Geologic units in Clatsop county, Oregon

Marine sedimentary rocks (Early Miocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 23 % of this area

Fine- to medium-grained Marine siltstone and sandstone that commonly contains tuff beds. Includes the Astoria Formation, which is mostly micaceous and carbonaceous sandstone, and the middle Miocene Gnat Creek Formation of Niem and Niem (1985), which overlies Frenchmen Springs Member of the Wanapum Basalt east of Astoria. The Astoria Formation locally contains calcareous concretions and sulfide nodules; foraminifers in formation are assigned to the Saucesian and Relizian Stages (Kleinpell, 1938; Rau, 1981) and molluscan fossils to the Newportian Stage of Addicott (1976, 1981). Also includes Nye Mudstone, which is massive to poorly bedded siltstone and mudstone; foraminiferal assemblages assigned to the Saucesian Stage (Kleinpell, 1938; Rau, 1981) and molluscan fauna to Pillarian(?) Stage (Armentrout, 1981)

Marine sedimentary and tuffaceous rocks (Late Eocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 21 % of this area

Tuffaceous and arkosic sandstone, locally fossiliferous, tuffaceous siltstone, tuff, glauconitic sandstone, minor conglomerate layers and lenses, and a few thin coal beds. Includes Scappoose Formation (Trimble, 1963; Wells and others, 1983), mudstone of Oswald West (Niem and Van Atta, 1973; Wells and others, 1983), Pittsburg Bluff Formation (see Wells and others, 1983), and Smuggler Cove and Northrup Creek formations (informal names) of Niem and Niem (1985)

Tuffaceous siltstone and sandstone (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 14 % of this area

Thick- to thin-bedded marine tuffaceous mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; fine to coarse grained. Contains calcareous concretions and, in places, is carbonaceous and micaceous. Includes the Nestucca Formation, which contains a foraminiferal assemblage assigned to the upper Narizian and lowermost Refugian Stages (Snavely and others, 1969; McKeel, 1980); the Spencer Formation, which contains Narizian Stage foraminifers; the Keasey Formation, which contains upper Narizian and lower Refugian Stage foraminifers (McDougall, 1975, 1980); the Coaledo and Bateman Formations of Baldwin (1974); upper Eocene sandstone of Bela (1981); and the Sager Creek formation (informal name) of Niem and Niem (1985)

Columbia River Basalt Group and related flows (Miocene) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Subaerial basalt and minor andesite lava flows and flow breccia; submarine palagonitic tuff and pillow complexes of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Swanson and others, 1979); locally includes invasive basalt flows. Flows locally grade laterally into subaqueous pillow-palagonite complexes and bedded palagonitic tuff and breccia. In places includes tuffaceous sedimentary interbeds. Joints commonly coated with nontronite and other clayey alteration products. Occurs principally in the Willamette Valley from Salem north to the Columbia River, and in the northern Coast Range. Unit includes correlative Cape Foulweather and Depoe Bay Basalts in the Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1973, 1976a, 1976b; Swanson and others, 1979; Wells and others, 1983). In Eastern Oregon, occurs principally in Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau and in the Blue Mountains. K-Ar ages range from about 6 to about 16.5 Ma (McKee and others, 1977; Swanson and others, 1979; Sutter, 1978; Lux, 1982). Locally separated into Tcs, Tcw, Tcg, Tcp, and Tci

Cowlitz Formation (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Micaceous, arkosic to basaltic marine sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone. Foraminiferal assemblages are referred to the upper Narizian Stage of Mallory (1959) in Newton and Van Atta (1976)

Alluvial deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Sand, gravel, and silt forming flood plains and filling channels of present streams. In places includes talus and slope wash. Locally includes soils containing abundant organic material, and thin peat beds

Tillamook Volcanics (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Subaerial basaltic flows and breccia and submarine basaltic breccia, pillow lavas, lapilli and augite-rich tuff with interbeds of basaltic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate. Includes some basaltic andesite and, near the top of the sequence, some dacite. Potassium-argon ages on middle and lower parts of sequence range from about 43 to 46 Ma (Magill and others, 1981): one potassium-argon age from dacite near top of sequence is about 40 Ma (see Wells and others, 1983)

Wanapum Basalt (Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Flows of gray to dark-gray, medium-grained, commonly plagioclase porphyritic basalt of Frenchman Springs petrochemical type (Wright and others, 1973). Generally exhibits blocky to platy jointing. Potassium-argon ages mostly about 15 Ma (Lux, 1982; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983)

Dune sand (Holocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Large areas of windblown sand composed of rock-forming minerals, mostly feldspar and small amounts of quartz, and, in southeastern Oregon, also pumice

Mafic and intermediate intrusive rocks (Miocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Dikes, plugs, and sills of basalt, diabase, gabbro, and lesser andesite that fed many of the Miocene basalt and andesite flows in unit Tc. Some intrusions are rootless and are invasive into sedimentary sequences; includes related breccia and peperite. Includes Depoe Bay and Cape Foulweather dikes, sills, and plugs in the Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1976a, b; Wells and others, 1983)

Mafic intrusions (Oligocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Sheets, sills, and dikes of massive granophyric ferrogabbro; some bodies strongly differentiated and include pegmatitic gabbro, ferrogranophyre, and granophyre (MacLeod, 1981). Plagioclase and amphibole from unit have yielded K-Ar ages of about 30 Ma (Snavely and others, 1976a)

Terrace, pediment, and lag gravels (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Unconsolidated deposits of gravel, cobbles, and boulders intermixed and locally interlayered with clay, silt, and sand. Mostly on terraces and pediments above present flood plains. Includes older alluvium of Smith and others (1982) in the Klamath Mountains and both high- and low-level terraces along Oregon coast. Includes dissected alluvial fan deposits northeast of Lebanon, and Linn and Leffler Gravels of Allison and Felts (1956)

Landslide and debris-flow deposits (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Unstratified mixtures of fragments of adjacent bedrock. Locally includes slope wash and colluvium. Largest slides and debris flows occur where thick sections of basalt and andesite flows overlie clayey tuffaceous rocks. May include some deposits of late Pliocene age

Grande Ronde Basalt (Early to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Flows of dark-gray to black, aphyric tholeiitic basalt, including both high- and low-Mg chemical types (Swanson and others, 1979). Potassium-argon ages mostly in the range of 15 to 17 Ma (Lux, 1982; Watkins and Baksi, 1974; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983)

Yamhill Formation and related rocks (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Massive to thin-bedded concretionary marine siltstone and thin interbeds of arkosic, glauconitic, and basaltic sandstone; locally contains interlayered basalt lava flows and lapilli tuff. Foraminiferal assemblages in siltstone referred to the Ulatisian and lower Narizian Stages (Snavely and others, 1969; McKeel, 1980) Includes the Elkton Formation of Baldwin (1974; also see Beaulieu and Hughes, 1975), which consists of thin-bedded siltstone and minor sandstone interbeds