Geologic units in Gallatin county, Montana

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Gravel (Quaternary) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Variable deposits that range from pebble to boulder size and include sand, silt, and clay. Dominantly alluvial terrace, abandoned channel and floodplain, remnant alluvial fan, and local glacial outwash.

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss (Archean) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss

Upper Tertiary sediment or sedimentary rock (Tertiary) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Conglomerate, tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone, marlstone, and equivalent sediment and ash beds. Local volcanic flows in southwestern Montana. Includes Sixmile Creek Formation. Dominantly fluvial, alluvial fan, mudflow, and palustrine. Composite thickness for Tsu and Tsm exceeds 4,880 m (16,010 ft).

Absaroka Volcanics Supergroup (Tertiary) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Calc-alkalic andesite and dacite extrusive rock with lesser amounts of potassic, alkalic, and mafic lava; minor amounts of rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff associated with mafic lava; and dark gray, very fine-grained basalt or andesite intrusive breccia.

Middle Tertiary sediment or sedimentary rock (Tertiary) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Tuffaceous siltstone, sandstone, bentonitic mudstone, conglomerate, limestone, and equivalent sediment and ash beds. Local volcanic flows in southwestern Montana. Includes Renova Formation. Dominantly fluvial, floodplain, palustrine, lacustrine, debris flow, and eolian. Composite thickness for Tsu and Tsm exceeds 4,880 m (16,010 ft). Includes Anaconda Formation: Light gray, reddish tan, or brownish red, coarse breccia that laterally grades to conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone. Locally intertongues with Lowland Creek Volcanics. Derived from overlying unmetamorphosed plate of metamorphic core complex. Thickness as much as much as 200 m (656 ft).

Madison Group: Mission Canyon and Lodgepole Formations; or Castle Reef and Allan Mountain Formations (Mississippian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Mission Canyon Formation (Mmc): Gray, massive limestone with chert beds and nodules, and solution breccia zones. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft). Lodgepole Formation (Ml): Woodhurst Member (upper part of formation): light gray, well-bedded limestone, typically with much dark chert, interbedded with thinner calcareous mudstone beds. Paine Member (middle part of formation):dark gray, thin-bedded, silty or fossiliferous limestone. Cottonwood Canyon Member (lower part of formation): black shale with basal conglomeratic lag deposit. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1000 ft). In Northwest Montana - Castle Reef Formation: Medium to light gray, thick-bedded limestone or dolomite. Sun River Member (upper part of formation): light gray dolomite with thick fossiliferous lenses. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Allan Mountain Formation: Dark gray, thinly bedded limestone with thin mudstone and shale partings, and nodular chert. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 200 m (656 ft).

Sedan Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Varicolored welded tuff and dark brown conglomerate interbedded with sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and dark gray or olive gray mudstone. Nonmarine including mudflow, and marginal marine. Thickness915–1470 m (3,002–4,823 ft).

Glacial deposit (Quaternary) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Dominantly till, outwash, and local glacial lake deposits. Shown only in western and south-central Montana. Laurentide glacial deposits are indicated with a map pattern.

Kootenai Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Kootenai Formation (Kk, Kku, Kkm, Kkl): Red, maroon, and olive gray mudstone, tan or gray siltstone, calcareous concretions, limestone beds, and several prominent sandstone beds that include the Greybull Member (top of the formation in south-central Montana) and the Sunburst Member (middle to lower part of the formation in northwest-central Montana), both dominantly quartzose sandstone. Basal Cutbank or Pryor Conglomerate. Alluvial plain with local marine influence in the north. Thickness as much as 335 m (1,099 ft).

Frontier Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Western Montana: gray, fine- to medium-grained, locally conglomeratic sandstone with interbeds of dark gray carbonaceous shale. Local conglomerate, porcellanite, and coal. Central Montana: dark gray, carbonaceous shale interbedded with siltstone and sandstone, chert-pebble conglomerate, and coal. Big Elk Sandstone Member: light gray, chert-rich sandstone commonly stained dark red, interbedded with thin, dark gray to black, clayey shale. Boulder River Sandstone Member: gray to greenish gray, very fine-grained to conglomeratic, glauconitic sandstone. Brackish to nonmarine. Thickness exceeds 2,135 m (7,005 ft) in Lima Peaks region, and exceeds 915m in the Greenhorn, Snowcrest, Gravelly, and Pioneer Mountains of southwestern Montana. Elsewhere thickness as much as 215 m (705 ft).

Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (Tertiary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Upper part: pinkish gray, gray, or brown welded or unwelded tuff that contains abundant phenocrysts of sanidine and quartz, and uncompacted pumice fragments at the top.

Plateau Rhyolite (Quaternary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Central Plateau Member: Upper part: rhyolitic flows with abundant phenocrysts dominantly of quartz and sanidine, and lacking plagioclase. Lower part: light gray, dense, fine-grained to aphanitic rhyolitic ash-flow tuff, with angular to rounded phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, pyroxene, and olivine that make up as much as 25 percent of rock volume.

Alluvium (Quaternary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposits of stream and river channels, and floodplains.

Cody Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Gray to dark gray shale with some sandstone beds. Eldridge Creek Member: greenish gray, glauconitic, fine-grained sandstone. Marine. Thickness as much as 465 m (1,526 ft).

Gravel (Tertiary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Variable deposits that range from pebble to boulder size and include sand, silt, and clay. Dominantly alluvial terrace, abandoned channel and floodplain, remnant alluvial fan, and local glacial outwash.

Fort Union Formation (Tertiary and Cretaceous) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Undivided Fort Union Formation - Sentinel Butte (Tfsb), Tongue River (Tftr), Linley (Tflc), Ludlow (Tfld), Lebo (Tfle), Ekalaka (Tfe), and Tullock (Tft) members.

Alluvial fan deposit (Quaternary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Variable deposits with fan-shaped morphology developed where slope gradient changes abruptly. Shown only where relatively extensive.

Gravel (Quaternary and Tertiary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Variable deposits that range from pebble to boulder size and include sand, silt, and clay. Dominantly alluvial terrace, abandoned channel and floodplain, remnant alluvial fan, and local glacial outwash.

Pilgrim through Flathead Formation: Pilgrim, Park, Meagher, Wolsey, and Flathead Formations (Cambrian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Pilgrim Formation: Gray, commonly mottled limestone that may contain intraformational limestone conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Park Formation: Grayish green, fissile, micaceous shale with a few thin beds of calcareous sandstone and thin, gray limestone. Local arkose beds. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 310 m (1,017 ft). Meagher Formation: Gray to bluish gray limestone and dolomitic limestone, locally mottled and with intraformational conglomerate beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Wolsey Formation (CAw): Dark green and purplish gray fissile, micaceous shale, thin glauconitic limestone beds and thin, fine-grained sandstone beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 145 m (476 ft). Flathead Formation (CAf): Pinkish gray to light gray sandstone or quartzite. Locally very glauconitic, pebbly, arkosic, or iron-stained. Marine shoreface. Thickness as much as 100 m (328 ft).

Muddy and Thermopolis Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Muddy Formation (Kmd): Gray to brown fine- to medium-grained sandstone with interbedded dark gray locally carbonaceous shale. Deltaic, shoreface, and offshore marine. Thickness as much as 50 m (164 ft). Thermopolis Formation (Kt): Dark gray to black shale with subordinate siltstone beds. Middle part of formation contains one or more thin sandstone beds with chert pebble horizons where Muddy Sandstone is not present. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1,000 ft).

Kootenai Formation through Ellis Group: Kootenai, Morrison, and Ellis Group (Cretaceous and Jurassic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Kootenai Formation (Kk, Kku, Kkm, Kkl): Red, maroon, and olive gray mudstone, tan or gray siltstone, calcareous concretions, limestone beds, and several prominent sandstone beds that include the Greybull Member (top of the formation in south-central Montana) and the Sunburst Member (middle to lower part of the formation in northwest-central Montana), both dominantly quartzose sandstone. Basal Cutbank or Pryor Conglomerate. Alluvial plain with local marine influence in the north. Thickness as much as 335 m (1,099 ft). Morrison Formation (Jm): Green, gray, or red mudstone and marlstone with subordinate limestone and sandstone beds. Upper part Neocomian age in central Montana and contains carbonaceous black shale and coal. Fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Ellis Group (Je) - Swift Formation (Jsw): Orangish brown, glauconitic, flaggy-bedded, commonly fossiliferous, fine-grained sandstone or sandy coquina with subordinate dark gray shale interbeds; chert pebbles common. In west-central and northwestern Montana, a dark gray, noncalcareous, micaceous shale forms the lower part of the formation, commonly with a basal chert-pebble conglomerate or conglomeratic sandstone as much as 3 m (10 ft) thick. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 70 m (230 ft). Rierdon Formation (Jr): Gray, locally fossiliferous limestone that may contain floating grains of quartz sand, interbedded with greenish gray limy shale. Lagoonal and marine shelf. Thickness as much as 105 m (344 ft). Sawtooth Formation: Western Montana: dark gray, platy to shaly, dense limestone with local basal conglomerate. Central Montana: upper calcareous siltstone, middle dark gray shale with thin limestone interbeds, and lower fine-grained sandstone. Three local members Bowes, Firemoon, and Tampico, in descending order. Bowes Member: dark gray to medium gray, calcareous mudstone, limestone, and quartzose sandstone. Firemoon Member: dark to medium gray, limestone and calcareous mudstone. Tampico Member: very light gray, well-sorted quartz sandstone and siltstone, and chert-pebble conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 205 m (673 ft). Piper Formation (Jp): Upper part: red mudstone and gypsum; middle part: gray shale, limestone, and dolomite; lower part: red mudstone and gypsum. Marine and restricted coastal evaporite basins. Thickness as much as 75 m (246 ft).

Shedhorn through Amsden Formation: Shedhorn, Quadrant, and Amsden Formations (Permian through Mississippian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Shedhorn Formation (Psh): Orangish brown, very fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted, quartzose sandstone. Nearshore marine shelf. Thickness as much as 70 m (230 ft). Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m (2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft).

Mowry and Thermopolis Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Mowry Formation (Km): Light gray to silvery gray, platy to blocky, siliceous shale and subordinate thin-bedded, gray siltstone or very fine-grained sandstone laminae or beds. Fish scales common in central Montana. Ledge-forming, chert-bearing, fine- to medium-grained sandstone at top. throughout west-central Montana. Marine. Thickness 240 m (787 ft). Thermopolis Formation (Kt): Dark gray to black shale with subordinate siltstone beds. Middle part of formation contains one or more thin sandstone beds with chert pebble horizons where Muddy Sandstone is not present. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1,000 ft).

Morrison through Dinwoody Formation: Morrison, Swift, Rierdon, Sawtooth, Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody Formations (Jurassic and Triassic) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Morrison Formation (Jm): Green, gray, or red mudstone and marlstone with subordinate limestone and sandstone beds. Upper part Neocomian age in central Montana and contains carbonaceous black shale and coal. Fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Swift Formation (Jsw): Orangish brown, glauconitic, flaggy-bedded, commonly fossiliferous, fine-grained sandstone or sandy coquina with subordinate dark gray shale interbeds; chert pebbles common. In west-central and northwestern Montana, a dark gray, noncalcareous, micaceous shale forms the lower part of the formation, commonly with a basal chert-pebble conglomerate or conglomeratic sandstone as much as 3 m (10 ft) thick. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 70 m (230 ft). Rierdon Formation (Jr): Gray, locally fossiliferous limestone that may contain floating grains of quartz sand, interbedded with greenish gray limy shale. Lagoonal and marine shelf. Thickness as much as 105 m (344 ft). Sawtooth Formation: Western Montana: dark gray, platy to shaly, dense limestone with local basal conglomerate. Central Montana: upper calcareous siltstone, middle dark gray shale with thin limestone interbeds, and lower fine-grained sandstone. Three local members Bowes, Firemoon, and Tampico, in descending order. Bowes Member: dark gray to medium gray, calcareous mudstone, limestone, and quartzose sandstone. Firemoon Member: dark to medium gray, limestone and calcareous mudstone. Tampico Member: very light gray, well-sorted quartz sandstone and siltstone, and chert-pebble conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 205 m (673 ft). Thaynes Formation: Gray and tan limestone with interbedded siltstone, shale, and tan sandstone. Locally with red shale tongues. Marine. Thickness as much as 290 m (950 ft). Woodside Formation: Maroon and red siltstone, dolomite, and shale. Tidal flat. Thickness as much as 250 m (820 ft). Dinwoody Formation (TRd): Interbedded green siltstone, shale, sandstone, and carbonate that grades eastward into red shale, siltstone, and anhydrite. Nearshore and restricted marine. Thickness as much as 330 m (1,083 ft).

LaHood Formation: locally includes Table Mountain and Moose Formations in Highland Mountains (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

LaHood Formation: Dark gray, dark brown, reddish brown, coarse, arkosic conglomerate locally with very large clasts derived from crystalline metamorphic rocks. Grades from mega-clast conglomerate to shale or argillite over short distances. Thickness as much as 3,000 m (9,842 ft). In Highland Mountains - Table Mountain Formation: Very light gray quartzite and argillaceous quartzite. Thickness as much as 530 m (1,740 ft). Moose Formation: Silty argillite and siltite. Thickness as much as 90 m (295 ft).

Three Forks and Jefferson Formations (Mississippian and Devonian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Three Forks Formation (MDt): Sappington Member (upper part of formation):yellowish orange and yellowish gray siltstone. Trident Member (middle part of formation): greenish gray and light olive gray, fossiliferous, calcareous shale that contains interbeds and nodules of fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone. Logan Gulch Member (lower part of formation): yellowish gray and grayish red, argillaceous limestone breccia and shale breccia that may include dolomitic siltstone. Marine to restricted marine with evaporite basins. Thickness as much as 185 m (607 ft). Jefferson Formation (Dj): Birdbear Member (upper part of formation): light to medium gray, sucrosic dolomite. Lower part of formation: grayish black, commonly petroliferous dolomite or limestone that may be interbedded with light gray quartzite. Marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft).

Billman Creek Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Livingston Group. Olive gray, grayish brown, and dusky red tuffaceous claystone interbedded with subordinate grayish yellow sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and siltstone beds. Fluvial and lacustrine. May be brackish in part. Thickness as much as 915 m (3,002 ft).

Snowy Range through Flathead Formation: Snowy Range, Pilgrim, Park, Meagher, Wolsey, and Flathead Formations; or Snowy Range, Hasmark, Silver Hill, and Flathead Formations (Cambrian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Snowy Range Formation (CAsr): Sage Member (upper part of formation): gray limestone and grayish green shale interbedded with grayish green flat-pebble conglomerate. Dry Creek Member (lower part of formation): greenish gray shale and grayish orange calcareous sandstone. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 85 m (280 ft). Pilgrim Formation: Gray, commonly mottled limestone that may contain intraformational limestone conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Park Formation: Grayish green, fissile, micaceous shale with a few thin beds of calcareous sandstone and thin, gray limestone. Local arkose beds. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 310 m (1,017 ft). Meagher Formation: Gray to bluish gray limestone and dolomitic limestone, locally mottled and with intraformational conglomerate beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Wolsey Formation (CAw): Dark green and purplish gray fissile, micaceous shale, thin glauconitic limestone beds and thin, fine-grained sandstone beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 145 m (476 ft). Flathead Formation (CAf): Pinkish gray to light gray sandstone or quartzite. Locally very glauconitic, pebbly, arkosic, or iron-stained. Marine shoreface. Thickness as much as 100 m (328 ft). Hasmark Formation: Light gray or bluish gray limestone and dark-gray calcareous shale. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 560 m (1,823 ft). Silver Hill Formation: Brown, green, and very light gray banded calcareous shale interbedded with laminated limestone. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 120 m (394 ft).

Mission Canyon Formation: locally includes Big Snowy Formation in south-central Montana (Mississippian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Gray, massive limestone with chert beds and nodules, and solution breccia zones. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft). In south-central Montana - Big Snowy Formation: Olive gray, thick-bedded limestone, yellowish gray siltstone, dark gray shale, and yellowish brown, thin bedded siltstone and mudstone. Nearshore marine. Thickness 120 m (394 ft).

Hoppers Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Livingston Group. Olive gray and yellowish gray, volcaniclastic sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and subordinate olive gray mudstone. Channel fill and floodplain. Thickness as much as 765 m (2,510 ft).

Cody and Frontier Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Cody Formation (Kco): Gray to dark gray shale with some sandstone beds. Eldridge Creek Member: greenish gray, glauconitic, fine-grained sandstone. Marine. Thickness as much as 465 m (1,526 ft). Frontier Formation (Kf): Western Montana: gray, fine- to medium-grained, locally conglomeratic sandstone with interbeds of dark gray carbonaceous shale. Local conglomerate, porcellanite, and coal. Central Montana: dark gray, carbonaceous shale interbedded with siltstone and sandstone, chert-pebble conglomerate, and coal. Big Elk Sandstone Member: light gray, chert-rich sandstone commonly stained dark red, interbedded with thin, dark gray to black, clayey shale. Boulder River Sandstone Member: gray to greenish gray, very fine-grained to conglomeratic, glauconitic sandstone. Brackish to nonmarine. Thickness exceeds 2,135 m (7,005 ft) in Lima Peaks region, and exceeds 915m in the Greenhorn, Snowcrest, Gravelly, and Pioneer Mountains of southwestern Montana. Elsewhere thickness as much as 215 m (705 ft).

Schist and gneiss (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Schist and gneiss

Eagle and Telegraph Creek Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Eagle Formation (Ke): Gray or grayish brown, thick-bedded sandstone, sandy shale, and thin interbedded coal. Chert-pebble lag deposit common at top of formation. Virgelle Member (lower part of formation in parts of central Montana): very light gray, gray, or brown sandstone that coarsens upward. Root zone and thin carbonaceous beds at top of member. Delta, coastal plain, tidal flat, and marine shoreface and foreshore. Thickness as much as 150 m (492 ft). Telegraph Creek Formation (Ktc): Thin interbeds of yellowish brown sandstone or siltstone and gray shale. Marine shoreface and offshore. Thickness as much as 200 m (656 ft).

Three Forks through Maywood Formation: Three Forks, Jefferson, and Maywood Formations or Palliser and Alexo Formations, and Fairholme Group in northwestern Montana near Canadian border (Mississippian and Devonian) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Three Forks Formation (MDt): Sappington Member (upper part of formation):yellowish orange and yellowish gray siltstone. Trident Member (middle part of formation): greenish gray and light olive gray, fossiliferous, calcareous shale that contains interbeds and nodules of fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone. Logan Gulch Member (lower part of formation): yellowish gray and grayish red, argillaceous limestone breccia and shale breccia that may include dolomitic siltstone. Marine to restricted marine with evaporite basins. Thickness as much as 185 m (607 ft). Jefferson Formation (Dj): Birdbear Member (upper part of formation): light to medium gray, sucrosic dolomite. Lower part of formation: grayish black, commonly petroliferous dolomite or limestone that may be interbedded with light gray quartzite. Marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft). Maywood Formation: Thin-bedded dolomitic limestone and dolomite interbedded with calcareous shale. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 120 m (394 ft). In northwestern Montana near Canadian border - Palliser Formation: Gray and greenish gray limestone and dolomitic limestone with locally abundant black chert. Pinkish gray, very thinly laminated, calcareous mudstone at base. Marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Alexo Formation: Pale yellowish orange, medium grained, calcareous siltstone with calcareous mudstone at the base. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 595 m (1,952 ft). Fairholme Group: Brownish black, bioturbated, calcareous mudstone, gray algal limestone and dolomite, and pale yellowish orange, medium-grained, calcareous sandstone at the base. Thickness as much as 550 m(1,805 ft).

Greyson Formation (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Greenish gray siltite and dark gray argillite with interbedded bands of light brown, sandy argillite and feldspathic quartzite. Thickness as much as 915 m (3,000 ft).

Mowry through Fall River Formation: Mowry, Thermopolis, and Fall River Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Mowry Formation (Km): Light gray to silvery gray, platy to blocky, siliceous shale and subordinate thin-bedded, gray siltstone or very fine-grained sandstone laminae or beds. Fish scales common in central Montana. Ledge-forming, chert-bearing, fine- to medium-grained sandstone at top. throughout west-central Montana. Marine. Thickness 240 m (787 ft). Thermopolis Formation (Kt): Dark gray to black shale with subordinate siltstone beds. Middle part of formation contains one or more thin sandstone beds with chert pebble horizons where Muddy Sandstone is not present. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1,000 ft). Fall River Formation (Kfr): Gray and brown, fine- to medium-grained, quartzose sandstone with thin interbeds of dark gray shale. Nearshore marine. Thickness as much as 70 m (1,214 ft).

Lodgepole Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Woodhurst Member (upper part of formation): light gray, well-bedded limestone, typically with much dark chert, interbedded with thinner calcareous mudstone beds. Paine Member (middle part of formation):dark gray, thin-bedded, silty or fossiliferous limestone. Cottonwood Canyon Member (lower part of formation): black shale with basal conglomeratic lag deposit. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1000 ft).

Quadrant Formation through Big Snowy Group: Quadrant and Amsden Formations, and Big Snowy Group; not all formations of Big Snowy Group present at all locations (Pennsylvanian and Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m (2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Big Snowy Group (Mbs) - Heath Formation (Mh): Black, fissile, commonly petroliferous shale with subordinate sandstone, gypsum, and coal. Restricted marine to coastal plain. Thickness as much as 150 m (492 ft). Otter Formation (Mo): Green, grayish green, gray, and subordinate reddish brown shale interbedded with light brown or gray limestone. Open and semirestricted marine. Thickness as much as 150 m (492 ft). Kibbey Formation (Mk): Red, quartzose sandstone, siltstone, and shale, locally with subordinate thin gypsum beds and limestone bed in middle part. Intertidal and subtidal. Thickness as much as 105 m (345 ft).

Everts and Virgelle Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Everts Formation (Kevt): Light-colored, fine- to medium-grained, lenticular sandstone and medium to light gray or locally greenish, yellowish, or brownish gray mudstone. Shallow marine and brackish. Thickness as much as 425 m (1,395 ft). Virgelle Formation (Kvi): Light gray, fine- to coarse-grained, locally titaniferous sandstone. Marine shoreface and foreshore. Thickness as much as 90 m (295ft).

Lower Maudlow Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Purple lava flows and gray, brown, green, and purple sandstone, conglomerate, breccia, mudstone, and tuff. Nonmarine. Thickness 1,525–1,675+ m (5,003–5,495+ ft).

Mowry Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Light gray to silvery gray, platy to blocky, siliceous shale and subordinate thin-bedded, gray siltstone or very fine-grained sandstone laminae or beds. Fish scales common in central Montana. Ledge-forming, chert-bearing, fine- to medium-grained sandstone at top throughout west-central Montana. Marine. Thickness 240 m (787 ft).

Miner Creek and Cokedale Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Livingston Group. Miner Creek: Alternating beds of olive gray tuffaceous siltstone and greenish gray volcaniclastic sandstone, silicified tuff, and bentonite. Sulphur Flats Member (lower part of formation): massive, cross-bedded, poorly sorted sandstone. Inland coastal plain. Thickness as much as 410 m (1,345 ft). Cokedale Formation: Olive gray, tuffaceous siltstone, dusky yellowish green and light gray, volcaniclastic-rich sandstone, grayish brown mudstone, water-laid tuff, bentonite, and carbonaceous claystone; coal in lower part. Transitional inland coastal plain to brackish. Thickness as much as 790 m (2,592 ft).

Middle Maudlow Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Grayish red and grayish green lava flows, varicolored tuff, and bluish green and dark yellowish brown volcanic breccia, tuffaceous volcanic sandstone, mudstone, and minor conglomerate.

Phosphoria Formation through Big Snowy Group: Phosphoria, Quadrant, and Amsden Formations, and Big Snowy Group (Permian through Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Phosphoria Formation (Pp): Gray and tan dolomite, cherty limestone, bedded chert, siltstone, sandstone, and gray to black phosphatic and dolomitic shale. Marine shelf and offshore marine. Thickness as much as 255 m (837 ft). Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m (2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Big Snowy Group (Mbs) - Heath Formation (Mh): Black, fissile, commonly petroliferous shale with subordinate sandstone, gypsum, and coal. Restricted marine to coastal plain. Thickness as much as 150 m (492 ft). Otter Formation (Mo): Green, grayish green, gray, and subordinate reddish brown shale interbedded with light brown or gray limestone. Open and semirestricted marine. Thickness as much as 150 m (492 ft). Kibbey Formation (Mk): Red, quartzose sandstone, siltstone, and shale, locally with subordinate thin gypsum beds and limestone bed in middle part. Intertidal and subtidal. Thickness as much as 105 m (345 ft).

Gneiss and amphibolite (Archean) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Gneiss and amphibolite

Telegraph Creek Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Thin interbeds of yellowish brown sandstone or siltstone and gray shale. Marine shoreface and offshore. Thickness as much as 200 m (656 ft).

Livingston Group: Hoppers, Billman Creek, Miner Creek, and Cokedale Formations (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Pale green or gray, volcaniclastic conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone, dark gray volcanic flows, purple flow breccia, brown and gray tuff, and maroon, green, and gray mudstone and siltstone. Fluvial and alluvial fan. Thickness about 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Note: Mapped as Livingstone Group on printed map, but unit description exists for Livingstone Formation (Klv).

Quadrant and Amsden Formations (Pennsylvanian and Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m (2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft).

Morrison Formation and Ellis Group (Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Morrison Formation (Jm): Green, gray, or red mudstone and marlstone with subordinate limestone and sandstone beds. Upper part Neocomian age in central Montana and contains carbonaceous black shale and coal. Fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Ellis Group (Je) - Swift Formation (Jsw): Orangish brown, glauconitic, flaggy-bedded, commonly fossiliferous, fine-grained sandstone or sandy coquina with subordinate dark gray shale interbeds; chert pebbles common. In west-central and northwestern Montana, a dark gray, noncalcareous, micaceous shale forms the lower part of the formation, commonly with a basal chert-pebble conglomerate or conglomeratic sandstone as much as 3 m (10 ft) thick. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 70 m (230 ft). Rierdon Formation (Jr): Gray, locally fossiliferous limestone that may contain floating grains of quartz sand, interbedded with greenish gray limy shale. Lagoonal and marine shelf. Thickness as much as 105 m (344 ft). Sawtooth Formation: Western Montana: dark gray, platy to shaly, dense limestone with local basal conglomerate. Central Montana: upper calcareous siltstone, middle dark gray shale with thin limestone interbeds, and lower fine-grained sandstone. Three local members Bowes, Firemoon, and Tampico, in descending order. Bowes Member: dark gray to medium gray, calcareous mudstone, limestone, and quartzose sandstone. Firemoon Member: dark to medium gray, limestone and calcareous mudstone. Tampico Member: very light gray, well-sorted quartz sandstone and siltstone, and chert-pebble conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 205 m (673 ft). Piper Formation (Jp): Upper part: red mudstone and gypsum; middle part: gray shale, limestone, and dolomite; lower part: red mudstone and gypsum. Marine and restricted coastal evaporite basins. Thickness as much as 75 m (246 ft).

Bighorn through Flathead Formation: Bighorn, Pilgrim, Park, Meagher, Wolsey, and Flathead Formations (Ordovician and Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Bighorn Formation (Ob): Yellowish gray to very pale orange crystalline dolomite with local basal sandstone. Marine shelf. Thickness as much as 120 m (394 ft). Pilgrim Formation: Gray, commonly mottled limestone that may contain intraformational limestone conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Park Formation: Grayish green, fissile, micaceous shale with a few thin beds of calcareous sandstone and thin, gray limestone. Local arkose beds. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 310 m (1,017 ft). Meagher Formation: Gray to bluish gray limestone and dolomitic limestone, locally mottled and with intraformational conglomerate beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Wolsey Formation (CAw): Dark green and purplish gray fissile, micaceous shale, thin glauconitic limestone beds and thin, fine-grained sandstone beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 145 m (476 ft). Flathead Formation (CAf): Pinkish gray to light gray sandstone or quartzite. Locally very glauconitic, pebbly, arkosic, or iron-stained. Marine shoreface. Thickness as much as 100 m (328 ft).

Schist (Archean) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Schist

Amphibolite (Early Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Amphibolite

Phosphoria Formation through Madison Group: Phosphoria, Quadrant, Amsden, Mission Canyon, and Lodgepole Formations (Permian through Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Phosphoria Formation (Pp): Gray and tan dolomite, cherty limestone, bedded chert, siltstone, sandstone, and gray to black phosphatic and dolomitic shale. Marine shelf and offshore marine. Thickness as much as 255 m (837 ft). Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m(2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Mission Canyon Formation (Mmc): Gray, massive limestone with chert beds and nodules, and solution breccia zones. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft). Lodgepole Formation (Ml): Woodhurst Member (upper part of formation): light gray, well-bedded limestone, typically with much dark chert, interbedded with thinner calcareous mudstone beds. Paine Member (middle part of formation):dark gray, thin-bedded, silty or fossiliferous limestone. Cottonwood Canyon Member (lower part of formation): black shale with basal conglomeratic lag deposit. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 305 m (1000 ft).

Upper Maudlow Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Light gray, volcanic conglomerate and breccia and olive green or dark yellowish brown volcanic sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, siltstone and mudstone.

Marble (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Marble

Grove Creek through Flathead Formation: Grove Creek, Snowy Range, Pilgrim, Park, Meagher, Wolsey, and Flathead Formations (Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Grove Creek Formation: Shale, limestone, dolomite, and intraformational limestone-pebble conglomerate. Shallow marine. Average thickness 10 m (35 ft). Snowy Range Formation (CAsr): Sage Member (upper part of formation): gray limestone and grayish green shale interbedded with grayish green flat-pebble conglomerate. Dry Creek Member (lower part of formation): greenish gray shale and grayish orange calcareous sandstone. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 85 m (280 ft). Pilgrim Formation: Gray, commonly mottled limestone that may contain intraformational limestone conglomerate. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft). Park Formation: Grayish green, fissile, micaceous shale with a few thin beds of calcareous sandstone and thin, gray limestone. Local arkose beds. Offshore marine. Thickness as much as 310 m (1,017 ft). Meagher Formation: Gray to bluish gray limestone and dolomitic limestone, locally mottled and with intraformational conglomerate beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 300 m (984 ft). Wolsey Formation (CAw): Dark green and purplish gray fissile, micaceous shale, thin glauconitic limestone beds and thin, fine-grained sandstone beds. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 145 m (476 ft). Flathead Formation (CAf): Pinkish gray to light gray sandstone or quartzite. Locally very glauconitic, pebbly, arkosic, or iron-stained. Marine shoreface. Thickness as much as 100 m (328 ft).

Spokane Formation (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Red siltite and argillite in mudcracked couplets. Thickness as much as 1,500 m (492 ft).

Amphibolite (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Amphibolite

Bighorn Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Yellowish gray to very pale orange crystalline dolomite with local basal sandstone. Marine shelf. Thickness as much as 120 m (394 ft).

Schist (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Schist

Quartzite (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Quartzite

Dacite (Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Dacite

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss (Lower Proterozoic or Archean) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss

Woodside and Dinwoody Formations (Triassic) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Woodside Formation: Maroon and red siltstone, dolomite, and shale. Tidal flat. Thickness as much as 250 m (820 ft). Dinwoody Formation (TRd): Interbedded green siltstone, shale, sandstone, and carbonate that grades eastward into red shale, siltstone, and anhydrite. Nearshore and restricted marine. Thickness as much as 330 m (1,083 ft).

Sediment or sedimentary rock (Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Sediment or sedimentary rock (no unique unit description on map).

Morrison Formation (Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Green, gray, or red mudstone and marlstone with subordinate limestone and sandstone beds. Upper part Neocomian age in central Montana and contains carbonaceous black shale and coal. Fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft).

Quartzite (Archean) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Quartzite

Ultramafic rock (Archean) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Ultramafic rock

Shedhorn Formation (Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Orangish brown, very fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted, quartzose sandstone. Nearshore marine shelf. Thickness as much as 70 m (230 ft).

Intrusive rock (Cretaceous) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Intrusive rock

Rhyolite flows, tuff, and intrusive igneous rocks (Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes Plateau Rhyolite (age about 0.07 Ma) and interlayered sediments, Mount Jackson Rhyolite (age 0.6 to about 1 Ma), Lewis Canyon Rhyolite (age about 0.9 Ma); and Lava Creek Tuff of Yellowstone Group (age 0.6 to about 1 Ma).

Three Forks through Bighorn Formation: Three Forks, Jefferson, and Bighorn Formations (Mississippian through Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Three Forks Formation (MDt): Sappington Member (upper part of formation): yellowish orange and yellowish gray siltstone. Trident Member (middle part of formation): greenish gray and light olive gray, fossiliferous, calcareous shale that contains interbeds and nodules of fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone. Logan Gulch Member (lower part of formation): yellowish gray and grayish red, argillaceous limestone breccia and shale breccia that may include dolomitic siltstone. Marine to restricted marine with evaporite basins. Thickness as much as 185 m (607 ft). Jefferson Formation (Dj): Birdbear Member (upper part of formation): light to medium gray, sucrosic dolomite. Lower part of formation: grayish black, commonly petroliferous dolomite or limestone that may be interbedded with light gray quartzite. Marine. Thickness as much as 520 m (1,706 ft). Bighorn Formation (Ob): Yellowish gray to very pale orange crystalline dolomite with local basal sandstone. Marine shelf. Thickness as much as 120 m (394 ft).

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss (Early Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Quartzofeldspathic gneiss

Quartzite and amphibolite (Archean) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Quartzite and amphibolite

Undivided surficial deposits (Pleistocene-Holocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly alluvium, colluvium, and glacial and landslide deposits. Primarily in Yellowstone area and Bighorn Mountains.

Mafic intusive rock (Tertiary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mafic intusive rock

Snowy Range Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sage Member (upper part of formation): gray limestone and grayish green shale interbedded with grayish green flat-pebble conglomerate. Dry Creek Member (lower part of formation): greenish gray shale and grayish orange calcareous sandstone. Shallow marine. Thickness as much as 85 m (280 ft).

Phosphoria through Amsden Formation: Phosphoria, Quadrant, and Amsden Formations (Permian through Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Phosphoria Formation (Pp): Gray and tan dolomite, cherty limestone, bedded chert, siltstone, sandstone, and gray to black phosphatic and dolomitic shale. Marine shelf and offshore marine. Thickness as much as 255 m (837 ft). Quadrant Formation (PAq): Very light gray, yellowish or pinkish, well-sorted sandstone or quartzite, locally interbedded with subordinate limestone beds. Marine. Generally, thickness as much as 140 m (460 ft), but as much as 800 m (2,625 ft) in southwestern-most Montana. Amsden Formation (PAMa): Red shale, light gray limestone, and cherty and sandy limestone. Coastal plain or marine. Thickness as much as 180 m (590 ft).

Huckleberry Ridge Tuff of Yellowstone Group (Pliocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lavender to gray-brown welded rhyolite tuff.

Mylonite (Early Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mylonite

Diorite (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Diorite

Basalt: includes basalt of several ages in southwestern Montana (Tertiary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Basalt

Upper Greyson Formation (Middle Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Greenish gray siltite and dark gray argillite with interbedded bands of light brown, sandy argillite and feldspathic quartzite. Thickness as much as 915 m (3,000 ft).

Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup: Sunlight Group (Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Including Trout Peak Trachyandesite, Wapiti Formation (andesitic volcaniclastic rocks), Crescent Hill Basalt, and Mount Wallace Formation (felsic and mafic volcaniclastic rocks).

Granite gneiss (Late Archean) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Layered to massive, locally migmatitic; metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks locally common. Includes Webb Canyon Gneiss in Teton Range.

Rhyolite (Pleistocene). (Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Rhyolite tuffs, flows, and domes; includes Yellowstone Group (2.0-0.6 Ma) and isolated domes on Snake River Plain and north of Soda Springs (less than 2.0 Ma). (Quaternary to Eocene Continental Volcanic and Intrusive Rocks).

Sedimentary rocks (Permian to Mississippian). (Permian to Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Only shown in Henrys Lake area and in cross section. Consists of Ms and PlPs (PPAs). (Paleocene to Neoproterozoic Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks of the Cordilleran System).

Challis Volcanic Group. (Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Dacite, andesite, and rhyolite tuffs and flows and subordinate basalt and latite flows; covers large area in south-central Idaho. Includes Absaroka Volcanic Group near Henrys Lake and scattered volcanic rocks in eastern and northern Idaho. (Eocene Challis Magmatic Complex and Related Sedimentary Rocks).

Sedimentary rocks (Devonian to Cambrian). (Devonian to Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Only shown in Henrys Lake area and in cross section. Consists of OCs (OCAs) and DSOs. (Paleocene to Neoproterozoic Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks of the Cordilleran System).

Glacial deposits. (Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Till and outwash consisting of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Formed by valley glaciers at higher elevations and by the Cordilleran ice sheet in northern Idaho. Includes deposits of several glacial episodes. Includes rock glacier deposits and some modern alluvium derived from reworked till and outwash. (Quaternary Sediments).