Geologic units in Pawnee county, Oklahoma

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Vanoss Group (Late Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 33 % of this area

ENID- Alternating layers of limestone and shale to north, grading southward into limestone, shale, and fine-grained arkosic sandstone. Locally group contains thin coal seams. Near Kansas border, group includes (descending): "Salem Point Shale" (12 feet thick) at top, underlain by "Burr Limestone" (8 feet thick), "Legion Shale" (4 feet thick), "Sallyards Limestone" (3 feet thick), "Roca Shale" (15 feet thick), "Red Eagle Limestone," IPvre (20 feet thick), "Johnson Shale" (35 feet thick), "Long Creek Limestone," IPvlc (10 feet thick), unnamed shale (3 feet thick), "Hughes Creek Limestone (15 feet thick), unnamed shale (12 feet thick), "Americus Limestone, "IPvam, (12 feet thick), "Oaks Shale" (3 feet thick), "Houchen Creek Limestone (8 feet thick), "Stine Shale" (20 feet thick), "Five Point Limestone" (3 feet thick), unnamed shale (12 feet thick), "Brownville Limestone, IPvb (8 feet thick), "Pony Creek Shale" (40 feet thick), "Grayhorse Limestone," IPvg (5 feet thick), unnamed shale (12 feet thick), "Nebraska City Limestone" (5 feet thick), "French Creek Shale" (12 feet thick), "Jim Creek Limestone" (3 feet thick), "Friedrich Shale" (30 feet thick), "Grandhaven Limestone" (2 feet thick), "Dry Shale" (25 feet thick), "Dover Limestone" (30 feet thick), "Willard-Langdon Shale" (110 feet thick), "Elmont Limestone," IPve (10 feet thick), "Stonebreaker Shale" (20 feet thick), and "Reading Limestone" (20 feet thick) at base. Total thickness, about 500 feet (150 m). OKLAHOMA CITY- Red-brown to gray shale and orange-brown fine-grained, crossbedded sandstone; grades southward into arkosic sandstoneand conglomerate. Includes many thin limestone beds and shale units north of North Canadian River descending): "Roca Shale"(75 feet thick), "Red Eagle Limestone," IPvre (3 to 8 feetthick), "Johnson Shale" (60 feet thick), "Long Creek Limestone," IPvlc (9 to 12 feet thick), "Hughes Creek Shale" (52 feet thick), "Americus Limestone," IPva (1.0 to 2.5 feetthick), "Admire Shale" (70 feet thick), "BrownvilleLimestone," IPvb (1 to 3 feet thick), "Pony Creek Shale" (75 feet thick), "Grayhorse Limestone," IPvg (1 foot thick), unnamed shale (70 feet thick), "Elmont Limestone," IPve (1.2to 7.8 feet thick), "Stonebreaker Shale" (60 feet thick), and"Reading Limestone" (1.5 feet thick), at base. Totalthickness of group ranges from 250 feet in south to 490 feet in north. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Shale, maroon, arkose, and limestone conglomerate; thickness, 250 to 900 feet (subsurface), decreasing southward. (Pontotoc Group).

Oscar Group (Late Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 27 % of this area

ENID- Mainly shale with many layers of limestones that pinch out southward, where fine-grained arkosic sandstones are thicker and more numerous. Near Kansas border, sequence is (descending): "Herington Limestone" (20 feet thick) at top, "Enterprise Shale" (45 feet thick), "Winfield Limestone, "IPowi (8 feet thick), "Gage Shale" (80 feet thick), "Towanda Limestone" (3 feet thick), "Holmesville Shale" (25 feet thick), "Fort Riley Limestone," IPofr (30 feet thick) and underlying Florence Flint, IPofr (8 feet thick), "Blue Springs Shale" (60 feet thick), "Kinney Limestone" (5 feet thick), "Wymore Shale" (22 feet thick), "Wreford Limestone," IPowr (25 feet thick), "Speiser Shale" (38 feet thick), "Funston Limestone (4 feet thick), "Blue Rapids Shale" (15 feet thick), "Crouse Limestone" (6 feet thick), "Easly Creek Shale" (12 feet thick), "Bader Limestone" (5 feet thick), "Stearns Shale" (10 feet thick), "Morrill Limestone" (2 feet thick), "Florena Shale" (6 feet thick), "Cottonwood Limestone," IPoc (3 feet thick), "Eskridge Shale" (6 feet thick), and "Neva Limestone" (25 feet thick) at base. Total thickness, about 400 feet. OKLAHOMA CITY- Red-brown to gray shale and orange-brown fine-grained, crossbedded sandstone; grades southward into arkosic sandstone and conglomerate. Includes "Herington Limestone" at top inPayne County, "Neva Limestone" (0.2 to 1.2 feet thick) at basein Lincoln County, and "Hart Limestone" (4 to 10 feet thick)at base in Pottawatomie County. In Payne County, includesthin stringers of "Winfield Limestone," IPowi (75 feet belowtop), "Fort Riley Limestone," IPofr (245 feet below top),"Wreford Limestone," IPowr (345 feet below top), and"Cottonwood Limestone," IPoc (525 feet below top). Thickness ranges from 300 feet in south to 600 feet in north. LAWTON- Shale, sandstone, and arkose, 300 to 500 feet (90 to 150 m) thick, base covered. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Shale, red-brown to gray, with arkosic sandstones and limestone conglomerates near Arbuckle Mountains; "Hart Limestone" at base; thickness, 300 to 500 feet, decreasing southeastward. (Pontotoc Group).

Ada Group or Ada Formation (Late Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

ENID- "Ada Group"- Mainly shale with many limestone layers that are thinner and pinch out southward, where fine-grained sandstones are thicker and more numerous. Near Kansas border, group includes (descending): "Auburn shale" (50 feet thick) at top, underlain by "Wakarusa Limestone," IPaw (2 feet thick), unnamed shale (40 feet thick), "Rulo Limestone" (3 feet thick), unnamed shale (18 feet thick), "Happy Hollow Limestone" (2 feet thick), unnamed shale and sandstone (60 feet thick), "Bird Creek Limestone," IPab (2 feet thick; called "Church Limestone" in Kansas), "Severy-Aarde Shale" (70 feet thick), "Turkey Run Limestone," IPat (2 feet thick; called "Coal Creek Limestone" in Kansas), unnamed shale (30 feet thick), "Pearsonia Limestone" (3 feet thick), unnamed shale (15 feet thick), "Little Hominy Limestone" (22 feet thick), "Deer Creek Limestone (15 feet thick), unnamed shale (10 feet thick), "Plummer Limestone" (2 feet thick), unnamed shale (35 feet thick), and "Beil Limestone Member" (10 feet thick) of "Lecompton Limestone" at base. Total thickness, about 400 feet (120 m). OKLAHOMA CITY- "Ada Group"- Mostly orange-brown fine-grained sandstone and red-brown to gray shale; grades southward into chert conglomerates. Includes the following thin limestone beds and shale units north of North Canadian River (descending): "Auburn Shale" (80 feet thick), "Wakarusa Limestone," IPaw (1 to 6 feet thick), unnamed shale (95 feet thick), "Bird Creek Limestone," IPab (1 to 9 feet thick), "Severy-Aarde Shale" (45 feet thick), "Turkey Run Limestone," IPat (1 foot thick), unnamed shale (45 feet thick), and "Lecompton Limestone" (1.5 to 10 feet thick), at base. Total thickness of group ranges from 100 feet in south to 280 feet in north. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- "Ada Formation"- (= Collings Ranch Conglomerate) Shale, red-brown to gray, bituminous sandstone, and limestone conglomerate; thickness, 100 to 1,400 feet (subsurface), decreasing southward.

Vamoosa Group or Vamoosa Formation (Late Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

ENID- "Vamoosa Group"- Alternating layers of shale and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, with some thin limestones. Sandstone layers are thicker, coarser grained, and more numerous southward. Group near Kansas border includes (descending): unnamed shale and sandstone (160 feet thick) at top, "Plattsmouth Limestone, "IPvap (14 to 23 feet thick), unnamed shale and sandstone (15 to 90 feet thick), "Leavenworth Limestone," IPvale (4 feet thick), unnamed shale and sandstone (170 feet thick) "Labadie Limestone," IPval (6 to 23 feet thick; may also be called "Haskell Limestone"), unnamed shale and sandstone (60 to 100 feet thick), "Bowring Limestone," IPvab (2 feet thick; may also be called "Westphalia Limestone"), unnamed shale (5 to 10 feet thick), and basal "Cheshewalla Sandstone (7 to 20 feet thick; also called "Tonganoxie Sandstone"). Total thickness about 630 feet (190 m) OKLAHOMA CITY- "Vamoosa Formation"- Alternating thin to massive layers of fine- to coarse-grained sandstone and sandy, silty shale containing some chert conglomerate in middle and lower parts of formation. Thickness ranges about 200 to about 690 feet. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- "Vamoosa Formation"- Shale, sandstone, and chert conglomerate; red-brown to buff fine- to coarse-grained sandstone. Subdivided into 12 members, each with coarse clastics at base overlain by shale. Thickness, about 125 to 260 feet (to 1,000 feet in subsurface), decreasing southward.

Alluvium (Holocene) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

WOODWARD- Lenticular and interfingering deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Generally light-tan to gray. Thickness along major streams ranges up to 100 feet and probably averages 40 feet; along minor streams the thickness ranges up to 45 feet and probably averages 20 feet. ENID- Sand, silt, clay, and locally gravel. Maximum thickness ranges from 30 to 80 feet (9 to 24 m) along major streams and from 0 to 60 feet (0 to 18 m) along minor streams. TULSA- Gravel, sand, silt, and clay. TULSA- Gravel, sand, silt, and clay. OKLAHOMA CITY- Sand, silt, clay, and lenticular beds of gravel. Thickness ranges from about 30 to 100 feet and probably averages about 50 feet along major streams. Along minor streams, thickness ranges from a few feet to about 50 feet and probably averages about 25 feet. LAWTON- Sand, clay, and gravel as much as 50 feet (15 m) thick; Shown only along major streams and tributaries. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Gravel, sand, silt, and clay, including low terraces; thickness, about 25 to 100 feet. McALESTER TEXARKANA- Gravel, sand, silt, and clay, including low terraces about 30 feet above channels; thickness, about 50 feet along Little River and 110 feet along Red River.

Terrace Deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

WOODWARD- Lenticular and interfingering deposits of light-tan to gray gravel, sand, silt, clay, and volcanic ash. Sand dunes are common in many places. Thickness ranges up to 150 feet and averages about 60 feet. ENID- Sand, silt, clay, and gravel. Maximum thickness, about 75 feet (23 m) along major streams. TULSA- Fine gravel, sand, silt, and clay. CLINTON- Stream-laid deposits of sand, silt, clay, gravel, and volcanic ash; thickness ranges from 0 to about 120 feet. OKLAHOMA CITY- Lenticular beds of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. Thickness ranges from a few feet to about 100 feet and probably averages about 50 feet along major streams. FORT SMITH- Gravel, sand, silt, and clay. LAWTON- Sand, clay, and gravel as much as 75 feet (23 m) in Tillman County, ranging from 5 to 50 feet (2 to 15 m) elsewhere. ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Gravel, sand, silt, clay, and volcanic ash; thickness, about 5 to 50 feet; at various levels, as high as 160 feet above present flood plains. McALESTER TEXARKANA- Gravel, sand, silt, clay, and volcanic ash; several levels 20 to 160 feet or more above present flood plains, with each level containing deposits that average 20 to 30 feet in thickness, some windblown sand on top; may include colluvial wash down sides of hills.

Tallant Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

ENID- Alternating layers of shale and fine- to medium-grained sandstone. Thickness ranges from 75 to 250 feet (23 to 75 m). OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly fine- to medium-grained sandstone 10 to 60 feet thick overlain by shale 25 to 65 feet thick. Cut out by ""Vamoosa Formation"" in central part of area. Total thickness ranges from 0 to 100 feet.

Barnsdall Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

ENID- Formation is mainly fine- to medium-grained sandstone, overlain by shale. At top is a thick shale, with "Okesa Sandstone Member" in middle and "Birch Creek Limestone" (called "South Bend Limestone") at base. Birch Creek extends southward from Kansas border to Township 23 N., where limestone grades into overlying Okesa Sandstone. South of Township 23 N., Okesa grades downward into underlying "Torpedo Sandstone" and underlying Wann Formation. Total thickness ranges from 45 to 200 feet (14 to 60 m). OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly fine-grained sandstone overlain by shale; may grade northward into "Wann Formation". Thickness ranges from about 80 to 200 feet.

Wann and Iola Formations or Iola Limestone (Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

ENID- "Wann Formation" consists of shale and fine- to medium-grained sandstone with many thin layers of fossiliferous limestone. Thickness ranges from 50 to 400 feet (15 to 122 m). "Iola Limestone" is mainly limestone, calcareous sandstone, and shale and underlies Wann. Thickness ranges 4 to 100 feet (1 to 30 m). TULSA- "Wann Formation," shale with thin sandstone and limestone. "Iola Formation," limestone and shale. OKLAHOMA CITY- "Wann Formation," shale and fine- to medium-grained sandstone; thickness, 40 to 180 feet. Underlying "Iola Limestone," mainly fine-grained calcareous sandstone and limestone with some shale; thickness, 15 to 20 feet.