Geologic units in Meade county, Kansas

Loess (Holocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 47 % of this area

eolian silts

Alluvium (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 21 % of this area

unconsolidated sand, silt, clay, and gravel

Ogallala Formation (Miocene) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

massive to cross-bedded, generally arkosic sand, silt and gravel, locally cemented with calcium carbonate; also contains limestone, volcanic ash, diatomaceous marl, opaline sandstone and bentonitic clay

Dune Sand (Holocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

unconsolidated dune sand

Alluvium (Holocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

unconsolidated sand, silt, clay, and gravel

Guadalupia Series: Big Basin Formation, Day Creek Dolomite, and Whitehorse Formation (Late Permian- Custerian to Cimarronian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Big Basin FM- red silty shale, siltstone, dolomitic siltstone and fine-grained feldspathic sandstone. Day Creek Dolomite- light gray to pink, dense, fine-grained dolomite. Whitehorse FM- mostly red beds of feldspathic sandstone with some beds of siltstone and shale and minor dolomite.

Ogallala Formation (Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

CIMARRON- Generally semiconsolidated clay, silt, sand, gravel, and caliche 0 to 400 feet thick. BEAVER- Interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel lenses, and thin limestone. Caliche common near surface but occurrence is not limited to the surface. Caliche accounts for most of the white color in the Ogallala. Other colors generally light tan or buff but locally may be pastel shades of almost any color. The Laverne and Rexroad Formations of Pliocene age and the Meade Group and Odee (of local usage) and other formations of Pleistocene age occur locally and are included with the Ogallala Formation, 0-700 feet thick. WOODWARD- Gravel, sand, silt, clay, caliche, and limestone, locally cemented with calcium carbonate. Generally light-tan to gray to white. Thickness ranges up to 400 feet and probably averages 150 feet. CLINTON- Gray to light-brown, fine- to medium-grained sand with some, clay, silt, gravel, volcanic ash, and caliche beds; locally cemented by calcium carbonate. Thickness ranges from 0 to about 320 feet. The formation thins eastward.

Dune Sand (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

CIMARRON- Fine- to medium-grained sand 0 to 40 feet thick. TEXAS- Fine to coarse windblown sand. Maximum thickness about 30 feet. BEAVER- Fine to coarse, round to sub-round, windblown sand consisting mostly of quartz grains. 0-50 feet thick.

Alluvium (Holocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

CIMARRON- Clay, silt, sand, and gravel 0 to 100 feet thick. TEXAS- Sand, silt, clay, and gravel located in valleys of principal streams. Thickness not known but may exceed 100 feet in North Canadian River valley and may be 50 to 100 feet in lower parts of valleys of Coldwater and Palo Duro Creeks BEAVER - Sand, gravel, silt, and clay in discontinuous lenses along courses of larger streams. 0-50 feet thick.

Permian rocks undifferentiated (Late Permian to Early Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

TEXAS- Red to dark reddish-brown shale, sandstone, and siltstone. Gypsum occurs in all rock units as a cementing agent, as tiny flakes, as thin irregular veinlets, and as discontinuous beds ranging from less than an inch to more than 30 feet thick. Maximum thickness exceeds 2,000 feet. BEAVER- Red shale, sandstone, and siltstone, are predominant rocks with lesser amounts of limestone, dolomite, gypsum, and salt. The undifferentiated Permian rocks include the Whitehorse Group, the Cloud Chief Formation, and the Quartermaster Formation; also included are local outcrops in the southwestern part of the county, which maybe Triassic in age, 3,800 feet thick.