Geologic units in Calhoun county, Iowa

Lower Cherokee Group and Raccoon Creek Group (Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian; Morrowan-lower Desmoinesian) at surface, covers 44 % of this area

Lower Cherokee Group in southern, central, and western Iowa includes Kilbourn, Kalo, Floris formations (primarily Atokan-lower Desmoinesian, locally Morrowan at base); Raccoon Creek Group in eastern Iowa includes “Caseyville” and Tradewater formations (primarily Morrowan at most localities; locally includes Atokan-lower Desmoinesian Tradewater Formation in upper part). Primary Lithologies: shale/mudstone, light to dark gray, part silty to sandy; sandstone, very fine to medium grained; siltstone, gray. Secondary Lithologies: carbonaceous shale/mudstone, gray to black; phosphatic black shale; limestone, dense, part fossiliferous, part sandy; coal (beds locally > 2 ft). Minor: sandstone, coarse-grained to granular, part conglomeratic; mudstone, red to pink; limestone concretions (may be septarian); cone-in-cone limestone; siderite/ironstone concretions and pellets; pyrite. Maximum thicknesses Raccoon Creek Group in Muscatine-Scott counties: 230-250 ft (70-75 m). Maximum thicknesses Lower Cherokee Group across outcrop belt: 200-370 ft (60-113 m). Maximum thickness in southwest Iowa subsurface: 650 ft (200 m).

Dakata and Windrow Formations (“Mid” Cretaceous; upper Albian-upper Cenomanian) at surface, covers 32 % of this area

Dakota Formation widespread in western Iowa, lower sandstone-dominated Nishnabotna Member, upper mudstone/shale-dominated Woodbury Member. Correlative Windrow Formation found as erosional outliers in northeastern and north-central Iowa. Primary lithologies: sandstone, quartzose, very fine to medium grained; mudstone/shale, light to dark gray, variably silty-sandy, noncalcareous (Woodbury Mbr.). Secondary lithologies: sandstone, medium to very coarse grained, part pebbly to gravelly, locally cemented by iron oxides (Nishnabotna Mbr., Windrow Fm.), gravel, quartz and chert clasts; siltstone; mudstone, red, pink, yellow-brown, black (carbonaceous). Minor: lignite; siderite (concretions, pedogenic sphaerosiderite pellets, cemented siltstone); massive iron ore, silty to sandy (Windrow Fm.). Maximum thickness Dakota Fm. 500 ft (150 m), commonly 100-300 ft (30-90 m); Windrow Fm. 40 ft (12 m).

Manson Group, Terrace Terrane (Megablock Zone); Manson Impact Structure (Upper Cretaceous; upper Campanian) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Upper Interval (bedrock surface): sedimentary-clast breccia with shaly matrix, clasts and blocks of Cretaceous shale and varied Paleozoic lithologies entrained in silty-sandy clay matrix; minor clasts/grains of Proterozoic “red clastics “ (mudstone/siltstone), crystalline basement rock, devitrified melt rock. Lower Interval (variably present, locally forms bedrock surface): overturned ejecta flap, breccias of Paleozoic lithologies and Proterozoic “red clastics” preserved in general inverted stratigraphic order. Breccias overlie down-dropped blocks (ring graben) of Cretaceous and Paleozoic strata in normal stratigraphic succession. Maximum thicknesses: upper shaly breccia up to 700 ft (210 m); lower interval approx. 1000 ft (300 m).

Manson Group, Crater Moat area; Manson Impact Structure (Upper Cretaceous; upper Campanian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Primary Lithology: sedimentary clast breccia with shaly matrix; clasts and blocks of Cretaceous shale and varied Paleozoic lithologies in silty-sandy clay matrix. Minor Lithologies: grains or clasts of Proterozoic “red clastics” (mudstone/siltstone), Proterozoic crystalline basement, devitrified melt grains. Maximum thickness unknown, may reach thicknesses to 10,000 ft (3000 m).

Augusta Group (Middle Mississippian, Osagean) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Interval includes Burlington, Keokuk, and Warsaw formations. Upper Warsaw strata locally preserved at top of interval in extreme southeast Iowa are lower Meramecian age . Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part argillaceous to shaly; dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous; fossiliferous limestone (especially crinoidal packstone-grainstone). Secondary Lithologies: glauconitic limestone/dolomite; shale, gray to green-gray, part dolomitic, part silty; chert, nodular to bedded. Minor: quartz crystals, quartz geodes, chalcedony; phosphatic dolomite/limestone (“bone bed”); siltstone, dolomitic. Lithologies noted only in northern Iowa: oolitic limestone; “sublithographic” limestone; dolomite/chert breccia. Interval is erosionally beveled beneath sub-“St. Louis” and sub-Pennsylvanian unconformities. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa: 85-105 ft (26-32 m). Maximum thicknesses in southern Iowa: 155-240 ft (47-73 m).

Manson Group, Central Peak; Manson Impact Structure (Upper Cretaceous; upper Campanian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Primary Lithology (at bedrock surface): sedimentary clast breccia with shaly matrix; clasts and blocks of Cretaceous shale and varied Paleozoic lithologies in silty-sandy clay matrix (see above; thickness 0-200 ft; 60 m). Secondary Lithologies: crystalline rock megabreccia (locally forms bedrock surface), fractured and brecciated Proterozoic basement lithologies, dominantly gneiss but including granite and other igneous-metamorphic rocks (maximum thickness unknown). Suevite and impact-melt breccias (locally forms bedrock surface), clasts of Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks, melt-rock, and minor Proterozoic “red clastics” in a matrix of melt-rich material (devitrified) and/or sandy-silty debris (thicknesses to 380 ft; 115 m). Keweenawan shale-clast breccia (locally forms bedrock surface), dominated by gray to black shale clasts (small to large) derived the lower “red clastics” sequence, common melt clasts, minor basement and Phanerozoic clasts, in a silty-sandy shaly matrix or melt-rich matrix (thicknesses to 250 ft, 75 m).

St. Louis and Pella Formations (Middle-Upper Mississippian, Meramecian-lower Chesterian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Interval includes lower “St. Louis” (Meramecian) Croton and Yenruogis members; upper “St. Louis” (lower Genevievian) Verdi and Waugh members (interval does not correlate with type St. Louis of Missouri); Pella Fm (upper Genevievian); base includes Sonora Fm (Meramecian) in parts of southeast Iowa (Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Des Moines, Jefferson counties). Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part silty/sandy, part fossiliferous; limestone, part sandy to fossiliferous; part “sublithographic,” part argillaceous. Secondary Lithologies: dolomite/limestone breccia; shale/marl, green-gray, calcareous; sandstone, fine to medium-grained; siltstone; gypsum/anhydrite (south-central Iowa). Minor: limestone, oolitic; shale, gray; shale, red to pink; chert/chalcedony. Croton Member contains gypsum-anhydrite in subsurface outside of outcrop belt. Interval is erosionally beveled to locally absent beneath Pcl; Pella Formation absent over broader areas. Maximum thicknesses for total interval 60-150 ft (18-45 m); maximum thickness Pella Formation 75 ft (23 m); maximum thickness “St. Louis” Formation 75 ft (23 m); maximum thickness Sonora Formation 35 ft (11 m).

Gilmore City Formation (Lower Mississippian, upper Kinderhookian to Middle Mississippian, lower Osagean) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Interval includes lower Marble Valley Member, upper Humboldt Member; “Iowa Falls Dolomite” (dolomite facies); formation shares partial regional facies relationships with Burlington Formation; not present in southeastern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: limestone, primarily coated grain/oolitic to peloidal, variably fossiliferous to intraclastic. Secondary Lithologies: dolomite; dolomitic limestone; limestone, dense, “sublithographic.” Minor: shale, gray, calcareous; oncolitic limestone; glauconite; chert; breccia. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa 150-170 ft (45-52 m); interval thins to south and southeast 20-70 ft (6-21 m).

Upper Cherokee Group (Middle Pennsylvanian, middle Desmoinesian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Interval includes Verdigris and Swede Hollow formations; base of map unit drawn at the widespread Whitebreast Coal. Primary Lithologies: shale/mudstone, light to dark gray, part silty to sandy; siltstone, gray. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, part fossiliferous, part sandy; sandstone, very fine to fine-grained. Minor: mudstone, red/maroon to brown; shale, black, phosphatic; carbonaceous shale; coal (beds locally > 2 ft); ironstone/siderite concretions; limestone concretions (may be septarian); pyrite. Average thickness 100 ft (30 m); maximum thicknesses to 130 ft (40 m).