically porphyritic. Most of the large copper deposits in Arizona are associated with porphyritic granitic rocks of this unit, and are thus named 'porphyry copper deposits'. (50-82 Ma)

Pliocene to late Miocene basaltic rocks (Late Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Mostly dark, inconspicuously flat, low-lying or mesa-forming basalt deposited as lava flows. Rocks included in this unit are located almost entirely in the large volcanic fields south and west of Flagstaff, in smaller fields in northwesternmost Arizona, and in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations north of Holbrook. Original volcanic landforms have been obscured by erosion. (4-8 Ma)

Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Sandstone and conglomerate derived from volcanic rocks with associated intermediate-composition lava flows, breccias, and tuffs. In southern Arizona this unit includes rocks of the Artesa sequence, Pitoikam Formation, Mulberry Wash volcanics, Rudolfo Red Beds, Recreation Red Beds, and Gardner Canyon Formation. In western Arizona it includes the Harquar Formation, rocks of Slumgullion, and related(?) unnamed units in the Kofa and Middle Mountains. This unit is characterized by maroon, brown, and purplish-gray volcanic-lithic sandstone and siltstone, with subordinate to abundant conglomerate, quartz-rich sandstone and sparse limestone. (150-170 Ma)

Jurassic volcanic rocks (Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Massive quartz-feldspar porphyry, generally interpreted as thick, welded rhyolitic tuffs, with locally abundant lava, and sandstone and conglomerate derived from volcanic rocks. Rare eolian quartzite units are interbedded in southern Arizona. Includes Ali Molina Formation, Mount Wrightson Formation, part of the Canelo Hills Volcanics, Cobre Ridge tuff, Black Rock volcanics, Planet Volcanics, and equivalent rocks. (160-200 Ma)

Middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Red-brown shale and sandstone, buff to orange quartzite, limestone, basalt, black shale, and sparse conglomerate. This unit includes the Grand Canyon Supergroup, Apache Group, and Troy Quartzite. These rocks were deposited in shallow marine, coastal nonmarine, and fluvial settings. (700-1300)

Early Tertiary to Late Cretaceous muscovite-bearing granitic rocks (Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Light-colored peraluminous muscovite granite with or without garnet; commonly forms sills and is associated with abundant pegmatite dikes and sills. This unit includes granites in the Harcuvar and Harquahala Mountains of western Arizona and in the Santa Catalina, Rincon, Tortolita, Picacho, and Coyote Mountains of south-central Arizona. These granites typically represent the youngest phase of voluminous magmatism during the Laramide orogeny in Arizona. This unit also includes several muscovite-bearing granites in southern Arizona that are associated with calc-alkaline granites of unit TKg, and a batholith in the Cabeza Prieta area of southwestern Arizona. (50-80 Ma)

Piedmont alluvial deposits (Holocene to lower Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes deposits of higher gradient tributaries bordering major stream valleys, alluvial veneers of the piedmont slope, and alluvial fans. May locally include uppermost Pliocene deposits.

Lower middle Tertiary rhyolitic lavas and local tuffs (Lower Oligocene to upper Eocene (31-36 Ma)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes Mimbres Peak Formation, rhyolite of Cedar Hills, and other units in the Bootheal region.

Lower middle Tertiary rhyolitic to dacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Datil Group, ash-flow tuffs (Lower Oligocene to upper Eocene (31-36 Ma)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Regional ash-flow tuffs include Hell's Mesa, Kneeling Nun, Caballo Blanco, Datil Well, Leyba Well, Rock House Canyon, Blue Canyon, Sugarlump, Oak Creek, Bluff Creek, Gillespie, Box Canyon, Cooney and Chiquito Peak Tuffs; the tuffs of Steins Mountain, Black Bill Canyon, Woodhaul Canyon, and Farr Ranch; tuffs of the Organ cauldron; and lower tuffs in the Bell Top Formation. Includes some locally erupted lavas and tuffs within thick intra-caldera units; includes minor volcaniclastic sedimentary units and lavas between thin outflow sheets.

Alluvium (Holocene to upper Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Alluvium

Gila Group, Formation, or Conglomerate (Middle Pleistocene to uppermost Oligocene?) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes Mimbres Formation and several informal units in southwestern basins.

Lower middle Tertiary andesitic to dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flow breccias (Upper to middle Eocene (33-43 Ma)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes Rubio Peak Formation, Orejon Andesite, andesite of Dry Leggett Canyon, andesite of Telephone Canyon, and other units in southwestern, central, and northern New Mexico. Locally includes minor mafic lavas. Ancient landslide blocks of Mader Limestone, as much as one mile long, occur within Rubio Peak lavas in the central Black Range, west of Winston.

Middle Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary units (Oligocene to upper Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly syneruptive volcaniclastic sedimentary aprons. Lower units dominantly derived from volcanic highlands of andesitic to dacitic composition. Locally includes minor lavas and tuffs. Younger units (above and intertongued with Mogollon Group tuffs, Turp) include upper Bell Top Formation, South Crosby Peak Formation, and upper Spears Group units near Quemado. Older units (below and intertongued with Datil Group tuffs, Tlrp) include Palm Park, lower Bell Top, Espinaso and Pueblo Creek Formatios and lower Spears Group formations such as Rincon Windmill, Chavez Canyon, and Dog Springs.

Upper middle Tertiary rhyolitic lavas and local tuffs (Upper Oligocene (24-29 Ma)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes Taylor Creek Rhyolite, Fanney Rhyolite, rhyolite of Rocky Canyon, rhyolite of Hardy Ridge, and upper rhyolite members of the Luis Lopez and Sawmill Canyon formations.

Upper middle Tertiary rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks of the Mogollon Group, ash-flow tuffs (Upper Oligocene (24-30 Ma)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Regional ash-flow tuffs include the La Jencia, Vick's Peak, Lemitar, South Canyon, Bloodgood Canyon, Shelley Peak, Davis Canyon, Park, Rhyolite Canyon, Apache Springs, and Amalia Tuffs; the tuffs of Horseshoe Canyon, Diamond Creek, Garcia Camp, Caronita Canyon, Turkey Springs, and Little Mineral Creek; and the Jordan Canyon Formation. Includes some locally erupted lavas and tuffs within thick intra-caldera units; includes minor volcaniclastic sedimentary units between thin outflow sheets.