White, vitreous quartzite, massive, with interbeds of dark-green silty and sandy shale, minor siltstone, and very fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 1,000 to 1,500 feet.
Variegated (red, green, yellow) shale and siltstone; gray, fine-grained sandstone in middle and west part of Valley and Ridge; abundant limestone and dolomite in east. Thickness about 2,000 feet.
Light-gray, well-bedded dolomite with thin- to medium-bedded gray limestone; yellowish-brown residual clays with "jasperoid" diagnostic. Thickness about 1,000 feet.
Sequence of gray feldspathic sandstone, arkose, conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone and shale; greenish amygdaloidal basalt flows near middle and base. Thickness 2,000 to 5,000 feet.
Complex of intertonguing rock types including migmatite, granitic gneisses, monzonite, quartz diorite, greenstone, mica and hornblende schists, abundant granitic pegmatite.
Dark greenish-gray, silty and sandy, micaceous shale; numerous layers of medium-grained, feldspathic, thinly bedded sandstone. Thickness 500 to 2,000 feet.
Mount Rogers Group - Metavolcanics, typically purplish and reddish; massive lavas and tuffs, altered rhyolites and quartz latites; strongly foliated; interbedded arkose, shale, and conglomerate. Thickness 1,000 to 3,000 feet; Includes Bakersville Gabbro - Metagabbro, dark, porphyritic; contains diorite, basalt, anorthosite, and diabase; occurs as thin to massive dikes and lenticular masses; Beech Granite - Granite, porphyritic, light-gray to reddish; coarse potash feldspar crystals and clustered interstitial mafics (chloritized biotite and hornblende) give spotted appearance; includes Max Patch Granite; Cranberry Granite - Complex of intertonguing rock types including migmatite, granitic gneisses, monzonite, quartz diorite, greenstone, mica and hornblende schists, abundant granitic pegmatite; and Roan Gneiss - Layered hornblende and garnet gneiss and granitic migmatite with zones of mica schist and amphibolite, foliation commonly contorted; contains numerous granitic and gabbroic dikes.
Feldspathic arenite, white to yellowish gray. Minor silty shale, feldspathic siltstone, and conglomerate in lower part. Includes Unicoi Formation of Hot Springs window.
Massive to foliated, locally mylonitic. Beech, Crossnore, Brown Mountain, Lansing, and other granitic rocks.
Unconformity; contains paragneiss and granitic to quartz monzonitic orthogneiss; locally schistose and mylonitic. Locally includes tectonic slices, infolded remnants, or recrystallized equivalents of the Grandfather Mountain Formation. Equivalent to the Wilson Creek Gneiss.
Erwin Formation (Keith, 1903,1907). Quartzite, sandstone, and shale. Quartzite, light-gray to white, medium- to fine-grained, thick-bedded, cross-laminated, quartz cemented, and very resistant. Sandstone, ferruginous, dark-gray to bluish- black, medium- to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, and with various amounts of hematite cement, in medium- to thick-beds. Shale, silty and sandy, drab-greenish-gray, thin- to medium-bedded, non-resistant, comprises much of the formation but is poorly exposed. The Erwin is less than 1000 feet thick and is equivalent to the Antietam Formation and possibly the upper part of the Harpers Formation in northern Virginia. Hampton Formation (Keith, 1903). Shale, sandstone, and quartzite. Shale, dark-gray or dark-greenish-gray, fissile, very argillaceous, silty laminae common, with interbeds of siltstone and fine-grained, lithic sandstone. Sandstone, feldspathic, greenish-gray, vitreous, medium- to coarse-grained, pebbly, cross-laminated. Quartzite, white to light-brown, vitreous, fine-grained, medium- to thin-bedded, resistant, restricted to the upper part of the formation. The Hampton is largely equivalent to the Harpers Formation to the northeast and ranges in thickness from more than 1500 feet to about 1200 feet with the thinner sequence in the northwesternmost exposures.
Light-colored porphyritic extrusive rock.
Graywacke conglomerate, graywacke, tuffaceous sandstone, laminated siltstone, shale, and minor greenstone and rhyolite. Most of the sedimentary rocks are volcanigenic but contain a significant detrital contribution from the underlying crystalline rocks of the Grenville-age basement.
Unicoi Formation (Keith, 1903,1907). Sandstone and quartzite with phyllite, tuffaceous phyllite, conglomerate, and minor basalt. Sandstone, lithic or feldspathic, pinkish-gray to dark-greenish-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, angular, poorly sorted, locally conglomeratic. Quartzite, largely in upper part of the unit, white, pale-green, or gray, vitreous, medium- to coarse-grained, locally feldspathic, medium- to very-thick bedded, very resistant to weathering and erosion. Phyllite, reddish-, purplish-, or greenish-gray, as thin, sparse interbeds throughout, with purple tuffaceous phyllites in lower part. Conglomerate, fine- to coarse-polymictic-pebble conglomerate, medium- to thick-bedded, with lithic clasts and quartz pebbles. Basalt, very-dark-grayish-green, aphanitic, locally amygdaloidal; in one to three beds a few feet thick in the lower part only. Upper part has more quartzite and contains phyllite beds similar to the overlying Hampton Formation. Lower part is very feldspathic, contains most of the conglomerate beds and all of the volcanic rocks. The Unicoi is present from Augusta County to Tennessee and is laterally equivalent, at least in part, to the Weverton Formation to the northeast (King and Ferguson, 1960; Brown and Spencer, 1981; Rankin, 1993). The formation unconformably overlies the rocks of the Blue Ridge basement complex and possibly the Catoctin Formation in western Amherst County and is disconformable with the underlying Konnarock Formation in Grayson County. The upper unit is generally 600 to 1000 feet thick and the lower unit ranges from less than 100 feet to more than 1500 feet.
Pumpkin Valley Shale and Rome Formation. Pumpkin Valley Shale (Bridge, 1945). Shale, light-greenish-gray to dark-greenish-gray, grayish-brown, and maroon; a few beds of similar colored siltstone; sparse beds of limestone and dolostone. The Pumpkin Valley Shale conformably overlies the Rome Formation. The formation is approximately 350 feet thick. Harris (1964) identified the Pumpkin Valley Shale of Southwest Virginia as a formation within the Conasauga Group; however, because of similar lithologies it is often indistinguishable from the Rome Formation and the two formations commonly are mapped together. Rome Formation (Hayes, 1891). Siltstone, shale, sandstone, dolostone, and limestone. Siltstone and shale, greenish-gray and grayish-red, laminated to thin-bedded. Sandstone, micaceous, locally glauconitic, greenish-gray and reddish-gray, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin-bedded. Dolostone, light- to dark-gray, aphanic to medium-grained, thin-to massive-bedded, with ripple marks and mudcracks. Lime stone, argillaceous, very-light-gray to dark-gray, thin- to medium- bedded. Carbonate rocks range from sparse 1- to 2- feet-thick beds in western Scott County to discontinuous units as much as 50 feet thick which comprise 30 to 40 percent of the formation in western Russell and Washington counties (Evans and Troensegaard, 1991; Bartlett and Webb, 1971). Maximum recorded thickness is 1500 feet in the Clinchport area (Brent, 1963); although this may have included the Pumpkin Valley Shale. A complete thickness has not been determined because the lowermost part of the Rome Formation is normally absent due to faulting.
Interlayered with metaconglomerate, laminated metasiltstone, and slate; minor calcareous metasandstone, greenstone, and metarhyolite.
Shady Dolomite (Keith, 1903). Dolostone with minor limestone and shale divided into three members: Ivanhoe (upper) Member; Austinville (middle) Member, and Patterson (lower) Member. Ivanhoe Member, dark-gray, fine-grained limestone and minor interbedded black shale; 100 to 500 feeet thick. Austinville Member, very-light-gray to cream colored, fine- to medium-grained, crystalline or saccharoidal, massive-bedded dolostone with several sequences of interbedded limestone, very-dark-gray dolostone or mottled dolostone and shale; 1000 feet thick. Patterson Member, medium- to dark-gray, fine-grained, thin-bedded dolostone or limestone with siliceous partings and intraformational brec ia beds; 800 feet thick. The Shady Dolomite is gradational with the underlying Erwin Formation and the upper two members grade southeastward into shaly dolostone with biohermal mounds, intraformational limestone or dolostone breccias, oolitic limestone, and arenaceous limestone and dolostone. This upper,southeastern facies, is in part equivalent to beds in the lower Rome Formation (Pfi el and Read, 1980). The Shady is very poorly exposed except near New River in Wythe and Smyth counties where it is at least 2100 feet thick and where major lead and zinc deposits were mined from the upper members (Currier, 1935).
Unconformity; pinkish gray to light gray, massive to well-foliated, granitic to quartz monzonitic; includes variably mylonitized orthogneiss and paragneiss, interlayered amphibolite, calc-silicate rock, and marble. Includes granites of the Bryson City area, Straight Fork window, and Elk Park Plutonic Suite.
Chilhowee Group (Keith, 1903). The Chilhowee Group includes the Antietam, Harpers, and Weverton Formations in the northeastern portion of the Blue Ridge Province and the Erwin, Hampton, and Unicoi Formations in the southwestern portion of the Blue Ridge Province. Antietam Formation (Williams and Clark, 1893). Quartzite, medium-gray to pale-yellowish-white, fine- to medium grained, locally with very minor quartz-pebble conglomerate, cross-laminated, medium- to very-thick-bedded, very resistant, forms prominent cliffs and ledges, contains a few thin interbeds of light-gray phyllite, has calcareous quartz sandstone at the top that is transitional with the overlying Tomstown Dolomite, and many beds contain Skolithos linearras. It is laterally equivalent to the Erwin Formation to the southwest. The formation interfingers with the underlying Harpers Formation and ranges in thickness from less than 500 feet in Clarke County to nearly 1000 feet in Rockingham County (Gathright and Nystrom, 1974; Gathright, 1976). Harpers Formation (Keith, 1894). Metasandstone, metasiltstone, and phyllite. Metasandstone, dark-greenish gray to brownish-gray, fine-grained, sericitic, thin- to medium-planar bedded, locally bioturbated, Skolithos-bearing litharenite; dark-gray, fine-grained, cross-laminated, thickbedded, laterally extensive bodies of quartzite; and very-dark gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick-bedded, ferruginous, very resistant, quartzitic sandstone. These beds were extensively mined for iron ore north of Roanoke (Henika, 1981). Metasiltstone, dark-greenish-gray, thin, even bedded, sericitic, and locally bioturbated. Phyllite, medium- to light-greenish gray, bronze weathering, laminated, sericitic. The Harpers is laterally equivalent to the Hampton Formation to the southwest and they are so similar that the names have been used interchaneably in the northern Blue Ridge (Gathright, 1976; Brown and Spencer, 1981). The Harpers conformably overlies the Weverton or Unicoi Formations, thickens northeastward from about 1500 feet north of Roanoke to about 2500 feet in Clarke County. The thicker sections are dominated by phyllite and metasiltstone and the thinner sections by metasandstone and quartzite. Weverton Formation (Williams and Clark, 1893). Quartzite, metasandstone, and phyllite. Quartzite, medium- to very dark-gray, weathers light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, well rounded quartz-pebble conglomerate beds locally, medium- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded, very resistant, with interbedded metasandstone, dark-greenish- gray, feldspathic, thick-bedded, with ferruginous cement in some beds. Phyllite, light- to dark-greenish-gray or dark-reddish-gray, laminated, sericitic, with coarse sand grains and quartz-pebble conglomerate in a few thin beds, generally in lower part. Formation ranges in thickness from more than 600 feet in Clarke County to less than 200 feet in Augusta County (Gathright and Nystrom, 1974; Gathright and others, 1977). The Weverton is lithologically very similar to strata in the upper portion of the Unicoi Formation to the south to which it may be equivalent. The Weverton appears to unconformably overlie the Catoctin and Swift Run Formations and the Blue Ridge basement complex and is present northeast of Augusta County.
Konnarock Formation (Rankin, 1993). Mostly moderate-red glaciogenic sedimentary rocks include massive diamictite (tillite), bedded diamictite, varve-like laminite locally containing dropstones, massive mudstone, pink arkose, and minor conglomerate. Clasts in the diamictite and laminite are dominantly granitoid, but include rhyolite and greenstone of the Mount Rogers Formation. Thickness is as much as 3275 feet; diamictite is most common toward the top of the section.
Unconformity; greenish gray to pinkish gray, porphyroclastic to mylonitic; epidote, sericite, and chlorite common.
Equigranular, massive to well foliated, interlayered, rarely discordant, metamorphosed intrusive to extrusive mafic rock; may include metasedimentary rock.