Mosalem Formation infills erosional paleovalleys incised into Maquoketa Shale; absent outside of paleovalleys. Lower Hopkinton Formation locally contains carbonate mound facies in Bremer County. Blanding Formation oversteps Tete des Morts-Mosalem edge in southern outcrop area. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, fossil-moldic to vuggy, fine to coarse crystalline; dolomite, dense to porous, cherty to very cherty, nodular to bedded chert (especially Blanding Fm). Secondary Lithologies: dolomite, dense, sparsely fossiliferous; dolomite, argillaceous, part laminated (Mosalem Fm). Minor: chalcedony, silicified fossils. Maximum thicknesses total interval: 160-330 ft (49-100 m), thickest in Dubuque, Jackson, Jones counties where Mosalem present; southern outcrop total thickness 65-130 ft (20-40 m). Formation thicknesses: Hopkinton, 65-160 ft (20-49 m); Blanding, 25-65 ft (8-20 m); Tete des Morts, 0-35 ft (11 m); Mosalem, 0-100 ft (30 m).
Includes Elgin, Clermont, Fort Atkinson, Brainard, and Neda members. Overlain by Silurian strata in east-central Iowa, incised paleovalleys beneath Mosalem Fm.; truncated beneath Devonian strata in northern-most counties. Primary lithologies: shale, green-gray, variably dolomitic, mostly unfossiliferous; dolomite, argillaceous, part shaly, variably fossiliferous (part with common trilobites); dolomite, part argillaceous, part cherty to very cherty (northern Iowa). Secondary lithologies: shale, brown to brown-gray, organic, part graptolitic, part finely laminated (lower strata); dolomitic limestone to limestone, argillaceous, part cherty to very cherty, variably fossiliferous, part crinoidal (northern Iowa); interbedded dolomite and shale, part nodular, part fossiliferous. Minor: phosphorite, granular to massive (basal unit); dolomite, phosphatic to very phosphatic, argillaceous (Elgin Mbr.); ooidal ironstone and red shale (Neda Mbr.); pyrite, finely disseminated to nodular, pyrite cements. Maximum thicknesses: generally 200-275 ft (60-85 m) beneath Silurian, locally 100-200 ft (30-60 m) beneath Mosalem Fm.; 75-180 ft (23-55 m) where capped by Devonian strata in northern Iowa.
Galena Group includes Decorah, Dunleith, Wise Lake, Dubuque formations; Platteville Formation includes Pecatonica, McGregor members; Glenwood Shale forms thin basal shale unit. Primary lithologies: dolomite, part porous to vuggy, fossiliferous, part cherty; limestone and dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous, part cherty (note: Galena Group entirely limestone to north, entirely dolomite to south, interstratified limestone-dolomite in intervening areas). Secondary lithologies: shale, green-gray, calcareous, with thin to nodular limestone, part fossiliferous (Decorah Sh); limestone, wavy-bedded to nodular, part fossiliferous (Decorah-Platteville); dolomite and limestone, slightly argillaceous. Minor: shale partings and thin beds, green-gray to brown-gray, part fossiliferous (Dubuque Fm); shale partings and thin beds, light to dark brown, part organic-rich (Decorah-Platteville); dolomite, sandy to very sandy (Pecatonica Mbr); shale, green-gray, noncalcareous, unfossiliferous, part sandy (Glenwood Sh); thin sandstone to siltstone (Glenwood Sh); dark phosphatic grains (primarily Glenwood, Pecatonica, Decorah); phosphate-pyrite-iron oxide crusts (on some hardground surfaces); pyrite nodules; thin K-bentonite beds (Galena Gp); ironstone ooids (Decorah Sh). Maximum thicknesses total interval: 330 ft (100 m); Galena Group, 250-280 ft (76-85 m); Platteville Formation, 25-55 ft (8-17 m); Glenwood Shale, 3-10 ft (1-3 m).
Formation includes Welton, Buck Creek Quarry, Waubeek, Palisades-Kepler, Johns Creek Quarry members; Palisades-Kepler and Johns Creek Quarry members contain carbonate mound facies. Erosionally beveled and truncated beneath Dw. Primarily Lithologies: dolomite, porous, fossil-moldic to vuggy, part very crinoidal (includes Welton Mbr); dolomite, cherty to very cherty, dense (Buck Creek Quarry Mbr). Secondary Lithologies: dolomite, sparsely fossil-moldic, dense, part vuggy (includes Waubeek Mbr); dolomite, coarsely crystalline, part very crinoidal (within Johns Creek Quarry, Palisades-Kepler mbrs); dolomite mudstone, dense. Minor: dolomite, slightly argillaceous; quartz druse, chalcedony, silicified fossils. Maximum thicknesses: 94-240 ft (29-73 m); may reach thicknesses to 300 ft (90 m); beveled and truncated beneath Dw.
Prairie du Chien Group includes Oneota Fm (Coon Valley, Hager City members) and Shakopee Fm (New Richmond Sandstone, Willow River members); St. Peter Sandstone includes Readstown and Tonti members. Sub-St. Peter erosional surface bevels and locally truncates Prairie du Chien strata. Primary lithologies: dolomite, part cherty, part sandy, mostly unfossiliferous, common voids and vugs (Prairie du Chien); sandstone, quartzose, very fine to medium grained (St. Peter, Shakopee). Secondary lithologies: dolomite, laminated to stromatolitic, part intraclastic; dolomite, fossil molds (primarily mollusks); interbedded very fine to fine sandstone and dolomite (Coon Valley, Shakopee); conglomerate, dolomite and chert clasts in sandy matrix (Readstown). Minor: oolitic dolomite and oolitic chert (Shakopee); shale, green, part sandy (Shakopee); shale, green-brown to gray, part laminated, silty to sandy, part fossiliferous (locally in St. Peter of Winneshiek Co.); coarse sand grains (St. Peter, Shakopee); breccia, dolomite-chert clasts; chalcedony/quartz nodules. Maximum thicknesses total interval: generally 300-400 ft (90-120 m), may reach thicknesses to 700 ft (210 m) (locally thick St. Peter in Winneshiek Co.). Unit thicknesses: Prairie du Chien Group, 225-335 ft (69-102 m), locally thinner where overlain by thick St. Peter; Oneota Fm, 130-225 ft (40-69 m), locally thinned beneath thick St. Peter; Shakopee Fm, 55-100 ft (17-30 m), locally thinned to absent beneath thick St. Peter; St. Peter Sandstone, generally 40-75 ft (12-23 m), varies 25-225 ft (8-69 m), may locally reach thicknesses to 700 ft (210 m) in Winneshiek Co.
Orthoquartzitic sandstone with minor limestone, shale and conglomerate; includes Glenwood and St. Peter Formations
Dolomite with some sandstone and shale; includes Shakopee and Oneota Formations
Ancell Group, includes St. Peter Sandstone, Dutchtown Limestone, Joachim Dolomite, and Glenwood Formation; includes Prairie du Chien Group in Jo Daviess County of northwestern Illinois.
Dolomite with some limestone and shale; includes Galena, Decorah, and Platteville Formations