Geologic units in Windham county, Connecticut

Hebron Gneiss (Silurian and Ordovician) at surface, covers 14 % of this area

Interlayered dark-gray, medium- to coarse-grained schist, composed of andesine, quartz, biotite, and local K-feldspar, and greenish-gray, fine- to medium-grained calc-silicate rock, composed of labradorite, quartz, biotite, actinolite, hornblende, and diopside, and locally scapolite. Local lenses of graphitic two-mica schist.

Quinebaug Formation (Middle Ordovician or older) at surface, covers 13 % of this area

Medium- to dark-gray, commonly greenish, medium-grained, well-layered gneiss, composed of hornblende, andesine, biotite, and epidote, commonly with quartz or garnet, interlayered with amphibolite.

Tatnic Hill Formation (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Medium- to dark-gray, medium-grained gneiss or schist composed of quartz, andesine, biotite, garnet, and sillimanite, locally kyanite, muscovite, or K-feldspar, interlayered with locally mappable units and thinner layers of rusty-weathering graphitic pyrrhotitic two-mica schist, amphibolite, and calc-silicate rock.

Canterbury Gneiss (Devonian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

(May be equivalent to Ayer Granite of Massachusetts) - Light-gray, medium-grained, variably foliated, locally strongly lineated gneiss, composed of quartz, oligoclase, microcline, and biotite, locally also muscovite, or epidote, and generally with megacrysts 1 to 2 cm long of either or both feldspars.

Southbridge Formation (Silurian or Ordovician or both) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Dark- to light-gray, locally rusty, fine- to medium-grained interlayered granofels and schist, composed of quartz, plagioclase, and biotite, with muscovite in schist, and amphibole, calc-silicate minerals, K-feldspar in certain layers; also locally mappable units and thinner layers of calc-silicate rock, amphibolite, and sillimanite-garnet and sillimanite-graphite-pyrrhotite schist.

Scotland Schist (Devonian or Silurian or both) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Gray to silvery, locally rusty, fine- to medium-grained schist, composed of quartz, muscovite, biotite, staurolite, and oligoclase, locally with kyanite or sillimanite; interlayered, especially below and to the west, with quartz-oligoclase-biotite schist and granofels and locally with quartzite.

Scituate Granite Gneiss (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Light-pink to gray., medium- to coarse-grained, generally porphyritic, well-lineated and locally foliated granitic gneiss, composed of microcline, quartz, albite or orthoclase, biotite, hornblende, and magnetite. Megacrysts of microcline up to 3 cm long; lineation formed by splotches of biotite or by rods or quartz.

Eastford gneiss phase [of Canterbury Gneiss] (Devonian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Mainly light-gray, medium-grained, foliated to strongly lineated gneiss, composed of quartz, microcline, oligoclase, or albite, biotite, and muscovite.

Lower member [of Bigelow Brook Formation] (Silurian or Ordovician or both) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Chiefly gray, medium-grained, well-layered granofels, composed of quartz, oligoclase, and biotite, commonly with garnet and sillimanite, interlayered with thinly fissile sillimanitic, graphitic, pyrrhotite schist.

Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Light-pink to gray, medium- to coarse-grained, locally porphyritic, variably lineated and foliated alaskitic gneiss, composed of microcline, quartz, albite or oligoclase, and minor magnetite, and locally biotite and muscovite. Lineation formed by rods of quartz. Locally contains quartz-sillimanite nodules.

Quartzite unit [in Plainfield Formation] (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Light-gray, glassy, generally thin bedded quartzite, also feldspathic and micaceous quartzite containing quartz-sillimanite nodules.

Yantic Member [of Tatnic Hill Formation] (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Medium- to dark-gray, fine- to medium-grained schist, composed of quartz, oligoclase, biotite, and muscovite, some layers with garnet, staurolite, and kyanite or garnet and sillimanite, local epidote, or K-feldspar; some layers of rusty-weathering graphitic, pyrrhotitic, two-mica schist.

Ponaganset Gneiss (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Dark-gray, coarse-grained, porphyritic, well-foliated gneiss, composed of oligoclase, quartz, microcline (mostly as megacrysts up to 8 cm long), biotite, magnetite, and generally hornblende; also garnet and muscovite where hornblende is absent. Sterling Plutonic Suite is here restricted to the Hope Valley terrane. (The Hope Valley together with the Esmond-Dedham terrane make up the Avalon superterrane of this report.) The Ponaganset Gneiss and the Ten Rod Granite Gneiss lie within the Esmond-Dedham terrane and are therefore removed from the Sterling. Ponaganset lies east of the Hope Valley shear zone and extends from RI into MA. [Apparently does not occur in CT.] Predominantly granite, ranges to tonalite. Gray to light gray, some pink, generally medium- to coarse-grained, but ranges from fine-grained to porphyritic. Alkali K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite are major minerals. The Ponaganset is interpreted as an intensely deformed phase of the Esmond Plutonic Suite. Strong lineation is defined by elongate aggregates of quartz and feldspar and trains of biotite and hornblende. Age is Late Proterozoic based on correlation with Northbridge Gneiss (MA), which has been dated at 557+/-4 Ma by Zartman and Naylor (1984) (Skehan and Rast, 1990).

Plainfield Formation (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Interlayered light-gray, thin-bedded quartzite, in places with feldspar, mica, graphite, or pyrite, light- to medium-gray gneiss composed of quartz, oligoclase, and biotite (rarely microcline), medium- to dark-gray schist composed of quartz, oligoclase, biotite, sillimanite, and garnet, dark-gray or green gneiss composed of plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and hornblende (commonly with diopside), amphibolite, diopsite-bearing quartzite, and calc-silicate rock. In places contains quartz-sillimanite nodules.

Fly Pond (calc-silicate) Member [of Tatnic Hill Formation] (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Light-gray, medium-grained, layered to massive calc-silicate gneiss, composed of andesine, quartz, hornblende or actinolite, epidote, and commonly diopside, biotite, and scapolite; some layers are calcitic.

Black Hill Member [of Quinebaug Formation] (Middle Ordovician or older) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Gray, medium- to fine-grained, well-layered schist and granofels, composed of oligoclase, quartz, and biotite, commonly with hornblende or muscovite, and locally with calcite, garnet, or epidote.

Upper member [of Bigelow Brook Formation] (Silurian and perhaps Ordovician) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Chiefly gray, rusty-weathering, medium-grained, generally well layered and locally fissile schist, composed of plagioclase, quartz, biotite, garnet, and sillimanite, locally with K-feldspar or cordierite, fissile layers commonly with graphite and pyrrhotite, interlayered with quartzose granofels with less biotite but with calc-silicate minerals.

Waterford Group (Proterozoic Z?) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

(May be equivalent in part to Monson Gneiss) - Interlayered part (but layers locally distinct) of Waterford Group, light to dark, generally medium grained gneiss, composed of plagioclase, quartz, and biotite, with hornblende in some layers and microcline in others. Some layers of amphibolite. Usage of Waterford Group follows Goldsmith (1980; 1985). Described as a sequence of metavolcanic and metaplutonic plagioclase gneisses and amphibolites that unconformably overlies the Plainfield Formation in the Hope Valley terrane. (Hope Valley and Esmond-Dedham terranes compose the Avalon superterrane of this report.) Thickness is variable; ranges to 3,100 m. Subdivided (ascending) into Mamacoke Formation with its upper Cohanzie Member (first used?), New London Gneiss, and Rope Ferry Gneiss. Age is Late Proterozoic based on U-Pb analyses of zircon and sphene in the Rope Ferry Gneiss (620+/-3 Ma, Wintsch and Aleinikoff, 1987) (Skehan and Rast, 1990).

Brimfield Schist (Includes Hamilton Resevoir Formation) (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, interlayered schist and gneiss, composed of oligoclase, quartz, K-feldspar, and biotite, and commonly garnet, sillimanite, graphite, and pyrrhotite. K-feldspar partly as augen 1 to 3 cm across. Minor layers and lenses of hornblende- and pyroxene-bearing gneiss, amphibolite, and calc-silicate rock.

Mylonite along Paleozoic faults (Upper or Middle Paleozoic) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Mylonite, blastomylonite, and blastomylonitic gneiss, composed of intensely granulated quartz, plagioclase, biotite, and epidote, in places with hornblende or microcline and commonly with secondary minerals. In places has later been silicified (compare unit Jsi)..

Lebanon Gabbro (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Dark, speckled, coarse-grained, massive but locally sheared gabbro, composed of hornblende, labradorite, and opaques. Some bodies contain biotite, and quartz; some smaller ones are nearly pure hornblende with local augite.

Brimfield Schist (Includes Hamilton Resevoir Formation) (uncertain) (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, interlayered schist and gneiss, composed of oligoclase, quartz, K-feldspar, and biotite, and commonly garnet, sillimanite, graphite, and pyrrhotite. K-feldspar partly as augen 1 to 3 cm across. Minor layers and lenses of hornblende- and pyroxene-bearing gneiss, amphibolite, and calc-silicate rock.

Felsic gneiss member [of Quinebaug Formation] (Middle Ordovician or older) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Light- to medium-gray, fine- to medium-grained gneiss, composed of plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and muscovite, commonly with K-feldspar.

Porphyritic member [of Southbridge Formation] (Silurian or Ordovician or both) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Light- to medium-gray, fine-grained porphyritic massive to layered gneiss, composed of quartz, oligoclase, microcline, and biotite, with megacrysts 1 to 2 cm long of microcline.

Gneiss (metavolcanic) member [of Brimfield Schist] (Upper? and Middle Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Medium-gray, medium-grained, layered gneiss and schist, composed of oligoclase, quartz, and biotite; some gneiss and most schist layers contain garnet and sillimanite; some gneiss layers contain garnet, hornblende or pyroxene or grade into amphibolite or calc-silicate rock. Probably includes metavolcanic rocks.

Dioritic phase [of Lebanon Gabbro] (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

White to black, streaked, medium-grained, foliated or sheared gneiss, composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz, and generally hornblende.

Paxton Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Undifferentiated biotite granofels, calc-silicate granofels, and sulfidic schist. The Paxton, here of group rank, includes strata formerly mapped in CT as the Hebron Formation and in MA as the Paxton Formation. It conformably overlies the Oakdale Formation and structurally and conformably underlies the Brimfield Group. It is undivided in central MA; in northeast CT and adjacent MA it is divided into the Dudley and Southbridge Formations. Age is Late Proterozoic(?) based on the intrusion of 440 m.y. Hedgehog Hill gneiss into the overlying Brimfield Group and an age of 1188 m.y. for detrital zircons from the Paxton (Pease, 1989).

Middle member [of Bigelow Brook Formation] (Silurian or perhaps Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Greenish-gray, medium-grained calc-silicate rock, composed of plagioclase, quartz, and diopside (locally hornblende and scapolite), interbedded with schist and granofels composed of plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and commonly garnet and sillimanite.

Sterling Igneous Suite - granite gneiss (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pale pink to gray, medium-grained granite gneiss, commonly with small porphyroclasts of microcline/orthoclase. Similar to alaskite gneiss, but with more than 3% dark minerals. Composition is granite with generally less than 3% dark minerals. Compositions range from quartz monzonite to granite. Composed of sodic plagioclase, quartz, microcline, biotite, opaque minerals; minor muscovite common, garnet more rare; accessory apatite and zircon; sphene present in some rocks; secondary chlorite. Typically is compositionally homogeneous, with strong foliation and locally well-developed lineation defined by major minerals. Includes some rock mapped formerly as Ten Rod Granite Gneiss, Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss, Potter Hill Granite Gneiss, and Scituate Granite Gneiss.

Foliated quartz diorite (Devonian in part, probably Ordovician in part) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mainly dark-gray, medium-grained, well-foliated gneiss (locally strongly sheared, especially near contacts), composed of plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and hornblende, locally also pyroxene.

Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mafic-poor gneissic granite, locally muscovitic. Gradational with Zsg. Late Proterozoic Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss occurs as one of several plutonic rocks in Milford antiform. Forms tabular masses along west side of Rhode Island anticlinorium from southern RI and eastern CT to northwestern RI; flanks west side of Milford anticlinorium and terminates at north end of anticlinorium in MA. Color is light pink to tan. Intrudes Plainfield Formation in CT and Blackstone Group rocks in RI. Isotopic age of 630 Ma by U/Pb methods on zircon is reported by Zartman and Naylor (1984) from a sample in MA. Age of 601 +/-5 Ma by U/Pb methods on zircon is reported by Hermes and Zartman (1985) from a sample in RI (Wones and Goldsmith, 1991).

Ayer Granite (Lower Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Granite to tonalite, partly porphyritic; locally gneissic, locally muscovitic; may include rocks older than Silurian; intrudes Sb and So. Ayer Granite is divided into the Clinton facies and the Devens-Long Pond facies (Gore, 1976). In addition, there are some masses not assigned to either facies that intrude Berwick Formation west and northwest of Lawrence, and that intrude Paxton and Oakdale Formations south of Worcester and west of probable southern continuation of Wekepeke fault. Radiometric ages obtained for facies of Ayer pose problems in assigning ages to unfossiliferous sedimentary rocks they intrude. Clinton facies has a well-defined U-Pb zircon age of 433 +/-5 Ma (Zartman and Naylor, 1984) that authors cite as Early Silurian; Devens-Long Pond facies has a similar age. This age greatly compresses the time available for deposition, burial, deformation, and metamorphism of Berwick and Paxton if these units are truly Silurian. Some of the Ayer not assigned to a facies may have been more properly correlated with Early Devonian Chelmsford Granite and muscovite-biotite granite at Millstone Hill. Bodies south of Worcester may be more properly correlated with Canterbury Gneiss of CT, which lies on strike with Ayer and has Early Devonian age of 329 +/-9 Ma (Zartman and Naylor, 1984). Zartman and Naylor (1984) believe Ayer Granite has same age range as Newburyport Complex. It is quite possible, based on textural and mineralogical differences that the two facies should be separate units, representing different magmatic events (Wones and Goldsmith, 1991).

Tatnic Hill Formation (Ordovician or Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sulfidic sillimanite schist, sillimanite schist and gneiss, biotite gneiss; minor amphibolite, calc-silicate gneiss and marble.

Sterling Igneous Suite - alaskite gneiss (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pale pink, orange, or gray, fine- to medium-grained granite gneiss, rarely with porphyroclasts of microcline/orthoclase. Composition is granite with generally less than 3% dark minerals. Composed of sodic plagioclase, quartz, microcline/orthoclase, minor biotite, and opaque minerals; minor muscovite (in part secondary), and rare garnet and sphene in some rocks; accessory apatite and zircon; secondary chlorite. Varies from massive to layered. Strongly foliated and locally well lineated. Includes most rock mapped formerly as Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss.

Quinebaug Formation (Ordovician, Cambrian, or Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Amphibolite, biotite and hornblende gneiss, felsic gneiss, and calc-silicate gneiss.

Plainfield Formation (Late Proterozoic? or older?) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pale-tan to gray, fine-grained quartzite, and pale- to medium-gray quartz-mica schist. Quartzite is massive to layered (bedded?). Includes Plainfield Formation and some rock mapped formerly as Blackstone Series.

Quartzite unit [in Scotland Schist] (Devonian or Silurian or both) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Quartzite, generally micaceous, interlayered with mica schist.

Esmond Igneous Suite - granite gneiss (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pale-gray to pale-pink, fine- to medium-grained granite gneiss, rarely with porphyroclasts of microcline/orthoclase. Composition ranges from quartz monzonite to granite. Composed of sodic plagioclase, quartz, microcline, biotite, opaque minerals; minor muscovite common, garnet more rare; accessory apatite and zircon; sphene and hornblende present in some rocks; secondary chlorite. Typically massive, but with strong penetrative foliation and lineation defined by major minerals. Commonly associated with, and in part gradational into, augen gneiss. Includes rock mapped formerly in part as Ponaganset Granite Gneiss, Scituate Granite Gneiss, Ten Rod Granite Gneiss, and Hope Valley Alaskite Gneiss.

Paxton Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Diopside calc-silicate granofels. The Paxton, here of group rank, includes strata formerly mapped in CT as the Hebron Formation and in MA as the Paxton Formation. It conformably overlies the Oakdale Formation and structurally and conformably underlies the Brimfield Group. It is undivided in central MA; in northeast CT and adjacent MA it is divided into the Dudley and Southbridge Formations. Age is Late Proterozoic(?) based on the intrusion of 440 m.y. Hedgehog Hill gneiss into the overlying Brimfield Group and an age of 1188 m.y. for detrital zircons from the Paxton (Pease, 1989).

Plainfield Formation (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Quartzite, pelitic schist, minor calc-silicate rock and amphibolite. Plainfield Formation extend into MA in Webster-Oxford area from eastern CT and western RI along west flank of Rhode Island batholith, along same strike as elongate lenses of Westboro Formation (as shown on State bedrock map of Zen and others, 1983). Lithology of Plainfield in New London area of southeastern CT (Goldsmith, 1966, 1976) and in eastern CT (Harwood and Goldsmith, 1971), and its structural and stratigraphic position indicate Plainfield and Westboro are equivalent. Plainfield is truncated along CT-RI border by Lake Char fault; however, in New London area, Plainfield is overlain by suite of largely mafic metavolcanic rocks (Waterford Group of Goldsmith, 1980), a relationship similar to that of the Westboro Formation and overlying metavolcanic rocks. Base of Plainfield is unknown, but gneiss and schist in center of Lyme dome may lie below it. Probably equivalent to quartzite and schist of Blackstone Group on basis of similar lithology and structural relations with Rhode Island batholith rocks (Goldsmith, 1991).

Silicified rock and mylonite along Mesozoic faults (probably mainly Jurassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Close network of quartz veins and veinlets cutting each other and older rock, which is mostly replaced by very fine grained quartz. In places, incompletely replaced rock shows strongly mylonitic texture.

Tatnic Hill Formation - Yantic Member (Ordovician or Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gray mica schist.

Tatnic Hill Formation - Fly Pond Member (Ordovician or Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Calc-silicate gneiss and marble.

Scituate Granite Gneiss (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gneissic granite containing biotite in small clots. Equivalent to part of former Northbridge Granite Gneiss (usage now abandoned). Gradational with Zhg.

Littleton Formation (Lower Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Black to gray aluminous mica schist, quartzose schist, and aluminous phyllite.

Preston Gabbro (Middle Ordovician or older) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Dark, medium- to coarse-grained, mainly massive gabbro, composed of labradorite, augite, and opaques, generally with hornblende, locally hypersthene, or olivine or both.

Biotite-hornblende diorite and quartz-bearing diorite (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly foliated; intrudes Dl.