Geologic units in Deschutes county, Oregon

Basalt and basaltic andesite (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 22 % of this area

Thin flows of aphyric and porphyritic basalt and basaltic andesite, and open-textured (dikytaxitic), generally nonporphyritic, subophitic olivine basalt that commonly is highly feldspathic. Also includes some dissected intracanyon flows of porphyritic basalt and related vent complexes. Pressure ridges and tumuli on upper surfaces well preserved. Occurs principally along crest of Cascade Range; also in areas near and east of Newberry volcano, along southeast margin of Harney Basin, and in Rome Basin. Older than Mazama ash deposits (Qma, Qmp; approximately 6,800 yr old; 14C)

Basalt (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 13 % of this area

Thin flows and minor flow breccia of open--textured (diktytaxitic) olivine basalt in southeastern part of map area. Locally contains thin interbeds of sedimentary rocks. Grades laterally through palagonite tuff and breccia into sedimentary rocks (unit QTs)

Lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

Unconsolidated to semiconsolidated lacustrine clay, silt, sand, and gravel; in places includes mudflow and fluvial deposits and discontinuous layers of peat. Includes older alluvium and related deposits of Piper (1942), Willamette Silt (Allison, 1953; Wells and Peck, 1961), alluvial silt, sand, and gravel that form terrace deposits of Wells and others (1983), and Gresham and Estacada Formations of Trimble (1963). Includes deltaic gravel and sand and gravel bars, in pluvial lake basins in southeastern part of map area. In Rome Basin, includes discontinuous layers of poorly consolidated conglomerate characterized by well-rounded, commonly polished pebbles of chert and pebbles and cobbles of quartzite. In places contains mollusks or vertebrate fossils indicating Pleistocene age; mostly deposits of late Pleistocene age, but locally includes some deposits of early Holocene age. Includes Touchet Beds of Flint (1938), deposits of valley terraces of Newcomb (1965), and, in southeast Oregon, basin-filling deposits that incorporate Mazama ash deposits (Qma, Qmp) in the youngest layers

Basaltic andesite and basalt (Quaternary) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Flows and flow breccia dominantly of basaltic andesite containing plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene phenocrysts and olivine-bearing basalt representing part of the volcanic sequence of the High Cascade Range (Thayer, 1937). Unit mostly forms small shield volcanoes, gentle-sided lava cones, and, in places, intracanyon flows

Olivine basalt (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Thin, commonly open-textured (diktytaxitic), subophitic to intergranular olivine basalt flows, intercalated with and grades laterally through palagonite breccia and tuff into tuffaceous sedimentary rocks (unit Ts). In places includes flows of platy olivine andesite or basaltic andesite. Several potassium-argon ages ranging from about 4 to 7 Ma indicate unit is mostly of early Pliocene and late Miocene age. Includes Shumuray Ranch Basalt and Antelope Flat Basalt of Kittleman and others (1965), Grassy Mountain Basalt of Corcoran and others (1962), Drinkwater Basalt of Bowen and others (1963), basalt formerly assigned to Danforth Formation by Piper and others (1939) (see Walker, 1979), Hayes Butte Basalt of Hampton (1964), Pliocene and upper Miocene basalt flows capping and interstratified with the Madras (or Deschutes) Formation, and basalt flows interstratified in the Dalles Formation of Newcomb (1966; 1969)

Youngest basalt and basaltic andesite (Holocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Little-modified flows and associated breccia of basaltic andesite and some basalt in both central part of Cascade Range and on slopes of Newberry Volcano. Relations to Mazama pumice deposits indicate most of these rocks are less than 6,800 yr old (14C); isotopic ages on flows range from about 1,000 to 6,000 yr B.P. (14C)

Basalt and basaltic andesite (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Flows, flow breccia, and pyroclastic deposits. Flows are aphanitic to finely crystalline, commonly diktytaxitic, and aphyric to porphyritic. Textures are mostly intergranular grading to intersertal; some andesite flows are finely trachytic and a few basalt flows are subophitic. Phenocrysts, mostly unaltered, include bytownite and labradorite, olivine, calcic augite, and hypersthene. Flows and breccia form shields, lava cones, and valley fill; in places greatly dissected and modified by fluvial erosion. Includes Boring Lava of Trimble (1963) and Hampton (1972) and Battle Ax Basalts of Thayer (1936). Potassium-argon ages from this unit range from about 1.2 to 3.9 Ma; in places difficult to distinguish from youngest flows of unit Trb

Tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and tuffs (Pliocene to Early Pleistocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Rhyolitic to andesitic ash-flow tuffs, pumice-fall deposits, minor mud flows, and older alluvium on the flanks of Newberry volcano (MacLeod and others, 1981; 1982) and in areas west and northwest of Bend

Mafic vent complexes (Late Miocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Plugs, dikes, and related near-vent flows, breccia, cinders, and agglutinate of basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite; commonly in the form of either little-modified lava cones or partly eroded piles of reddish, iron-stained thin flows and fragmental ejecta cut by mafic intrusions. May also include rocks of late Miocene(?) age

Glacial deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Unsorted bouldery gravel, sand, and rock flour in ground, terminal, and lateral moraines. Locally partly sorted

Tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and tuff (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Semiconsolidated to well-consolidated mostly lacustrine tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, concretionary claystone, conglomerate, pumicite, diatomite, air-fall and water-deposited vitric ash, palagonitic tuff and tuff breccia, and fluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Palagonitic tuff and breccia grade laterally into altered and unaltered basalt flows of unit Tob. In places includes layers of fluvial conglomerate and, in parts of the Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau, extensive deposits of fanglomerate composed mostly of Miocene basalt debris and silt. Also includes thin, welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuffs. Vertebrate and plant fossils indicate rocks of unit are mostly of Clarendonian and Hemphillian (late Miocene and Pliocene) age. Potassium-argon ages on interbedded basalt flows and ash-flow tuffs range from about 4 to 10 Ma. Includes the Drewsey Formation of Shotwell and others (1963); sedimentary parts of the Rattlesnake Formation of Brown and Thayer (1966); an interstratified ash-flow tuff has been radiometrically dated by potassium-argon methods at about 6.6 Ma (see Fiebelkorn and others, 1983); Bully Creek Formation of Kittleman and others (1967); Dalles Formation of Newcomb (1966, 1969); Shutler Formation of Hodge (1932), McKay beds of Hogenson (1964) and Newcomb (1966) (see also Shotwell, 1956); Kern Basin Formation of Corcoran and others (1962); Rome beds of Baldwin (1976); parts of the (now obsolete) Danforth Formation of Piper and others (1939), Idaho Group of Malde and Powers (1962), Thousand Creek Beds of Merriam (1910); the Madras (or Deschutes) Formation, the "Simtustus formation" of Smith (1984), and the Yonna Formation (Newcomb, 1958). In areas west of Cascade crest, includes the Sandy River Mudstone and the Troutdale Formation of Trimble (1963) and the lower Pliocene Helvetia Formation of Schlicker and Deacon (1967)

Pyroclastic ejecta of basaltic and andesitic cinder cones (Miocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Mostly unconsolidated, oxidized, fine to coarse, scoriaceous cinders, bombs, and agglutinate deposited in subaerial environment

Silicic vent rocks (Eocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Plugs and domal complexes of rhyolitic, rhyodacitic, and dacitic composition; includes related near-vent flows, flow breccia, and deposits of obsidian, perlite, and pumice. Locally includes resurgent domes related to caldera complexes. In southeast Oregon many domal complexes younger than 11 Ma exhibit a well-defined southeast to northwest age progression (Walker, 1974; MacLeod and others, 1976) from about 11 Ma to less than 1 Ma

Glaciofluvial deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Poorly sorted

Silicic vent deposits (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Complex domal masses of rhyolite and dacite that include near-vent flows, breccia, pumicite, perlite, obsidian, and ash-flow tuff

Silicic ash-flow tuff (Late Miocene to Early Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Ash-flow tuff and associated pumiceous air-fall tuff mostly of rhyolitic and rhyodacitic composition; includes minor tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. Grades laterally through less-densely welded tuff to nonwelded ash-flow tuff and interlayered tuffaceous sediments of unit Ts. Potassium-argon ages (Greene and others, 1972; Parker and Armstrong, 1972; Walker, 1979; McKee and others, 1976) on several different ash-flow tuffs included in unit range from about 4 to 10 Ma; although most ages are in the range of 6 to 9 Ma. Includes the Devine Canyon, Prater Creek, and Rattlesnake Ash-flow Tuffs (Walker, 1979), originally considered a part of the (now obsolete) Danforth Formation of Piper and others (1939), and the Rattlesnake Formation and the volcanic and fluvial deposits (undivided) and marginal facies of the Columbia River Group (undivided) of Brown and Thayer (1966). Also includes the welded soda--rhyolite tuff breccia of Dickinson and Vigrass (1965) in the Suplee-Izee area, the upper Miocene or lower Pliocene welded tuff of Prostka (1962; 1967) in the Baker area. "Welded ash-flow tuff" of Swanson (1969a) and the Pliocene Peyerl Tuff (Hampton, 1964) west of Fort Rock Valley, dated at about 4.5 Ma (McKee and others, 1976)

Alluvial deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Sand, gravel, and silt forming flood plains and filling channels of present streams. In places includes talus and slope wash. Locally includes soils containing abundant organic material, and thin peat beds

Rhyolite and dacite (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Domes and related flows and flow breccia of aphyric and plagioclase and hornblende porphyritic rhyolite and dacite. Includes rhyolite and dacite on Newberry volcano and at South Sister volcano in the Cascade Range that are younger than Mazama ash deposits (Qma , Qmp; radiometrically dated by 14C methods at approximately 6,800 yr old)

Fanglomerate (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Poorly sorted and poorly stratified alluvial fan debris, slope wash, colluvium, and talus; composed mostly of silt and fragments of basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite. In places includes small areas of pediment gravels and colluvium

Basalt and andesite (Miocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Lava flows and breccia of aphyric and plagioclase porphyritic basalt and aphyric andesite; locally includes flow breccia, peperite, some palagonite tuff and breccia, and minor silicic ash-flow tuff and interbeds of tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. In Basin and Range and Owyhee Upland provinces unit grades upward into more silicic, andesitic, and quartz latitic flows and flow breccia, as well as some interbedded tuffs and ash-flow tuffs; also in this region includes aphyric and highly porphyritic, plagioclase-rich basalt. Interfingers with and grades laterally into units Tit and Tts. Commonly contains montmorillonite clays, zeolites, calcite, and secondary silica minerals as alteration products on fractures and in pore spaces. Age, mostly middle Miocene, but includes some rocks of early Miocene age based on vertebrate fossils from related sedimentary units and on potassium-argon ages that range from about 13 Ma to about 19 Ma; most isotopic ages are about 13 to 16 Ma. Includes Steens Basalt (Steens Mountain Basalt of Fuller, 1931) Owyhee Basalt of Corcoran and others (1962) and Kittleman and others (1967), Hunter Creek Basalt and "unnamed igneous complex" of Kittleman and others (1965, 1967), and flows of Prineville chemical type (Uppuluri, 1974; Swanson and others, 1979), which previously were considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Swanson, 1969a)

Silicic vent complexes (Miocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Large, rhyolitic to dacitic vent areas in the Cascade Range that commonly include multiple intrusions and much associated silicic eruptive breccia and erosional debris and some flows

Mafic vent deposits (Miocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Mostly in small stratovolcanoes or shield volcanoes and lava cones of basalt and andesite. Includes agglomerate, breccia, scoria, cinders, ash, restricted flows, and small basaltic intrusive bodies. Transitional into pyroclastic rocks of cinder cones (QTp). May also include rocks of late Miocene(?) age

Mafic and intermediate vent rocks (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Basaltic and andesitic agglomerate, breccia, scoria, cinders, flows, and intrusive masses forming lava cones and small shields

Andesite (Quaternary) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Forms major stratovolcanoes dominantly of aphyric to porphyritic basaltic andesite and andesite; phenocrysts are principally pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, and, rarely, hornblende. Locally includes dacite and minor basalt

Dune sand (Holocene) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Large areas of windblown sand composed of rock-forming minerals, mostly feldspar and small amounts of quartz, and, in southeastern Oregon, also pumice

John Day Formation of east-central Oregon (Late Eocene to Early Miocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

John Day Formation of east-central Oregon (lower Miocene, Oligocene, and uppermost Eocene?)

Subaqueous pyroclastic ejecta of basaltic and andesitic cinder cones (Miocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Partly consolidated, palagonitized, fine to coarse, scoriaceous altered cinders, bombs, breccia, and minor agglutinate, mostly deposited in subaqueous environment. Commonly with some interlayers and intermixed lacustrine sedimentary rocks. Forms palagonitic tuff and breccia cones and rings (maars) and, in places, palagonitic tuff ridges

Sedimentary rocks (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Semiconsolidated lacustrine and fluvial ashy and palagonitic sedimentary rocks, mostly tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone; locally contains abundant palagonitized basaltic debris and some pebble conglomerate. Includes alluvial gravel and mudflow deposits of Walters Hill and Springwater Formations (Trimble, 1963). In places, grades laterally through palagonite tuff and breccia into basalt flows

Clastic rocks and andesite flows (Paleocene to Early Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly andesitic lava flows, domes, breccia, and small intrusive masses and lesser basaltic to rhyolitic rocks; interlayered saprolite, bedded volcaniclastic and epiclastic mudstone, claystone, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate, and mudflow (lahar) deposits. Mostly consists of Clarno Formation of central Oregon and unnamed rocks of Basin and Range Province in south-central Oregon. Fossil plants and vertebrates in these rocks are Eocene in age. Andesite and basalt lava flows are typically slightly altered; most glass is devitrified and altered to clay minerals, zeolites, and secondary feldspar. Reliable K-Ar ages of rocks from unit range from about 54 Ma to about 37 Ma (Evernden and James, 1964; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983). A number of K-Ar ages on rocks shown on source maps as part of the Clarno Formation are in the range of about 36 to 19 Ma (Fiebelkorn and others, 1983). Although these rocks are lithologically similar to, but generally less altered than, rocks of the Clarno Formation, they are coeval with the John Day Formation. Most of these enigmatic rocks of Oligocene and early Miocene age are included in unit Tas. At base of unit in Blue Mountains Province, locally includes quartzose and feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and shale largely of granitic or metamorphic provenance; fossil plants in these sedimentary rocks indicate an early Eocene or Paleocene age

Playa deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Clay, silt, sand, and some evaporites

Tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, tuffs, pumicites, and silicic flows (Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Moderately well indurated lacustrine and fluvial (flood-plain) deposits of tuff, pumicite, palagonite tuff, and lesser siltstone, arkosic sandstone, and pebble and cobble conglomerate. Locally contains some lignite beds. Former glass in silicic vitroclastic debris commonly crystallized and altered to secondary silica minerals, alkali feldspar, zeolites, and clay minerals. Contains some welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuffs, and minor rhyolite flows. Widespread and abundant vertebrate fossils and minor plant fossils indicate that most of unit is of middle Miocene (Barstovian) age; parts of unit between Goose Lake and Warner Valley may include rocks of early Miocene age. Locally interlayered with and locally overlies basalt and andesite flows of unit Tmb. Overlies and locally interfingers with Picture Gorge Basalt (Thayer and Brown, 1966) and with Miocene basalt south of Prineville. Includes Mascall Formation of Merriam (1901), Sucker (Succor) Creek Formation of Corcoran and others (1962) and Kittleman and others (1967), Drip Spring Formation of Kittleman and others (1965, 1967), Trout Creek Formation of Smith (1926), and "rocks of Miocene age" of Malde and Powers (1962) in the southern Owyhee Upland province. In southeast Oregon, some of these rocks represent caldera and moat-fill deposits

Rhyolitic tuff, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lava flows (Late Eocene to Early Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Rhyolitic to dacitic varicolored bedded tuff, lapilli tuff, and fine- to medium-grained tuffaceous sedimentary rocks with interstratified welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuff and interbedded basalt and andesite flows. Also includes minor rhyolite and dacite flows and domes. Glass in tuff and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks is commonly altered to zeolites, clay minerals, and small amounts of opal, chalcedony, orthoclase, and calcite. Fossil plants and vertebrates indicate an Oligocene and Miocene age. Locally a late Hemingfordian age indicated by mammalian fauna (Woodburn and Robinson, 1977). May include some rocks of middle Miocene age in the area west and northwest of Lakeview. Potassium-argon ages on rocks from unit range from about 36 Ma (Swanson and Robinson, 1968) to about 20 Ma. Includes Pike Creek Formation of Walker and Repenning (1965), originally identified as Pike Creek Volcanic Series by Fuller (1931), and unnamed volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of southern Lake County, some of which have been correlated with the Miocene and Oligocene Cedarville Formation of northeastern California

Rhyolite and dacite (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Ash-flow tuff, lava flows, pumice-lapilli tuff, coarse pumicite, flow breccia, and domal complexes of rhyolitic, rhyodacitic, and dacitic composition; in places includes peralkaline rhyolite and some andesite and andesite breccia. Locally porphyritic with phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and minor augite, ferro-hedenbergite, hornblende, hypersthene, or biotite. Commonly flow banded; locally glassy. Many of the ash--flow tuffs exhibit flow features and only obscure vitro-clastic textures. In places includes interlayers of silicic volcaniclastic rocks and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. Includes rhyolite at Owyhee Dam, Jump Creek Rhyolite, and Littlefield Rhyolite, all of Kittleman and others (1965); Dooley Rhyolite Breccia of Gilluly (1937), radiometrically dated at 14.7 ñ 0.4 Ma by potassium-argon methods (Fiebelkorn and others, 1983); resurgent domal masses in McDermitt caldera area; and extensive unnamed flows and ash-flow tuffs in the central and southern part of the Owyhee Upland. Also includes isolated masses of dacitic and rhyodacitic flows, breccia, and ash-flow tuff along eastern slope of Cascade Range that are lapped by flows and sediments of the Madras (or Deschutes) Formation. Potassium-argon ages on rocks in unit from southeast Oregon range from about 13 to 16 Ma; lenses of interbedded tuffaceous sedimentary rocks locally contain a Miocene (Barstovian) vertebrate fauna

Basaltic and andesitic rocks (Middle to Late Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lava flows and flow breccia of hypersthene and olivine andesite, basaltic andesite containing plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts, and basalt; many flows contain phenocrysts of both hypersthene and augite. Includes interbedded volcaniclastic and epiclastic rocks mostly of andesitic composition, but partly of dacitic or rhyodacitic composition. Includes really restricted flows of silicic andesite or dacite. Upper part of unit mostly unaltered, although olivine crystals are locally altered to clay minerals. Lower parts commonly altered; secondary minerals include nontronite and saponite, chalcedony, calcite, and zeolites. Older parts of this unit locally are propylitically altered adjacent to larger intrusions. Erupted mostly from widespread, northwest- and north-trending dikes and dike swarms and related plugs and lava cones. Potassium-argon ages range from about 10 Ma to about 17 Ma. Much of this unit was previously assigned to the Sardine Formation (Peck and others, 1964), although the type locality of the Sardine Formation ("Sardine Series" as mapped by Thayer, 1939) may be older. Includes Elk Lake Formation (White, 1980a, 1980b), part of the Rhododendron Formation (Trimble, 1963; Wise, 1969), and andesite of Nohorn Creek of Hammond and others (1982)

Olivine basalt (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Thin, commonly open-textured (diktytaxitic), subophitic to intergranular olivine basalt flows, intercalated with and grades laterally through palagonite breccia and tuff into tuffaceous sedimentary rocks (unit Ts). In places includes flows of platy olivine andesite or basaltic andesite. Several potassium-argon ages ranging from about 4 to 7 Ma indicate unit is mostly of early Pliocene and late Miocene age. Includes Shumuray Ranch Basalt and Antelope Flat Basalt of Kittleman and others (1965), Grassy Mountain Basalt of Corcoran and others (1962), Drinkwater Basalt of Bowen and others (1963), basalt formerly assigned to Danforth Formation by Piper and others (1939) (see Walker, 1979), Hayes Butte Basalt of Hampton (1964), Pliocene and upper Miocene basalt flows capping and interstratified with the Madras (or Deschutes) Formation, and basalt flows interstratified in the Dalles Formation of Newcomb (1966; 1969)

Predominantly tuffaceous facies of Clarno Formation (Eocene to Early Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mapped separately by Swanson (1969a) in the Ochoco and Maury Mountains of the Blue Mountains Province