Medium- to light-gray, massive, conglomeratic biotite schist and gneiss, with feldspar, quartz, and granitic clasts; grades upwards into medium- to fine-grained, salt-and-pepper-textured two-mica plagioclase gneiss with very-light-gray mica schist interbeds. Quartzite, impure marble, calcareous gneiss and amphibolite occur locally. Some dark-gray to black, pyrite-bearing mica schist occurs at tops of thick, fining-upwards graded sequences. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + chlorite + epidote + ilmenite; (2) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote-allanite + garnet + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + calcite + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote + ilmenite + titanite; chlorite occurs as a secondary mineral. Unit is unconformable on Grenville basement and cut by Late Precambrian mafic and felsic dikes.
Heterogeneous assemblage of rock-types includes medium- to light-gray, laminated quartzofeldspathic to calcareous gneiss with thin mica schist partings; white and gray, fine- to coarse-grained, generally laminated marble; gray to greenish-gray fine-grained graphitic mica schist and quartzite; light-gray, medium- to fine-grained mica schist; massive quartzite and micaceous blue quartz granule metasandstone; and, dark-greenish-black actinolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + potassium feldspar + pla ioclase + biotite + muscovite + calcite + epidote + titanite + magnetite- ilmenite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chlorite + graphite + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + albite + muscovite + biotite + titanite + ilmenite; (4) quartz + mus co vite + garnet + kyanite; (5) chlorite + tremolite + magnetite-ilmenite; (6) chlorite + actinolite-tremolite + talc + dolomite + magnetite-ilmenite; (7) quartz + albite + actinolite + biotite + epidote + magnetite. Units here mapped as Alligator Back Formation were previously mapped as the Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Gates, 1986; Patterson, 1987) and considered to be younger than the Lynchburg Group. Regional mapping by Henika (1991) and Scheible (1975) indicates that rocks assigned to Alligator Back Formation by Rankin and others (1973) are continuous with the upper part of the Lynchburg Group in the type section along the James River at Lynchburg (Jonas, 1927) and that the Alligator Back consistently dips southeast beneath the overlying Candler Formation from the Virginia-North Carolina border to the James River at Lynchburg. Sedimentary and structural facing criteria indicate that rock units immediately southeast of the Candler Formation in an outcrop belt from Stapleton on the James River, southwest to Leesville Dam on the Roanoke River, are older than the Candler (Henika, 1992). Although previously mapped as upper Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Patterson, 1987), these rocks are herein correlated with the Alligator Back Formation (upper Lynchburg Group), having been uplifted against the Candler Formation to the northwest along the Bowens Creek fault (Henika, 1992). Rocks in the same outcrop belt along strike to the southwest of the Leesville Reservoir were previously correlated with the Alligator Back Formation by Conley (1985). The sequence of lithologic units within the Alligator Back Formation southeast of the Bowens Creek fault is the same as that proposed by Brown (1951; 1958), and Espenshade (1954) for the formations in the Evington Group, that are structurally above the Candler Formation. The sequence is based on the detailed structural and stratigraphic relationships first established by Brown (1958) in the Lynchburg 15-minute quadrangle.
Leucocratic to mesocratic, mesoscopically-layered coarse-grained quartzofeldspathic biotite gneiss contains prominent polycrystalline quartz-feldspar augen within an anastomosing, mica-rich, schistose matrix. Major mineralogy includes quartz, plagioclase, microcline, muscovite, biotite, epidote, titanite, and ilmenite; apatite and zircon are accessory minerals. This unit is gradational into biotite granulite and gneiss (Ygb), and is at least in part derived from that unit by superimposition of cataclastic to mylonitic fabric. Includes in part Stage Road layered gneiss (Sinha and Bartholomew, 1984; U-Pb discordia from 915 Ma to 1860 Ma).
Dark-grayish-green chlorite-actinolite schist metabasalt. Mineralogy: actinolite + epidote + chlorite ± biotite + albite + quartz + magnetite-ilmenite. Geophysical signature: linear, positive magnetic anomaly. Schist commonly contains recognizable flow structures, deformed and mineralized pillow basalts, pyroclastic breccia, pink and white marble, and laminated metatuff. Massive to thin beds are interlayered with metamorphosed sedimentary and mafic to ultramafic rocks. This unit was previously mapped as the Catoctin Formation or the Slippery Creek Greenstone in the Lynchburg quadrangle (Brown 1958).
Light-gray to black-and-white, fine to medium-grained, leucocratic biotite gneiss that is mostly segregation-layered, but locally is a medium-grained quartzfeldspar granofels. Contains interlayers of muscovite-biotite schist, quartz schist, and epidote quartzite. Mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + magnetite-ilmenite + tourmaline ± kyanite ± epidote ± titanite ± hornblende ± garnet; (2) quartz + plagioclase + epidote + pyroxene. Porphyroclasts of zoned plagioclase in an equigranular, polygonal quartz-potassium feldspar groundmass and medium to thick bedding suggest a volcaniclastic protolith (Conley, 1985). Gneisses are migmatitic and cut by numerous granite dikes and sills near the contacts with the Martinsville igneous complex. Geophysical signature: potassium feldspar-bearing gneisses have positive radiometric, and generally flat magnetic signatures relative to adjacent amphibolite units. In the core of the Sherwill anticline (Campbell and Appomattox counties), the dominant rock-type is graded salt-andpepper metagraywacke, interbedded with lesser mica schist and graphite schist. This association bears lithologic affinity to the Lynchburg Group, which occupies the cores of structural domes to the west; this correlation has been made by several workers (Brown, 1958; Kaldy, 1977; Gates, 1987).
Leucocratic to mesocratic, segregation-layered quartzofeldspathic granulite and gneiss contain quartz, plagioclase (albite), microcline (includes assemblages with one alkali feldspar), biotite, ilmenite, and titanite; garnet and horn blende are commonly present. Accessory minerals include apatite and zircon. Epidote and white mica are ubiquitous secondary minerals. Relict pyroxene, largely replaced by actinolitic amphibole, occurs locally. Segregation layering is defined by alternating quartzofeldspathic and biotite-rich domains on the order of a few millimeters to centimeters thick. Quartz and feldspar are granoblastic; biotite defines a penetrative schistosity that crosscuts segregation layering. Migmatitic leucosomes composed of alkali feldspar and blue quartz cut segregation layering, and locally define attenuated isoclinal folds. This unit surrounds pods of layered pyroxene granulite (Ypg), and is cut by Grenville-age metaplutonic rocks including porphyroblastic biotite-plagioclase augen gneiss (Ybg) and alkali feldspar granite (Yal). The unit has been correlated with Flint Hill Gneiss (Yfh) (Evans, 1991), and may correlate with Stage Road layered gneiss of Sinha and Bartholomew (1984). These gneisses have been interpreted as derived from layered pyroxene granulite (Ypg) by retrograde hydration reactions (Evans, 1991).
Fork Mountain Formation (Conley and Henika, 1973; Conley, 1985). Light- to medium-gray, fine- to medium grained, polydeformed and polymetamorphosed porphyroblastic aluminosilicate-mica schist, interlayered with medium-gray irregularly-layered garnetiferous biotite gneiss, migmatitic in part; calcsilicate granofels; amphibolite; rare white marble; and, coarse calc-quartzite lenses. Complex schistosity, multiple crenulation cleavages, and partly-retrograded, polymetamorphic aluminosilicate and garnet porphyroblasts are diagnostic of Fork Mountain schists. Primary sedimentary structures rarely are preserved. A spectacular polymictic breccia bed that can be traced along strike for several miles within the Fork Mountain near Stuart is a notable exception. Medium- to coarse-granular, blue quartz lenses, angular to rounded inclusions of boudinaged fine-grained, color-laminated, calc-silicate rock, and thick beds of coarse, clast-supported, epidotized lithic breccia are typical of the Fork Mountain biotite gneiss. Prograde regional metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + biotite + garnet + staurolite + magnetite- ilmenite + rutile; (2) quartz + muscovite + paragonite + plagioclase + garnet + staurolite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + rutile; (3) quartz + biotite + sillimanite + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + garnet + magnetite-ilmenite; (4) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + sillimanite + garnet + tourmaline; (5) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + hornblende + epidote + ilmenite; (6) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + muscovite + biotite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + garnet + kyanite. Retrograde metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + chlorite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chloritoid + chlorite; (3) quartz + muscovite + staurolite + chloritoid; (4) quartz + muscovite + kyanite. Contact metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) andalusite + sillimanite + kyanite + corundum; (2) corundum + spinel + magnetite + kyanite. Geophysical signature: The Fork Mountain has a characteristic "curly maple" pattern on magnetic contour maps. This pattern is the result of isolated concentrations of highly magnetic minerals that produce rounded, high-intensity, positive and negative anomalies. The aluminosilicate-mica schist is the upper part of the Fork Mountain Formation and forms a series of northeastward-trending ridges along the northwest side of the Smith River allochthon. The garnetiferous biotite gneiss is at a lower structural level of the Fork Mountain Formation near Martinsville where lower strata have been intruded by the Martinsville igneous complex, and the remaining metasedimentary rocks contain extensive thermal meta mor phic zones locallized along the intrusive contacts (Conley and Henika, 1973). Biotite gneiss in the Fork Mountain Formation has been interpreted to be a highly metamorphosed diamictite (Rankin, 1975; Conley, 1985; and Pavlides, 1989). At the northeastern limit of the Fork Mountain outcrop belt, in Appomattox and Buckingham counties, the dominant lithologies are polydeformed yellowish-gray chloritoid-chlorite- muscovite quartzose phyllite and quartz-rich mica schist. Tightly-folded, transposed pinstriped segregation layering at a high angle to the penetrative schistosity defined by phyllosilicate minerals is characteristic; polycrystalline quartz-rich boudins are abundant. These rocks are lithologically indistinguishable from those along the highly-tectonized western margin of the metagraywacke, quartzose schist, and melange (CZpm) outcrop belt; current interpretation is that the Fork Mountain is correlative to some degree with CZpm.
Mesocratic, medium- to coarse-grained, biotite-rich quartzofeldspathic gneiss con tains prominent subhedral to euhedral monocrystalline feldspar augen. The ratio plagioclase: potassium feldspar may be as high as 10:1; color index ranges from 30 to 50. Apatite, epidote, muscovite, ilmenite, and titanite are ubiquitous accessories. Plagioclase contains abundant prismatic epidote and white mica; ilmenite is rimmed with masses of anhedral titanite; subhedral hornblende and subhedral to euhedral almandine-grossular garnet occur locally. In the vicinity of adjacent charnockite, anhedral actinolitic amphibole pseudomorphs after pyroxene or rims thoroughly uralitized relict pyroxene. Rock fabric is gradational from granofels to mylonite gneiss. Geophysical signature: negative magnetic signature relative to adjacent charnockite. In northern Virginia, this unit strongly resembles prophyroblastic granite gneiss (Ybp); however, the augen in Ybp are more commonly polycrystalline aggregates rather than single-crystal porphyroblasts. This unit is widespread in the central and southeastern Blue Ridge, encompassing a number of lithologically similar metaplutonic entities: the "biotitic facies"of the Roses Mill and Turkey Mountain ferrodiorites of Herz and Force (1987), the Archer Mountain quartz monzonite of Bartholomew and others (1981), biotite granofels and augen gneiss of Evans (1984, 1991), biotite augen gneiss of Conley (1989), and augen-bearing gneiss of Lukert and Halladay (1980), and Lukert and Nuckols (1976). Historically, most workers have interpreted these rocks as Grenville-age plutons in which the present-day biotite-rich mineral assemblage is a primary igneous assemblage that crystallized from a melt (for example, Bartholomew and others, 1981). Herz and Force (1987) and Evans (1991) presented evidence that these biotite gneisses were derived from charnockite plutons by retrograde hydration reactions. Pettingill and others (1984) reported ages of 1009±26 Ma (Rb-Sr whole-rock) and 1004±36 Ma (Sm-Nd whole-rock) for ferrodiorite to quartzmonzonite in the Roseland district. Where this unit has been mapped in the Upperville quadrangle (A.E. Nelson, unpublished data), U-Pb zircon data suggest a crystallization age of 1055±2 Ma (Aleinikoff and others, 1993).
Metamorphosed stratiform mafic and ultramafic rocks include: greenish-gray, locally layered, coarse-grained metagabbro; dark-greenish-black schistose metabasalt; and, gray to grayish-green talc-chlorite-tremolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) chlorite + epidote + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + ilmenite; (2) chlorite + actinolite + biotite + epidote + titanite + plagioclase + quartz; (3) chlorite + actinolite + talc + dolomite + magnetite-ilmenite; (4) tremolite + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite; (5) serpentine + talc + chlorite + actinolite ± olivine ± augite. Geophysical signature: strike-elongate positive magnetic anomaly. Metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic complexes are generally sheet-like bodies, concordant near the base of the Alligator Back and Charlottesville Formations. In Nelson County, these rocks are cut by metagabbroic dikes (CZmd) that are likely related to the Catoctin. Hess (1933) reports a stratified association of ultramafic, mafic, and minor silicic lithologies at Schuyler which he attributes to in situ differentiation of a sheet-like concordant intrusion. Glover and others (1989) report a non-tectonized intrusive contact between Charlottesville Formation metasiltstone and ultramafic schist at Schulyer. In contrast, Conley (1985) presents evidence that ultramafic-mafic complexes in Franklin County are tectonicly-emplaced slices of oceanic crust (ophiolites). Tectonic setting and mode of emplacement for these rock assemblages remain enigmatic; correlation of complexes in the southwestern Piedmont with those in the central Blue Ridge may ultimately prove invalid.
Dark-greenish-gray to black-and-white, medium- to coarse-grained, layered to massive hornblende schist, hornblende gneiss, amphibolite, garnet-pyroxene granofels, and coarse uralitic hornblende metagabbro. Mafic rocks are interlayered with white to light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained quartz-feldspar granofels, and cut by alaskite and pegmatite dikes and sills. Ovoid masses of quartz, plagioclase, epidote and quartz that resemble flattened amygdules, and features that resemble graded bedding and cut-and-fill structures suggest a mixed volcanic-volcaniclastic protolith (Conley and Henika, 1970). Mineral assemblages: (1) hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + pyroxene + garnet + epidote + magnetite + titanite; (2) diopside + grossular + plagioclase + magnetite + quartz + epidote; (3) hornblende + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + quartz + epidote. Geophysical signature: Narrow, positive magnetic anomalies closely parallel amphibolite outcrops belts.
Dark-greenish-gray to black, coarse to fine-grained amphibolite, hornblende gneiss, and schist, with interlayered biotite-muscovite gneiss and mica schist. Coarse garnetiferous amphibolite, pink and white marble, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-calcite veins are common near the top of the Ashe. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + actinolite + epidote + chlorite; (2) quartz + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + garnet + magnetite. Geophysical signature: amphibolite, and hornblende gneiss and schist give positive linear magnetic anomalies. Relict amygdaloidal textures and hyaloclastic (pillow) structures indicate massive to thick-bedded amphibolite and hornblende gneiss were derived from basaltic flows or shallow sills. Some thin-bedded hornblende gneiss and schist units that commonly contain interbedded micaceous and feldspathic layers may be derived from volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks.
Moderate-olive-brown to dusky yellowish- green to black-and-white-banded, medium- to fine-grained biotite-hornblende gneiss, with interlayers of light gray, fine-grained quartz-feldspar gneiss, amphibolite, and mica schist. Felsitic crystal tuff breccia, feldspathic conglomerate, and mafic and felsic dikes and sills are recognized within the Moneta, especially along the James River west of Lynchburg. Wang and Glover (1991) recognized two kinds of mafic metavolcanic rocks in this unit, lavas and tuffs. The lavas have well-preserved hyaloclastic textures; metatuffs commonly contain delicate mineral segregation lamination. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + plagioclase + microcline + biotite + muscovite + garnet + magnetite-ilmenite; (2) hornblende + plagioclase + biotite + quartz + magnetite-ilmenite + titanite; (3) hornblende + plagioclase + garnet + biotite + magnetiteilmenite. Geophysical signature: broad, elongate, positive magnetic anomaly. Numerous pegmatite dikes and sills concentrated within the hornblende biotite gneiss were mined for feldspar in the area between Moneta and Forest where the unit was first described by Pegau (1932). In the Lynchburg area the Moneta was mapped as Reusens Migmatite by Brown (1958). It was interpreted to be a Late Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary complex by Conley and Henika (1970) and Wang and Glover (1991). The Moneta is here assigned to the Lynchburg Group because it has an intertonguing re la tion ship with basal conglomeratic Lynchburg rocks and with similar rocks in the base of the Ashe Formation southwest of Lynchburg.
Leucocratic, very coarse-grained, porphyritic pyroxene-bearing granite with euhedral Potassium feldspar megacrysts, interstitial plagioclase and blue quartz; clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene are thoroughly uralitized; hornblende, titaniferous biotite, and garnet may be present; accessory minerals include magnetite ilmenite, apatite, and zircon. Rocks within this map unit were dated at 1075 Ma (UPb zircon; Sinha and Bartholomew, 1984), and 1021±36 Ma (Sm-Nd whole rock; Pettingill and others, 1984).
Medium- to dark-gray and greenish- gray mica phyllite and sandy laminated schist. Lenses and pods of feldspathic quartzite, metamorphosed quartzarenite, dolomitic marble, and dark-gray to medium-bluish-gray, laminated marble are common in the upper part. Mineralogy: quartz + albite + muscovite + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite + epidote ± biotite ± chloritoid ± calcite. Chloritoid and magnetite porphyroblasts are common near the Bowens Creek fault. Geophysical signature: Low amplitude, linear magnetic highs are superimposed on a pronounced southeast-sloping magnetic gradient between Alligator Back units northwest of the Candler and a persistant linear magnetic trough localized along the trend of the Bowens Creek fault zone. Microstructural elements in the upper Candler indicate dextral transpression along a continuous shear zone (Bowens Creek fault zone) within the Candler outcrop belt from the Virginia-North Carolina boundary in Patrick County northeastward to at least the north end of Buffalo Ridge on the Amherst-Campbell County line. Conley and Henika (1970) and Gates (1986) hypothesized that the Bowens Creek fault is part of a major strike slip (wrench) system that is part or a continuation of the Brevard fault zone to the southwest . Northeast of the Scottsville Mesozoic basin, the Candler includes laminated metasiltstone (Ccas), ferruginous metatuff, dolomitic marble, and phyllite that are conformable above Catoctin metabasalt (Evans, 1984; Conley, 1989; Rossman, 1991); in Orange County, the Candler includes the True Blue formation of Pavlides (1989, 1990).
Includes dusky-green, mesocratic, coarse- to very-coarse-grained, equigranular to porphyritic, massive to vaguely foliated pyroxene-bearing granite to granodiorite; contains clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, intermediate-composition plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and blue quartz. Reddish-brown biotite, hornblende, and poikilitic garnet are present locally; accessory minerals include apatite, magnetite-ilmenite, rutile, and zircon. Geophysical signature: charnockite pods in the southeastern Blue Ridge produce a moderate positive magnetic anomaly relative to adjacent biotite gneisses, resulting in spotty magnetic highs. This unit includes a host of plutons that are grouped on the basis of lithology, but are not necessarily consanguineous. These include Pedlar charnockite, dated at 1075 Ma (U-Pb zircon, Sinha and Bartholomew, 1984) and Roses Mill charnockite (Herz and Force, 1987), dated at 1027±101 Ma (Sm-Nd, Pettingill and others, 1984).
Leucocratic to mesocratic, medium-grained, equigranular, vaguely foliated, epidote-, garnet-, fluorite- and/or allanite-bearing, two-feldspar muscovite-biotite granodiorite to granite; salt-and-pepper appearance is characteristic; associated aplite and pegmatite dikes common. Geophysical signature: weak positive radiometric anomaly. The plutons of this suite are widespread in the southeastern portion of the basement complex, and are correlated with Rockfish River, Mobley Mountain, Striped Rock plutons, and with Robertson River Igneous Suite.
Grayish-green to light-gray talc chlorite-actinolite or talc-tremolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) chlorite + actinolite + talc + dolomite + ilmenite + magnetite; (2) serpentine (antigorite) + talc + chlorite ± olivine ± augite; (3) tremolite + cummingtonite + chlorite + talc + magnetite-ilmenite ± quartz. Geophysical signature: elongate positive magnetic anomaly. Elongate, lenticular bodies generally trend parallel to schistosity of enclosing rocks and are concordant at variable stratigraphic levels within the Lynchburg Group.
Light- and dark-gray, laminated fine to medium-grained marble, calcareous gneiss, and schist. Mineralogy: calcite + quartz + biotite + muscovite + plagioclase + pyrite + magnetite-ilmenite. Thick to thin beds of marble are interlayered with graphitic phyllite and mica schist; the lithology grades from impure marble to calcareous metagraywacke depending on per cent age of detrital calcite present. The unit includes the Arch Marble of Brown (1958) and the Archer Creek Formation of Espenshade (1954).
Metagabbro. (southwestern Piedmont, Conley, 1985). Dark-green and white, massive to layered, coarse-grained equigranular metagabbro. Mineralogy: clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± garnet + hornblende + plagioclase + magnetite. Garnets are surrounded by thin coronas composed of plagioclase and symplectic intergrowths of plagioclase-pyroxene. Forms elongate concordant bodies intrusive into the Bassett Formation. (northern Piedmont, Drake and Froelich, in press). Greenish-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, well-foliated epidote plagioclase-hornblende amphibolite; locally contains relict clinopyroxene. Occurs as sills in the Mather Gorge Formation. Fisher (1971) reports that zircons from an amphibolite body on an island in the Potomac River have a Pb-Pb age of 525+/- 60 Ma, and a concordia age of 550 Ma, assuming continuous diffusion; a Cambrian age for metagabbroic sills in the Mather Gorge would be consistent with regional geologic relations.
Alaskite (Conley, 1985). White to light-gray, medium to coarse-grained leucocratic muscovite granite and granite gneiss. Mineralogy: potassium feldspar (perthite or microcline) + plagioclase + quartz + muscovite ± biotite ± epidote ± kyanite ± garnet. Geophysical signature: negative or flat magnetic signature; positive radiometric signature. Commonly occurs as folded sheets parallel to schistosity and as lit-par-lit injections in the Bassett and Fork Mountain Formations (Smith River Allochthon) and near the base of the Lynchburg Group (Ashe Formation or Moneta Gneiss) in the Blue Ridge or Sauratown Mountains anticlinoria.