Geologic units in Adams county, Iowa

Shawnee Group (Upper Pennsylvanian, lower-middle Virgilian) at surface, covers 41 % of this area

Interval includes Oread, Kanwaka, Lecompton, Tecumseh, Deer Creek, Calhoun, Topeka formations. Primary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous, part coated grain/Osagia; shale/mudstone, light to dark gray. Secondary Lithologies: pedogenic mudstone, part calcareous/nodular; siltstone to very fine sandstone; black shale, phosphatic. Minor: chert; coal, coaly shale; red-brown mudstone. Maximum thicknesses 190-220 ft (58-67 m).

Wabaunsee Group (Upper Pennsylvanian, middle-upper Virgilian) at surface, covers 23 % of this area

Interval includes Howard, White Cloud, Scranton, Bern, Auburn, Emporia, Willard, Zeandale, Pillsbury, Stotler, Root formations. Primary Lithologies: shale, light to dark gray; mudstone, gray, part laminated silty to sandy. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous, part coated grain/Osagia; pedogenic mudstone, part red to maroon, part calcareous/nodular; siltstone to very fine sandstone. Minor: black shale; coal. Maximum thickness 320 ft (98 m) in Fremont County.

Douglas Group (Upper Pennsylvanian, upper Missourian-lower Virgilian) at surface, covers 22 % of this area

Interval includes Stranger, Cass, Lawrence formations. Primary Lithologies: shale and mudstone, light to dark gray, part silt laminated. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous, part coated grain; siltstone to very fine sandstone; pedogenic mudstone, part red-brown, part calcareous/nodular. Minor: coal, carbonaceous shale; black shale. Maximum thicknesses 90-135 ft (27-41 m).

Dakata and Windrow Formations (“Mid” Cretaceous; upper Albian-upper Cenomanian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Dakota Formation widespread in western Iowa, lower sandstone-dominated Nishnabotna Member, upper mudstone/shale-dominated Woodbury Member. Correlative Windrow Formation found as erosional outliers in northeastern and north-central Iowa. Primary lithologies: sandstone, quartzose, very fine to medium grained; mudstone/shale, light to dark gray, variably silty-sandy, noncalcareous (Woodbury Mbr.). Secondary lithologies: sandstone, medium to very coarse grained, part pebbly to gravelly, locally cemented by iron oxides (Nishnabotna Mbr., Windrow Fm.), gravel, quartz and chert clasts; siltstone; mudstone, red, pink, yellow-brown, black (carbonaceous). Minor: lignite; siderite (concretions, pedogenic sphaerosiderite pellets, cemented siltstone); massive iron ore, silty to sandy (Windrow Fm.). Maximum thickness Dakota Fm. 500 ft (150 m), commonly 100-300 ft (30-90 m); Windrow Fm. 40 ft (12 m).

Lansing Group (Upper Pennsylvanian, upper Missourian) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Interval includes Plattsburg, Vilas, Stanton formations. Primary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous; shale/mudstone, light to dark gray. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, coated grain/Osagia; mudstone to siltstone, gray. Minor: black shale, phosphatic; mudstone, red-brown. Maximum thicknesses 45-78 ft (14-24 m).

Kansas City Group (Upper Pennsylvanian, middle Missourian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Interval includes Cherryvale, Nellie Bly, Dewie, Chanute, Iola, Liberty Memorial, Wyandotte, Lane formations. Primary Lithologies: limestone fossiliferous; shale/mudstone, light to dark gray. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, coated grain/Osagia. Minor: mudstone, red-brown to green-gray; siltstone; black shale, phosphatic; thin coal, carbonaceous shale. Maximum thicknesses 100-140 ft (30-43 m).