Geologic units in Lane county, Oregon

Tyee Formation (Middle Eocene) at surface, covers 21 % of this area

Very thick sequence of rhymically bedded, medium- to fine-grained micaceous, feldspathic, lithic, or arkosic marine sandstone and micaceous carbonaceous siltstone; contains minor interbeds of dacite tuff in upper part. Foraminiferal fauna are referred to the Ulatisian Stage (Snavely and others, 1964). Groove and flute casts indicate deposition by north-flowing turbidity currents (Snavely and others, 1964), but probable provenance of unit is southwest Idaho (Heller and others, 1985)

Undifferentiated tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, tuffs, and basalt (Oligocene to Miocene) at surface, covers 17 % of this area

Heterogeneous assemblage of continental, largely volcanogenic deposits of basalt and basaltic andesite, including flows and breccia, complexly interstratified with epiclastic and volcaniclastic deposits of basaltic to rhyodacitic composition. Includes extensive rhyodacitic to andesitic ash-flow and air-fall tuffs, abundant lapilli tuff and tuff breccia, andesitic to dacitic mudflow (lahar) deposits, poorly bedded to well-bedded, fine- to coarse-grained tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and volcanic conglomerate. Originally included in Little Butte Volcanic Series (Peck and others, 1964); includes Mehama Volcanics and Breitenbush Tuffs or Series of Thayer (1933, 1936, 1939), Breitenbush Formation of Hammond and others (1982), Mehama Formation of Eubanks (1960), and Molalla Formation of Miller and Orr (1984a). In Columbia River Gorge, includes Miocene and older rocks previously assigned to the Skamania Volcanic Series (Trimble, 1963), or to the Eagle Creek Formation (Waters, 1973). Lower parts of unit exhibit low-grade metamorphism with primary constituents altered to clay minerals, calcite, zeolites (stilbite, laumontite, heulandite), and secondary silica minerals. In contact aureoles adjacent to stocks and larger dikes of granitic and dioritic composition or in areas of andesitic dike swarms, both wallrocks and intrusions are pervasively propylitized; locally rocks also have been subjected to potassic alteration. Epiclastic part of assemblage locally contains fossil plants assigned to the Angoonian Stage (Wolfe, 1981) or of Oligocene age. A regionally extensive biotite-quartz rhyodacite ash-flow tuff, the ash-flow tuff of Bond Creek of Smith and others (1982), is exposed in southern part of Western Cascade Range near and at base of unit. A K-Ar age of 34.9 Ma was determined on biotite from the tuff (Smith, 1980). Ash-flow tuffs, higher in the section and in the same area, have been radiometrically dated at 22 to 32 Ma by potassium-argon methods (J.G. Smith, unpublished data; Evernden and James, 1964; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983). In the central part of the Western Cascade Range, the unit has yielded a number of K-Ar ages in the range of about 32 to 19 Ma (Verplanck, 1985, p. 53-54). A fission-track age of 23.8 ñ 1.4 Ma was obtained on a red, crystal-rich ash-flow tuff (J.A. Vance, oral communication, 1983) collected at an elevation of about 3,000 ft on U.S. Highway 20 west-southwest of Echo Mountain. Most ages from basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows are in the range of about 35 to 18 Ma. Locally intruded by small stocks of granitoid rocks and by dikes, sills, plugs, and invasive flows of basaltic andesite and basalt; in many places, the intrusions are indistinguishable from poorly exposed interbedded lava flows; K-Ar ages on several of the mafic intrusions or invasive flows are about 27 to 31 Ma. In places subdivided into Tus, Tut, and Tub

Basaltic lava flows (Oligocene to Miocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Basaltic and basaltic andesite lava flows and breccia; grades laterally into rare bedded palagonitic tuff and breccia

Fisher and Eugene Formations and correlative rocks (Late Eocene to Oligocene) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Thin to moderately thick bedded, coarse- to fine-grained arkosic and micaceous sandstone and siltstone, locally highly pumiceous, of the marine Eugene Formation; and coeval and older andesitic lapilli tuff, breccia, water-laid and air-fall silicic ash of the continental Fisher and Colestin Formations; upper parts of the Fisher Formation apparently lap onto and interfinger with the Eugene Formation. Megafauna in the Eugene Formation were assigned an Oligocene age by Vokes and others (1951) and foraminifers have been assigned to the upper part of the lower Refugian Stage (McDougall, 1980), or of late Eocene age. Basalt lava flows in the Fisher Formation have yielded isotopic ages as old as 40 Ma (Lux, 1982), and south of the latitude of Cottage Grove the Fisher is overlain by a welded tuff in unit Tu dated at about 35 Ma. North of Eugene, rocks of this unit are overlain unconformably by continental volcanogenic rocks of unit Tu, including an ash-flow tuff with a K-Ar age of 30.9 ñ 0.4 Ma

Alluvial deposits (Holocene) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Sand, gravel, and silt forming flood plains and filling channels of present streams. In places includes talus and slope wash. Locally includes soils containing abundant organic material, and thin peat beds

Basaltic andesite and basalt (Quaternary) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Flows and flow breccia dominantly of basaltic andesite containing plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene phenocrysts and olivine-bearing basalt representing part of the volcanic sequence of the High Cascade Range (Thayer, 1937). Unit mostly forms small shield volcanoes, gentle-sided lava cones, and, in places, intracanyon flows

Basaltic and andesitic rocks (Middle to Late Miocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Lava flows and flow breccia of hypersthene and olivine andesite, basaltic andesite containing plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts, and basalt; many flows contain phenocrysts of both hypersthene and augite. Includes interbedded volcaniclastic and epiclastic rocks mostly of andesitic composition, but partly of dacitic or rhyodacitic composition. Includes really restricted flows of silicic andesite or dacite. Upper part of unit mostly unaltered, although olivine crystals are locally altered to clay minerals. Lower parts commonly altered; secondary minerals include nontronite and saponite, chalcedony, calcite, and zeolites. Older parts of this unit locally are propylitically altered adjacent to larger intrusions. Erupted mostly from widespread, northwest- and north-trending dikes and dike swarms and related plugs and lava cones. Potassium-argon ages range from about 10 Ma to about 17 Ma. Much of this unit was previously assigned to the Sardine Formation (Peck and others, 1964), although the type locality of the Sardine Formation ("Sardine Series" as mapped by Thayer, 1939) may be older. Includes Elk Lake Formation (White, 1980a, 1980b), part of the Rhododendron Formation (Trimble, 1963; Wise, 1969), and andesite of Nohorn Creek of Hammond and others (1982)

Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks (Tertiary) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Lapilli tuff, mudflow deposits (lahars), flow breccia, and volcanic conglomerate, mostly of basaltic to dacitic composition; rare iron-stained palagonitic tuff and breccia of basaltic and andesitic composition; and ash-flow, air-fall, and water-laid tuff of dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The palagonite tuff and breccia grade laterally into peperite and into lava flows of basalt and basaltic andesite

Glacial deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Unsorted bouldery gravel, sand, and rock flour in ground, terminal, and lateral moraines. Locally partly sorted

Lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Unconsolidated to semiconsolidated lacustrine clay, silt, sand, and gravel; in places includes mudflow and fluvial deposits and discontinuous layers of peat. Includes older alluvium and related deposits of Piper (1942), Willamette Silt (Allison, 1953; Wells and Peck, 1961), alluvial silt, sand, and gravel that form terrace deposits of Wells and others (1983), and Gresham and Estacada Formations of Trimble (1963). Includes deltaic gravel and sand and gravel bars, in pluvial lake basins in southeastern part of map area. In Rome Basin, includes discontinuous layers of poorly consolidated conglomerate characterized by well-rounded, commonly polished pebbles of chert and pebbles and cobbles of quartzite. In places contains mollusks or vertebrate fossils indicating Pleistocene age; mostly deposits of late Pleistocene age, but locally includes some deposits of early Holocene age. Includes Touchet Beds of Flint (1938), deposits of valley terraces of Newcomb (1965), and, in southeast Oregon, basin-filling deposits that incorporate Mazama ash deposits (Qma, Qmp) in the youngest layers

Ridge-capping basalt and basaltic andesite (Late Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Flows and flow breccia of basaltic andesite and lesser diktytaxitic to intergranular olivine basalt. Includes some dense, aphyric flows, commonly with either cryptocrystalline or pilotaxitic to trachytic texture, and porphyritic flows with phenocrysts and glomerocrysts of olivine, hypersthene, and labradorite. A few flows contain both hypersthene and calcic augite phenocrysts. Olivine mostly fresh or slightly altered to iddingsite in flows high in section; flows low in section show some alteration to clays (nontronite and saponite), secondary silica minerals, and calcite; pinkish-brown glass in some flows unaltered. Locally includes some andesite and dacite. Some flows of this unit are lithologically similar to flow rocks of the High Cascade volcanic sequence and some are more like flows that in the past have been mapped as part of the Sardine Formation (Peck and others, 1964) and Elk Lake Formation of McBirney and others (1974) and Sutter (1978). Potassium-argon ages of rocks from this unit range from about 4 to 8 or 9 Ma. Includes some rocks formerly mapped as Rhododendron Formation by Peck and others (1964)

Landslide and debris-flow deposits (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Unstratified mixtures of fragments of adjacent bedrock. Locally includes slope wash and colluvium. Largest slides and debris flows occur where thick sections of basalt and andesite flows overlie clayey tuffaceous rocks. May include some deposits of late Pliocene age

Flows and clastic rocks, undifferentiated (Miocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Chiefly basaltic andesite and andesite lava flows and flow breccia containing plagioclase and pyroxene (hypersthene and augite) phenocrysts, mudflows (lahars), and volcanic conglomerates; locally includes some dacite flows. Includes lesser, coarse- to fine-grained epiclastic volcanic sedimentary rocks and ash-flow and air-fall tuffs. Partly equivalent in age to unit Tba and may be partly coeval with younger parts of unit Tstb. Locally altered adjacent to larger intrusions. The oldest radiometrically dated rocks assigned to this unit are about 17 Ma (Sutter, 1978); in part lapped by flows questionably assigned to unit Tba, radiometrically dated at about 10 Ma, and unconformably overlain by flows of unit Trb. Includes some of rocks formerly mapped as Sardine Formation and some mapped as Rhododendron Formation

Basalt and basaltic andesite (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Flows, flow breccia, and pyroclastic deposits. Flows are aphanitic to finely crystalline, commonly diktytaxitic, and aphyric to porphyritic. Textures are mostly intergranular grading to intersertal; some andesite flows are finely trachytic and a few basalt flows are subophitic. Phenocrysts, mostly unaltered, include bytownite and labradorite, olivine, calcic augite, and hypersthene. Flows and breccia form shields, lava cones, and valley fill; in places greatly dissected and modified by fluvial erosion. Includes Boring Lava of Trimble (1963) and Hampton (1972) and Battle Ax Basalts of Thayer (1936). Potassium-argon ages from this unit range from about 1.2 to 3.9 Ma; in places difficult to distinguish from youngest flows of unit Trb

Tuff (Tertiary) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Welded to unwelded, mostly vitric crystal and vitric ash-flow tuff of several ages. Glass in tuff locally altered to clay, zeolites, and secondary silica minerals

Porphyritic basalt (Late Eocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Subaerial lava flows and breccia of porphyritic basalt, minor basaltic andesite, and rare dacite. Includes basalt of Cascade Head (Wells and others, 1983), Yachats Basalt (Snavely and others, 1976c) and Goble Volcanic Series (Warren and others, 1945). Also includes camptonitic extrusive rocks (tuff breccia, lapilli tuff, and minor pillow flows) interbedded in Nestucca Formation

Tuffaceous siltstone and sandstone (Middle Eocene to Late Eocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Thick- to thin-bedded marine tuffaceous mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; fine to coarse grained. Contains calcareous concretions and, in places, is carbonaceous and micaceous. Includes the Nestucca Formation, which contains a foraminiferal assemblage assigned to the upper Narizian and lowermost Refugian Stages (Snavely and others, 1969; McKeel, 1980); the Spencer Formation, which contains Narizian Stage foraminifers; the Keasey Formation, which contains upper Narizian and lower Refugian Stage foraminifers (McDougall, 1975, 1980); the Coaledo and Bateman Formations of Baldwin (1974); upper Eocene sandstone of Bela (1981); and the Sager Creek formation (informal name) of Niem and Niem (1985)

Terrace, pediment, and lag gravels (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Unconsolidated deposits of gravel, cobbles, and boulders intermixed and locally interlayered with clay, silt, and sand. Mostly on terraces and pediments above present flood plains. Includes older alluvium of Smith and others (1982) in the Klamath Mountains and both high- and low-level terraces along Oregon coast. Includes dissected alluvial fan deposits northeast of Lebanon, and Linn and Leffler Gravels of Allison and Felts (1956)

Glaciofluvial deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Poorly sorted

Basaltic rocks (Late Eocene to Oligocene) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Probably part of Fisher Formation

Mafic intrusions (Oligocene) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Sheets, sills, and dikes of massive granophyric ferrogabbro; some bodies strongly differentiated and include pegmatitic gabbro, ferrogranophyre, and granophyre (MacLeod, 1981). Plagioclase and amphibole from unit have yielded K-Ar ages of about 30 Ma (Snavely and others, 1976a)

Silicic vent complexes (Miocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Large, rhyolitic to dacitic vent areas in the Cascade Range that commonly include multiple intrusions and much associated silicic eruptive breccia and erosional debris and some flows

Marine Eugene Formation, where mapped separately (Late Eocene to Oligocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Marine Eugene Formation, where mapped separately

Hypabyssal intrusive rocks (Miocene) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Hypabyssal, medium-grained, hornblende diorite and quartz diorite in small stocks and large dikes; includes intrusions of medium- to fine-grained gabbro and plugs and small stocks of medium-grained, holocrystalline, olivine andesite. Also includes medium-grained, commonly porphyritic biotite quartz monzonite and leucocratic granodiorite. Many of these intrusive bodies are moderately to intensely propylitized, as are wallrocks they intrude; locally, along shears, the rocks also are sericitized. Potassium-argon ages on several of these shallow intrusions range from about 8 Ma to about 22 Ma (Wise, 1969; Bikerman, 1970; Sutter, 1978; Power and others, 1981a, b; Fiebelkorn and others, 1983)

Mafic vent complexes (Late Miocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Plugs, dikes, and related near-vent flows, breccia, cinders, and agglutinate of basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite; commonly in the form of either little-modified lava cones or partly eroded piles of reddish, iron-stained thin flows and fragmental ejecta cut by mafic intrusions. May also include rocks of late Miocene(?) age

Basalt and andesite intrusions (Oligocene(?) to Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Sills, plugs and dikes of basaltic andesite, basalt, and andesite. Mostly represents feeders, exposed by erosion, for flows and flow breccias of units Tba and Trb. Includes a few dikes of hornblende and plagioclase porphyritic andesite, commonly altered, and aphyric basaltic andesite that probably were feeders for parts of unit Tub

Dune sand (Holocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Large areas of windblown sand composed of rock-forming minerals, mostly feldspar and small amounts of quartz, and, in southeastern Oregon, also pumice

Youngest basalt and basaltic andesite (Holocene) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Little-modified flows and associated breccia of basaltic andesite and some basalt in both central part of Cascade Range and on slopes of Newberry Volcano. Relations to Mazama pumice deposits indicate most of these rocks are less than 6,800 yr old (14C); isotopic ages on flows range from about 1,000 to 6,000 yr B.P. (14C)

Pyroclastic ejecta of basaltic and andesitic cinder cones (Miocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Mostly unconsolidated, oxidized, fine to coarse, scoriaceous cinders, bombs, and agglutinate deposited in subaerial environment

Andesite (Quaternary) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Forms major stratovolcanoes dominantly of aphyric to porphyritic basaltic andesite and andesite; phenocrysts are principally pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, and, rarely, hornblende. Locally includes dacite and minor basalt

Rhyolite and dacite (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Domes and related flows and flow breccia of aphyric and plagioclase and hornblende porphyritic rhyolite and dacite. Includes rhyolite and dacite on Newberry volcano and at South Sister volcano in the Cascade Range that are younger than Mazama ash deposits (Qma , Qmp; radiometrically dated by 14C methods at approximately 6,800 yr old)

Mafic vent complexes (Miocene) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Intrusive plugs and dike swarms and related near-vent flows, breccias, cinders, and agglutinate of basaltic andesite, basalt, and andesite; commonly in the form of eroded piles of red, iron-stained thin flows, cinders, and agglutinate cut by mafic intrusions

Alsea Formation (Late Eocene to Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Massive to thick-bedded tuffaceous marine siltstone and fine-grained sandstone; locally concretionary. Foraminiferal assemblages assigned to the Zemorrian and upper Refugian Stages (Kleinpell, 1938; Rau, 1975) and molluscan fauna assigned (Snavely and others, 1976a) to the Lincoln and lower Blakeley Stages of Weaver and others (1944)

Columbia River Basalt Group and related flows (Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Subaerial basalt and minor andesite lava flows and flow breccia; submarine palagonitic tuff and pillow complexes of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Swanson and others, 1979); locally includes invasive basalt flows. Flows locally grade laterally into subaqueous pillow-palagonite complexes and bedded palagonitic tuff and breccia. In places includes tuffaceous sedimentary interbeds. Joints commonly coated with nontronite and other clayey alteration products. Occurs principally in the Willamette Valley from Salem north to the Columbia River, and in the northern Coast Range. Unit includes correlative Cape Foulweather and Depoe Bay Basalts in the Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1973, 1976a, 1976b; Swanson and others, 1979; Wells and others, 1983). In Eastern Oregon, occurs principally in Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau and in the Blue Mountains. K-Ar ages range from about 6 to about 16.5 Ma (McKee and others, 1977; Swanson and others, 1979; Sutter, 1978; Lux, 1982). Locally separated into Tcs, Tcw, Tcg, Tcp, and Tci

Basalt and andesite (Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lava flows and breccia of aphyric and plagioclase porphyritic basalt and aphyric andesite; locally includes flow breccia, peperite, some palagonite tuff and breccia, and minor silicic ash-flow tuff and interbeds of tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. In Basin and Range and Owyhee Upland provinces unit grades upward into more silicic, andesitic, and quartz latitic flows and flow breccia, as well as some interbedded tuffs and ash-flow tuffs; also in this region includes aphyric and highly porphyritic, plagioclase-rich basalt. Interfingers with and grades laterally into units Tit and Tts. Commonly contains montmorillonite clays, zeolites, calcite, and secondary silica minerals as alteration products on fractures and in pore spaces. Age, mostly middle Miocene, but includes some rocks of early Miocene age based on vertebrate fossils from related sedimentary units and on potassium-argon ages that range from about 13 Ma to about 19 Ma; most isotopic ages are about 13 to 16 Ma. Includes Steens Basalt (Steens Mountain Basalt of Fuller, 1931) Owyhee Basalt of Corcoran and others (1962) and Kittleman and others (1967), Hunter Creek Basalt and "unnamed igneous complex" of Kittleman and others (1965, 1967), and flows of Prineville chemical type (Uppuluri, 1974; Swanson and others, 1979), which previously were considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Swanson, 1969a)

Sedimentary rocks (Pliocene to Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Semiconsolidated lacustrine and fluvial ashy and palagonitic sedimentary rocks, mostly tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone; locally contains abundant palagonitized basaltic debris and some pebble conglomerate. Includes alluvial gravel and mudflow deposits of Walters Hill and Springwater Formations (Trimble, 1963). In places, grades laterally through palagonite tuff and breccia into basalt flows

Siletz River Volcanics and related rocks (Paleocene to Middle Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Aphanitic to porphyritic, vesicular pillow flows, tuff-breccias, massive lava flows and sills of tholeiitic and alkalic basalt. Upper part of sequence contains numerous interbeds of basaltic siltstone and sandstone, basaltic tuff, and locally derived basalt conglomerate. Rocks of unit pervasively zeolitized and veined with calcite. Most of these rocks are of marine origin and have been interpreted as oceanic crust and seamounts (Snavely and others, 1968). Foraminiferal assemblages referred to the Ulatisian and Penutian Stages (Snavely and others, 1969); K-Ar ages range from 50.7 ñ 3.1 to 58.1 ñ 1.5 Ma (Duncan, 1982); includes the lower part of the Roseburg Formation of Baldwin (1974), which has yielded K-Ar ages as old as 62 Ma

Olivine basalt (Miocene to Pliocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Thin, commonly open-textured (diktytaxitic), subophitic to intergranular olivine basalt flows, intercalated with and grades laterally through palagonite breccia and tuff into tuffaceous sedimentary rocks (unit Ts). In places includes flows of platy olivine andesite or basaltic andesite. Several potassium-argon ages ranging from about 4 to 7 Ma indicate unit is mostly of early Pliocene and late Miocene age. Includes Shumuray Ranch Basalt and Antelope Flat Basalt of Kittleman and others (1965), Grassy Mountain Basalt of Corcoran and others (1962), Drinkwater Basalt of Bowen and others (1963), basalt formerly assigned to Danforth Formation by Piper and others (1939) (see Walker, 1979), Hayes Butte Basalt of Hampton (1964), Pliocene and upper Miocene basalt flows capping and interstratified with the Madras (or Deschutes) Formation, and basalt flows interstratified in the Dalles Formation of Newcomb (1966; 1969)

Granitic rocks (Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly tonalite and quartz diorite but including lesser amounts of other granitoid rocks. Potassium-argon ages determined on hornblende indicates plutons range in age from 143 to 166 Ma (Hotz, 1971)

Tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, tuffs, pumicites, and silicic flows (Miocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Moderately well indurated lacustrine and fluvial (flood-plain) deposits of tuff, pumicite, palagonite tuff, and lesser siltstone, arkosic sandstone, and pebble and cobble conglomerate. Locally contains some lignite beds. Former glass in silicic vitroclastic debris commonly crystallized and altered to secondary silica minerals, alkali feldspar, zeolites, and clay minerals. Contains some welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuffs, and minor rhyolite flows. Widespread and abundant vertebrate fossils and minor plant fossils indicate that most of unit is of middle Miocene (Barstovian) age; parts of unit between Goose Lake and Warner Valley may include rocks of early Miocene age. Locally interlayered with and locally overlies basalt and andesite flows of unit Tmb. Overlies and locally interfingers with Picture Gorge Basalt (Thayer and Brown, 1966) and with Miocene basalt south of Prineville. Includes Mascall Formation of Merriam (1901), Sucker (Succor) Creek Formation of Corcoran and others (1962) and Kittleman and others (1967), Drip Spring Formation of Kittleman and others (1965, 1967), Trout Creek Formation of Smith (1926), and "rocks of Miocene age" of Malde and Powers (1962) in the southern Owyhee Upland province. In southeast Oregon, some of these rocks represent caldera and moat-fill deposits

Mafic vent and intrusive rocks (Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly plugs, dikes, and irregular intrusive bodies of basaltic andesite and porphyritic hornblende or pyroxene andesite. Represents some of vents for unit Tca and possibly for unit Tas