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Geologic units in Columbia county, Oregon

Marine sedimentary and tuffaceous rocks (middle Miocene to upper Eocene) (Late Eocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 30 % of this area

Tuffaceous and arkosic sandstone, locally fossiliferous, tuffaceous siltstone, tuff, glauconitic sandstone, minor conglomerate layers and lenses, and a few thin coal beds. Includes Scappoose Formation (Trimble, 1963; Wells and others, 1983), mudstone of Oswald West (Niem and Van Atta, 1973; Wells and others, 1983), Pittsburg Bluff Formation (see Wells and others, 1983), and Smuggler Cove and Northrup Creek formations (informal names) of Niem and Niem (1985)

Alluvial deposits (Holocene) (Holocene) at surface, covers 26 % of this area

Sand, gravel, and silt forming flood plains and filling channels of present streams. In places includes talus and slope wash. Locally includes soils containing abundant organic material, and thin peat beds

Lithology: sand; gravel; silt; peat

Columbia River Basalt Group and related flows (Miocene) (Miocene) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Subaerial basalt and minor andesite lava flows and flow breccia; submarine palagonitic tuff and pillow complexes of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Swanson and others, 1979); locally includes invasive basalt flows. Flows locally grade laterally into subaqueous pillow-palagonite complexes and bedded palagonitic tuff and breccia. In places includes tuffaceous sedimentary interbeds. Joints commonly coated with nontronite and other clayey alteration products. Occurs principally in the Willamette Valley from Salem north to the Columbia River, and in the northern Coast Range. Unit includes correlative Cape Foulweather and Depoe Bay Basalts in the Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1973, 1976a, 1976b; Swanson and others, 1979; Wells and others, 1983). In Eastern Oregon, occurs principally in Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau and in the Blue Mountains. K-Ar ages range from about 6 to about 16.5 Ma (McKee and others, 1977; Swanson and others, 1979; Sutter, 1978; Lux, 1982). Locally separated into Tcs, Tcw, Tcg, Tcp, and Tci

Lithology: basalt; andesite

Cowlitz Formation (upper and middle Eocene) (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Micaceous, arkosic to basaltic marine sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone. Foraminiferal assemblages are referred to the upper Narizian Stage of Mallory (1959) in Newton and Van Atta (1976)

Porphyritic basalt (upper Eocene) (Late Eocene) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Subaerial lava flows and breccia of porphyritic basalt, minor basaltic andesite, and rare dacite. Includes basalt of Cascade Head (Wells and others, 1983), Yachats Basalt (Snavely and others, 1976c) and Goble Volcanic Series (Warren and others, 1945). Also includes camptonitic extrusive rocks (tuff breccia, lapilli tuff, and minor pillow flows) interbedded in Nestucca Formation

Lithology: basalt; andesite; dacite

Glaciofluvial, lacustrine, and pediment sedimentary deposits (Holocene and Pleistocene) (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Unconsolidated, poorly sorted silt, sand, and gravel. Includes lacustrine deposits west of Columbia River Gorge (Trimble, 1963). Mostly in northern Morrow and Umatilla Counties where unit represents deposits of swollen late Pleistocene Columbia River (Hogenson, 1964)

Lithology: silt; sand; gravel

Lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks (Pleistocene) (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Unconsolidated to semiconsolidated lacustrine clay, silt, sand, and gravel; in places includes mudflow and fluvial deposits and discontinuous layers of peat. Includes older alluvium and related deposits of Piper (1942), Willamette Silt (Allison, 1953; Wells and Peck, 1961), alluvial silt, sand, and gravel that form terrace deposits of Wells and others (1983), and Gresham and Estacada Formations of Trimble (1963). Includes deltaic gravel and sand and gravel bars, in pluvial lake basins in southeastern part of map area. In Rome Basin, includes discontinuous layers of poorly consolidated conglomerate characterized by well-rounded, commonly polished pebbles of chert and pebbles and cobbles of quartzite. In places contains mollusks or vertebrate fossils indicating Pleistocene age; mostly deposits of late Pleistocene age, but locally includes some deposits of early Holocene age. Includes Touchet Beds of Flint (1938), deposits of valley terraces of Newcomb (1965), and, in southeast Oregon, basin-filling deposits that incorporate Mazama ash deposits (Qma, Qmp) in the youngest layers

Lithology: clay or mud; silt; sand; gravel

Open Water (Holocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

water

Lithology: water

Tillamook Volcanics (upper and middle Eocene) (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Subaerial basaltic flows and breccia and submarine basaltic breccia, pillow lavas, lapilli and augite-rich tuff with interbeds of basaltic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate. Includes some basaltic andesite and, near the top of the sequence, some dacite. Potassium-argon ages on middle and lower parts of sequence range from about 43 to 46 Ma (Magill and others, 1981): one potassium-argon age from dacite near top of sequence is about 40 Ma (see Wells and others, 1983)

Tuffaceous siltstone and sandstone (upper and middle Eocene) (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Thick- to thin-bedded marine tuffaceous mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; fine to coarse grained. Contains calcareous concretions and, in places, is carbonaceous and micaceous. Includes the Nestucca Formation, which contains a foraminiferal assemblage assigned to the upper Narizian and lowermost Refugian Stages (Snavely and others, 1969; McKeel, 1980); the Spencer Formation, which contains Narizian Stage foraminifers; the Keasey Formation, which contains upper Narizian and lower Refugian Stage foraminifers (McDougall, 1975, 1980); the Coaledo and Bateman Formations of Baldwin (1974); upper Eocene sandstone of Bela (1981); and the Sager Creek formation (informal name) of Niem and Niem (1985)

Wanapum Basalt (middle Miocene) (Middle Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Flows of gray to dark-gray, medium-grained, commonly plagioclase porphyritic basalt of Frenchman Springs petrochemical type (Wright and others, 1973). Generally exhibits blocky to platy jointing. Potassium-argon ages mostly about 15 Ma (Lux, 1982; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983)

Lithology: basalt

Marine sedimentary rocks (middle and lower Miocene) (Early Miocene to Middle Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Fine- to medium-grained Marine siltstone and sandstone that commonly contains tuff beds. Includes the Astoria Formation, which is mostly micaceous and carbonaceous sandstone, and the middle Miocene Gnat Creek Formation of Niem and Niem (1985), which overlies Frenchmen Springs Member of the Wanapum Basalt east of Astoria. The Astoria Formation locally contains calcareous concretions and sulfide nodules; foraminifers in formation are assigned to the Saucesian and Relizian Stages (Kleinpell, 1938; Rau, 1981) and molluscan fossils to the Newportian Stage of Addicott (1976, 1981). Also includes Nye Mudstone, which is massive to poorly bedded siltstone and mudstone; foraminiferal assemblages assigned to the Saucesian Stage (Kleinpell, 1938; Rau, 1981) and molluscan fauna to Pillarian(?) Stage (Armentrout, 1981)

Lithology: siltstone; sandstone; tuff