Interval includes lower Marble Valley Member, upper Humboldt Member; “Iowa Falls Dolomite” (dolomite facies); formation shares partial regional facies relationships with Burlington Formation; not present in southeastern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: limestone, primarily coated grain/oolitic to peloidal, variably fossiliferous to intraclastic. Secondary Lithologies: dolomite; dolomitic limestone; limestone, dense, “sublithographic.” Minor: shale, gray, calcareous; oncolitic limestone; glauconite; chert; breccia. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa 150-170 ft (45-52 m); interval thins to south and southeast 20-70 ft (6-21 m).
Interval includes Prospect Hill, Chapin, Maynes Creek, and Wassonville formations; locally includes basal Crapo (“McCraney”) Formation in southeastern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part cherty to very cherty, part fossiliferous (Maynes Creek-Wassonville formations); limestone, skeletal to oolitic (Chapin Fm; lower Wassonville Fm/Starrs Cave Member; middle Maynes Creek/“Eagle City” member; basal Crapo Fm); siltstone (Prospect Hill Fm). Secondary Lithologies: shale, gray, silty (Prospect Hill Fm of southeastern Iowa); limestone, dense, “sublithographic” to stromatolitic (upper Maynes Creek Fm); limestone and dolomite, dense, nodular to banded, part silty (Crapo Fm). Maximum thicknesses for total interval: 100-175 ft (30-53 m). Thickness variations: Crapo (“McCraney”) Fm, 0-65 ft (20 m); Prospect Hill Fm, 0-90 ft (27 m), generally < 25 ft (8 m); Chapin Fm, 0-30 ft (9 m), generally < 10 ft (3 m); Maynes Creek Fm, 35-155 ft (11-47 m), thickest in central to northern Iowa; Wassonville Fm (southeast Iowa only), 0-70 ft (21 m), replaced to northwest by Maynes Creek and Chapin formations, beveled beneath sub-Burlington unconformity to southeast.
Dakota Formation widespread in western Iowa, lower sandstone-dominated Nishnabotna Member, upper mudstone/shale-dominated Woodbury Member. Correlative Windrow Formation found as erosional outliers in northeastern and north-central Iowa. Primary lithologies: sandstone, quartzose, very fine to medium grained; mudstone/shale, light to dark gray, variably silty-sandy, noncalcareous (Woodbury Mbr.). Secondary lithologies: sandstone, medium to very coarse grained, part pebbly to gravelly, locally cemented by iron oxides (Nishnabotna Mbr., Windrow Fm.), gravel, quartz and chert clasts; siltstone; mudstone, red, pink, yellow-brown, black (carbonaceous). Minor: lignite; siderite (concretions, pedogenic sphaerosiderite pellets, cemented siltstone); massive iron ore, silty to sandy (Windrow Fm.). Maximum thickness Dakota Fm. 500 ft (150 m), commonly 100-300 ft (30-90 m); Windrow Fm. 40 ft (12 m).
Interval includes lower “St. Louis” (Meramecian) Croton and Yenruogis members; upper “St. Louis” (lower Genevievian) Verdi and Waugh members (interval does not correlate with type St. Louis of Missouri); Pella Fm (upper Genevievian); base includes Sonora Fm (Meramecian) in parts of southeast Iowa (Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Des Moines, Jefferson counties). Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part silty/sandy, part fossiliferous; limestone, part sandy to fossiliferous; part “sublithographic,” part argillaceous. Secondary Lithologies: dolomite/limestone breccia; shale/marl, green-gray, calcareous; sandstone, fine to medium-grained; siltstone; gypsum/anhydrite (south-central Iowa). Minor: limestone, oolitic; shale, gray; shale, red to pink; chert/chalcedony. Croton Member contains gypsum-anhydrite in subsurface outside of outcrop belt. Interval is erosionally beveled to locally absent beneath Pcl; Pella Formation absent over broader areas. Maximum thicknesses for total interval 60-150 ft (18-45 m); maximum thickness Pella Formation 75 ft (23 m); maximum thickness “St. Louis” Formation 75 ft (23 m); maximum thickness Sonora Formation 35 ft (11 m).
Lower Cherokee Group in southern, central, and western Iowa includes Kilbourn, Kalo, Floris formations (primarily Atokan-lower Desmoinesian, locally Morrowan at base); Raccoon Creek Group in eastern Iowa includes “Caseyville” and Tradewater formations (primarily Morrowan at most localities; locally includes Atokan-lower Desmoinesian Tradewater Formation in upper part). Primary Lithologies: shale/mudstone, light to dark gray, part silty to sandy; sandstone, very fine to medium grained; siltstone, gray. Secondary Lithologies: carbonaceous shale/mudstone, gray to black; phosphatic black shale; limestone, dense, part fossiliferous, part sandy; coal (beds locally > 2 ft). Minor: sandstone, coarse-grained to granular, part conglomeratic; mudstone, red to pink; limestone concretions (may be septarian); cone-in-cone limestone; siderite/ironstone concretions and pellets; pyrite. Maximum thicknesses Raccoon Creek Group in Muscatine-Scott counties: 230-250 ft (70-75 m). Maximum thicknesses Lower Cherokee Group across outcrop belt: 200-370 ft (60-113 m). Maximum thickness in southwest Iowa subsurface: 650 ft (200 m).
Interval includes Burlington, Keokuk, and Warsaw formations. Upper Warsaw strata locally preserved at top of interval in extreme southeast Iowa are lower Meramecian age . Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part argillaceous to shaly; dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous; fossiliferous limestone (especially crinoidal packstone-grainstone). Secondary Lithologies: glauconitic limestone/dolomite; shale, gray to green-gray, part dolomitic, part silty; chert, nodular to bedded. Minor: quartz crystals, quartz geodes, chalcedony; phosphatic dolomite/limestone (“bone bed”); siltstone, dolomitic. Lithologies noted only in northern Iowa: oolitic limestone; “sublithographic” limestone; dolomite/chert breccia. Interval is erosionally beveled beneath sub-“St. Louis” and sub-Pennsylvanian unconformities. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa: 85-105 ft (26-32 m). Maximum thicknesses in southern Iowa: 155-240 ft (47-73 m).