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Geologic units in Bedford county, Pennsylvania

Catskill Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 15 % of this area

Catskill Formation - Grayish-red sandstone, siltstone, shale, and mudstone; locally conglomeratic; contains gray sandstone in upper part; lithologies arranged in fining-upward cycles; equivalent to the Hampshire Formation south of Pennsylvania.

Scherr Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 13 % of this area

Scherr Formation - Chiefly siltstone; some fine-grained sandstone, shale, and mudstone; light olive gray; marine fossils.

Tuscarora Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Tuscarora Formation - Light- to medium-gray quartzite and quartzitic sandstone and minor interbedded shale and siltstone, locally conglomeratic in lower part; includes (to the northwest) interbedded red and non-red sandstone (Castanea Member) at top; east of Harrisburg, equivalent to Minsi and Weiders Members of Shawangunk Formation.

Hamilton Group (Devonian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Hamilton Group - Includes, in descending order, the Mahantango (Dmh) and Marcellus (Dmr) Formations.

Foreknobs Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Foreknobs Formation - Interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale; gray to olive gray, red near top; substantial brownish-gray sandstone; some marine fossils; a few conglomerate beds at base and top.

Onondaga and Old Port Formations, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Onondaga and Old Port Formations, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Onondaga Formation (Don), Ridgeley Member of Old Port Formation (Dor), and Shriver, Mandata, Corriganville, and New Creek Members of Old Port Formation, undivided (Dosn).

Brallier and Harrell Formations, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Brallier and Harrell Formations, undivided - In descending order: Brallier--medium-gray, planar-bedded siltstone interbedded with light-olive shale; sparse marine fauna; Harrell--black shale (Burket Member) and dark-gray shale.

Keyser and Tonoloway Formations, undivided (Devonian and Silurian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Keyser and Tonoloway Formations, undivided - In descending order: Keyser Formation--medium-gray, crystalline to nodular, fossiliferous limestone; upper part laminated and mud-cracked; not present east of Harrisburg; passes into lower Coeymans, Rondout, and Decker Formations in the east. Tonoloway Formation--medium-gray, laminated, mud-cracked limestone containing some medium-dark- or olive-gray shale interbeds; lower part passes into Wills Creek Formation east and south; passes into Bossardville and Poxono Island beds in the east.

Lithology: limestone; shale

Reedsville Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Reedsville Formation - Olive-gray to dark-gray shale, siltstone, and fine-grained, thin-bedded sandstone having graded bedding; upper sandstone is very fossiliferous; includes Antes Formation (black calcareous shale) at base along Nittany Arch.

Juniata Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Juniata Formation - Grayish-red, very fine to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstone, and grayish-red siltstone and shale; merges with underlying Bald Eagle Formation to the south; not present east of Susquehanna River, except at Spitzenberg Hill area (Berks County).

Lithology: sandstone; shale; siltstone

Wills Creek Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Wills Creek Formation - Variegated gray, grayish-red, yellowish-gray and greenish-gray, interbedded calcareous shale, siltstone, shaly limestone, and dolomite; passes into Bloomsburg Formation in the southeast; not present east of Harrisburg.

Clinton Group (Silurian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Clinton Group - Predominantly Rose Hill Formation--light-olive-gray to brownish-gray, fossiliferous shale; locally, limestone occurs near top; includes dark-reddish-gray, very fine to coarse-grained, ferruginous sandstone; east of Harrisburg, equivalent to Lizard Creek Member of Shawangunk Formation. Above Rose Hill is Keefer Formation--light- to dark-gray, fossiliferous sandstone, hematitic, oolitic sandstone, and shale; not recognized east of Harrisburg.

Lithology: shale; sandstone; limestone

Gatesburg Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Gatesburg Formation - Gray dolomite, limestone, and sandstone. Includes the Mines Member (CAgm) and four lower members (CAgl).

Bloomsburg and Mifflintown Formations, undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Bloomsburg and Mifflintown Formations, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Bloomsburg Formation (Sb) and the Mifflintown Formation--interbedded dark-gray shale and medium-gray fossiliferous limestone; equivalent to "McKenzie" and "Rochester" of earlier workers; not present east of Harrisburg.

Conemaugh Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Conemaugh Group - Includes, in descending order, the Casselman Formation (PAcc) and the Glenshaw Formation (PAcg), which are described separately below. Casselman: Cyclic sequences of shale, siltstone, sandstone, red beds, thin, impure limestone, and thin, nonpersistent coal; red beds are associated with landslides; base is at top of Ames limestone. Glenshaw: Cyclic sequences of shale, sandstone, red beds, and thin limestone and coal; includes four marine limestone or shale horizons; red beds are involved in landslides; base is at top of Upper Freeport coal.

Coburn Formation through Loysburg Formation, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Coburn Formation through Loysburg Formation, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Coburn Formation through Nealmont Formation, undivided (Ocn) and Benner Formation through Loysburg Formation, undivided (Obl).

Bald Eagle Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Bald Eagle Formation - Gray to olive-gray and grayish-red, fine- to coarse-grained, crossbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale; some conglomerate (Lost Run Member); not present east of Susquehanna River, except at Spitzenberg Hill area (Berks County).

Mauch Chunk Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Mauch Chunk Formation - Grayish-red shale, siltstone, sandstone, and some conglomerate; some local nonred zones. Includes Loyalhanna Member (crossbedded, sandy limestone) at base in south-central and southwestern Pennsylvania; also includes Greenbrier Limestone Member, and Wymps Gap and Deer Valley Limestones, which are tongues of the Greenbrier. Along Allegheny Front from Blair County to Sullivan County, Loyalhanna Member is greenish-gray, calcareous, crossbedded sandstone.

Bellefonte and Axemann Formations, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Bellefonte and Axemann Formations, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Bellefonte (Obf) and Axemann (Oa) Formations.

Bellefonte Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Bellefonte Formation - Medium-gray, brownish-weathering, medium-bedded dolomite and minor sandstone; very fine grained Tea Creek Member above, and crystalline Coffee Run Member below.

Nittany and Stonehenge/Larke Formations, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 1.0 % of this area

Nittany and Stonehenge/Larke Formations, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Nittany (On) and Stonehenge/Larke (Osl) Formations.

Rockwell Formation (Mississippian and Devonian) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Rockwell Formation - Buff, fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded, argillaceous sandstone and dark-gray shale; includes some carbonaceous shale, sporadic conglomerate beds, and diamictite; included in lower "Pocono" of earlier workers.

Keyser Formation through Clinton Group, undivided (Devonian and Silurian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Keyser Formation through Clinton Group, undivided - Same as Keyser-through-Mifflintown (DSkm) interval, plus Clinton Group at base. Clinton includes the following, in descending order: Keefer Formation--fossiliferous sandstone and hematitic, oolitic sandstone and shale; Rose Hill Formation--fossiliferous shale.

Pottsville Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Pottsville Formation - Predominantly gray sandstone and conglomerate; also contains thin beds of shale, claystone, limestone, and coal; includes Olean and Sharon conglomerates of northwestern Pennsylvania; thin marine limestones present in Beaver, Lawrence, and Mercer Counties; minable coals and commercially valuable high-alumina clays present locally.

Wills Creek Formation through Mifflintown Formation, undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Wills Creek Formation through Mifflintown Formation, undivided - Includes, in descending order, the Wills Creek Formation (Swc) and Bloomsburg and Mifflintown Formations, undivided (Sbm).

Warrior Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Warrior Formation - Gray, thin- to medium-bedded, fossiliferous, cyclic limestone bearing stromatolites; interbedded with thick-bedded crystalline dolomite and some sandstone.

Pocono and Rockwell Formations, undivided (Mississippian and Devonian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Pocono and Rockwell Formations, undivided: Buff, medium-grained, crossbedded sandstone and some conglomerate (Pocono), overlying buff to olive-gray, fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstone containing a few beds of shale and conglomerate (Rockwell); shown in southwestern Bedford County only.

Allegheny Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Allegheny Formation - Cyclic sequences of sandstone, shale, limestone, clay, and coal; includes valuable clay deposits and Vanport Limestone; commercially valuable Freeport, Kittanning, and Brookville-Clarion coals present; base is at bottom of Brookville-Clarion coal.

Pocono Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Pocono Formation - Light-gray to buff or light-olive-gray, medium-grained, crossbedded sandstone and minor siltstone; commonly conglomeratic at base and in middle; medial conglomerate, where present, is used to divide into Mount Carbon and Beckville Members; equivalent to Burgoon Sandstone of Allegheny Plateau.

Burgoon Sandstone (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Burgoon Sandstone - Buff, medium-grained, crossbedded sandstone; includes shale and coal; in places, contains conglomerate at base; contains plant fossils; equivalent to Pocono Formation of Ridge and Valley province.

"Chemung" Formation, Parkhead Sandstone, Brallier Formation, and Harrell Shale (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

"Chemung" Formation - Predominantly marine beds characterized by gray to olive-green graywacke, siltstone, and shale; thickened ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Parkhead Sandstone - Gray to olive-green sandy shale, conglomeratic sandstone and graywacke; present in Washington County, identification uncertain in west; thickness averages 400 feet; Brallier Fomation - (Woodmont Shale of earlier reports). Medium to dark gray, laminated shale and siltstone; weathers to light olive-gray; grain size coarsens upward; thickness about 2,000 feet in west, about 1,7000 feet in east; and Harrell Shale - Dark gray laminated shale; absent in east where Brallier lies directly on Mahantango, Tully Limestone lies near base in west, in subsurface of Garrett County; total thickness in west 140 to 300 feet.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Hampshire Formation - Interbedded red shale, red mudstone, and red to brown cross-bedded siltstone and sandstone; some thin green shale; greenish-gray sandstone and shale toward top; fragmentary plant fossils; thickness 1,400 to 2,000 feet in west, increases to 3,800 feet in east.

Pocono Group, including the Purslane Sandstone and Rockwell Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pocono Group - Gray, white, tan, and brown, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded sandstone, locally conglomeratic; interbedded gray and reddish-brown shale, mudstone, and siltstone; fragmentary plant fossils. Undifferentiated in Garrett and western Allegeny Counties. Includes Purslane Sandstone - White, thick-bedded, coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate with thin coal beds and red shales. Eastern Allegany and Washington Counties. And also inlcudes Rockwell Formation - Coarse-grained arkosic sandstone, fine-grained conglomerate, and buff shale; dark shale with thin coal beds near base. Eastern Allegany and Washington Counties.

Glenshaw Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Glenshaw Formation - Cyclic sequences of shale, sandstone, red beds, and thin limestone and coal; includes four marine limestone or shale horizons; red beds are involved in landslides; base is at top of Upper Freeport coal.