Geologic units in Tama county, Iowa

Lime Creek Formation (Upper Devonian, upper Frasnian) at surface, covers 56 % of this area

Interval includes Sweetland Creek Shale in southeast Iowa, and “Amana beds” of Iowa County. Lime Creek Fm onlaps eroded Ordovician surface in northwestern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: shale, gray to green-gray, dolomitic to calcareous; limestone, variably argillaceous, fossiliferous, part biostromal; dolomite, variably argillaceous, part fossiliferous. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, dense, “sublithographic” (upper part of carbonate-dominated facies in central and northwestern Iowa); shale, green-gray to brown, silty (Sweetland Creek Shale). Minor: siltstone; chert; oolitic limestone, carbonate breccia (central to northwestern Iowa). Thickness variations in outcrop belt: Sweetland Creek Shale of southeastern Iowa, 3-30 ft (1-9 m); Lime Creek Fm of southeastern to north-central Iowa, 40-200 ft (12-60 m); Lime Creek Fm of northwestern Iowa, 200-350 ft (60-105 m).

Cedar Valley Group (Middle-Upper Devonian, middle Givetian-middle Frasnian) at surface, covers 24 % of this area

Interval includes Little Cedar, Coralville, Lithograph City, and Shell Rock formations; Shell Rock Fm in northern Iowa only. Primary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous, variably argillaceous, part biostromal; dolomite, part fossil-moldic to vuggy, variably argillaceous. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, dense, “sublithographic”; dolomite/limestone breccia (evaporite collapse); limestone, sparse to unfossiliferous, argillaceous to shaly; shale, gray to green-gray, dolomitic. Minor: anhydrite/gypsum (outcrop belt only in Grundy, Tama, Poweshiek counties; extensive in subsurface of central and southern Iowa); chert; glauconite; sandy limestone/sandstone. Maximum thicknesses in outcrop belt: southeast Iowa, 80-135 ft (24-41 m); east-central Iowa 130-210 ft (40-64 m); northern Iowa 250-350 ft (76-107 m). Cedar Valley Group thins and is overstepped by Dl westward in Winnebago County.

Famennian formations (Upper Devonian, lower to upper Famennian) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Interval includes Grassy Creek Shale, Saverton Shale, “Maple Mill” Shale, English River Formation, Louisiana Limestone (Lee County only), Aplington Formation (northern and western Iowa only), Sheffield Shale (central and northern Iowa). Famennian strata onlap Lime Creek Fm to the northwest. Primary Lithologies: shale, gray to green-gray, part silty; siltstone (especially English River Fm). Secondary Lithologies: shale, olive-brown and medium to dark brown, part laminated (Grassy Creek Fm, southeast Iowa); dolomite, part fossiliferous, part cherty, part argillaceous (Aplington Fm). Minor: interstratified dolomite and limestone, part fossiliferous (Louisiana Limestone); ooidal ironstone and phosphorite; phosphatic siltstone (“bone bed”); shale, red-brown. Maximum thicknesses in outcrop belt: southeast Iowa, 135-310 ft (41-95 m), thickest in Washington, Louisa, Des Moines counties; northern and central Iowa, 25-135 ft (8-41 m).

Kinderhookian formations (Lower Mississippian, Kinderhookian) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Interval includes Prospect Hill, Chapin, Maynes Creek, and Wassonville formations; locally includes basal Crapo (“McCraney”) Formation in southeastern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part cherty to very cherty, part fossiliferous (Maynes Creek-Wassonville formations); limestone, skeletal to oolitic (Chapin Fm; lower Wassonville Fm/Starrs Cave Member; middle Maynes Creek/“Eagle City” member; basal Crapo Fm); siltstone (Prospect Hill Fm). Secondary Lithologies: shale, gray, silty (Prospect Hill Fm of southeastern Iowa); limestone, dense, “sublithographic” to stromatolitic (upper Maynes Creek Fm); limestone and dolomite, dense, nodular to banded, part silty (Crapo Fm). Maximum thicknesses for total interval: 100-175 ft (30-53 m). Thickness variations: Crapo (“McCraney”) Fm, 0-65 ft (20 m); Prospect Hill Fm, 0-90 ft (27 m), generally < 25 ft (8 m); Chapin Fm, 0-30 ft (9 m), generally < 10 ft (3 m); Maynes Creek Fm, 35-155 ft (11-47 m), thickest in central to northern Iowa; Wassonville Fm (southeast Iowa only), 0-70 ft (21 m), replaced to northwest by Maynes Creek and Chapin formations, beveled beneath sub-Burlington unconformity to southeast.

Augusta Group (Middle Mississippian, Osagean) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Interval includes Burlington, Keokuk, and Warsaw formations. Upper Warsaw strata locally preserved at top of interval in extreme southeast Iowa are lower Meramecian age . Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part argillaceous to shaly; dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous; fossiliferous limestone (especially crinoidal packstone-grainstone). Secondary Lithologies: glauconitic limestone/dolomite; shale, gray to green-gray, part dolomitic, part silty; chert, nodular to bedded. Minor: quartz crystals, quartz geodes, chalcedony; phosphatic dolomite/limestone (“bone bed”); siltstone, dolomitic. Lithologies noted only in northern Iowa: oolitic limestone; “sublithographic” limestone; dolomite/chert breccia. Interval is erosionally beveled beneath sub-“St. Louis” and sub-Pennsylvanian unconformities. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa: 85-105 ft (26-32 m). Maximum thicknesses in southern Iowa: 155-240 ft (47-73 m).