Geologic units in Patrick county, Virginia

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Alligator Back Formation - Feldspathic metagraywacke (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 48 % of this area

Heterogeneous assemblage of rock-types includes medium- to light-gray, laminated quartzofeldspathic to calcareous gneiss with thin mica schist partings; white and gray, fine- to coarse-grained, generally laminated marble; gray to greenish-gray fine-grained graphitic mica schist and quartzite; light-gray, medium- to fine-grained mica schist; massive quartzite and micaceous blue quartz granule metasandstone; and, dark-greenish-black actinolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + potassium feldspar + pla ioclase + biotite + muscovite + calcite + epidote + titanite + magnetite- ilmenite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chlorite + graphite + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + albite + muscovite + biotite + titanite + ilmenite; (4) quartz + mus co vite + garnet + kyanite; (5) chlorite + tremolite + magnetite-ilmenite; (6) chlorite + actinolite-tremolite + talc + dolomite + magnetite-ilmenite; (7) quartz + albite + actinolite + biotite + epidote + magnetite. Units here mapped as Alligator Back Formation were previously mapped as the Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Gates, 1986; Patterson, 1987) and considered to be younger than the Lynchburg Group. Regional mapping by Henika (1991) and Scheible (1975) indicates that rocks assigned to Alligator Back Formation by Rankin and others (1973) are continuous with the upper part of the Lynchburg Group in the type section along the James River at Lynchburg (Jonas, 1927) and that the Alligator Back consistently dips southeast beneath the overlying Candler Formation from the Virginia-North Carolina border to the James River at Lynchburg. Sedimentary and structural facing criteria indicate that rock units immediately southeast of the Candler Formation in an outcrop belt from Stapleton on the James River, southwest to Leesville Dam on the Roanoke River, are older than the Candler (Henika, 1992). Although previously mapped as upper Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Patterson, 1987), these rocks are herein correlated with the Alligator Back Formation (upper Lynchburg Group), having been uplifted against the Candler Formation to the northwest along the Bowens Creek fault (Henika, 1992). Rocks in the same outcrop belt along strike to the southwest of the Leesville Reservoir were previously correlated with the Alligator Back Formation by Conley (1985). The sequence of lithologic units within the Alligator Back Formation southeast of the Bowens Creek fault is the same as that proposed by Brown (1951; 1958), and Espenshade (1954) for the formations in the Evington Group, that are structurally above the Candler Formation. The sequence is based on the detailed structural and stratigraphic relationships first established by Brown (1958) in the Lynchburg 15-minute quadrangle.

Fork Mountain Formation (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 20 % of this area

Fork Mountain Formation (Conley and Henika, 1973; Conley, 1985). Light- to medium-gray, fine- to medium grained, polydeformed and polymetamorphosed porphyroblastic aluminosilicate-mica schist, interlayered with medium-gray irregularly-layered garnetiferous biotite gneiss, migmatitic in part; calcsilicate granofels; amphibolite; rare white marble; and, coarse calc-quartzite lenses. Complex schistosity, multiple crenulation cleavages, and partly-retrograded, polymetamorphic aluminosilicate and garnet porphyroblasts are diagnostic of Fork Mountain schists. Primary sedimentary structures rarely are preserved. A spectacular polymictic breccia bed that can be traced along strike for several miles within the Fork Mountain near Stuart is a notable exception. Medium- to coarse-granular, blue quartz lenses, angular to rounded inclusions of boudinaged fine-grained, color-laminated, calc-silicate rock, and thick beds of coarse, clast-supported, epidotized lithic breccia are typical of the Fork Mountain biotite gneiss. Prograde regional metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + biotite + garnet + staurolite + magnetite- ilmenite + rutile; (2) quartz + muscovite + paragonite + plagioclase + garnet + staurolite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + rutile; (3) quartz + biotite + sillimanite + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + garnet + magnetite-ilmenite; (4) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + sillimanite + garnet + tourmaline; (5) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + hornblende + epidote + ilmenite; (6) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + muscovite + biotite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + garnet + kyanite. Retrograde metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + chlorite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chloritoid + chlorite; (3) quartz + muscovite + staurolite + chloritoid; (4) quartz + muscovite + kyanite. Contact metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) andalusite + sillimanite + kyanite + corundum; (2) corundum + spinel + magnetite + kyanite. Geophysical signature: The Fork Mountain has a characteristic "curly maple" pattern on magnetic contour maps. This pattern is the result of isolated concentrations of highly magnetic minerals that produce rounded, high-intensity, positive and negative anomalies. The aluminosilicate-mica schist is the upper part of the Fork Mountain Formation and forms a series of northeastward-trending ridges along the northwest side of the Smith River allochthon. The garnetiferous biotite gneiss is at a lower structural level of the Fork Mountain Formation near Martinsville where lower strata have been intruded by the Martinsville igneous complex, and the remaining metasedimentary rocks contain extensive thermal meta mor phic zones locallized along the intrusive contacts (Conley and Henika, 1973). Biotite gneiss in the Fork Mountain Formation has been interpreted to be a highly metamorphosed diamictite (Rankin, 1975; Conley, 1985; and Pavlides, 1989). At the northeastern limit of the Fork Mountain outcrop belt, in Appomattox and Buckingham counties, the dominant lithologies are polydeformed yellowish-gray chloritoid-chlorite- muscovite quartzose phyllite and quartz-rich mica schist. Tightly-folded, transposed pinstriped segregation layering at a high angle to the penetrative schistosity defined by phyllosilicate minerals is characteristic; polycrystalline quartz-rich boudins are abundant. These rocks are lithologically indistinguishable from those along the highly-tectonized western margin of the metagraywacke, quartzose schist, and melange (CZpm) outcrop belt; current interpretation is that the Fork Mountain is correlative to some degree with CZpm.

Bassett Formation - Biotite gneiss and granite gneiss. (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

Light-gray to black-and-white, fine to medium-grained, leucocratic biotite gneiss that is mostly segregation-layered, but locally is a medium-grained quartzfeldspar granofels. Contains interlayers of muscovite-biotite schist, quartz schist, and epidote quartzite. Mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + magnetite-ilmenite + tourmaline ± kyanite ± epidote ± titanite ± hornblende ± garnet; (2) quartz + plagioclase + epidote + pyroxene. Porphyroclasts of zoned plagioclase in an equigranular, polygonal quartz-potassium feldspar groundmass and medium to thick bedding suggest a volcaniclastic protolith (Conley, 1985). Gneisses are migmatitic and cut by numerous granite dikes and sills near the contacts with the Martinsville igneous complex. Geophysical signature: potassium feldspar-bearing gneisses have positive radiometric, and generally flat magnetic signatures relative to adjacent amphibolite units. In the core of the Sherwill anticline (Campbell and Appomattox counties), the dominant rock-type is graded salt-andpepper metagraywacke, interbedded with lesser mica schist and graphite schist. This association bears lithologic affinity to the Lynchburg Group, which occupies the cores of structural domes to the west; this correlation has been made by several workers (Brown, 1958; Kaldy, 1977; Gates, 1987).

Alligator Back Formation - Actinolite schist (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Dark-grayish-green chlorite-actinolite schist metabasalt. Mineralogy: actinolite + epidote + chlorite ± biotite + albite + quartz + magnetite-ilmenite. Geophysical signature: linear, positive magnetic anomaly. Schist commonly contains recognizable flow structures, deformed and mineralized pillow basalts, pyroclastic breccia, pink and white marble, and laminated metatuff. Massive to thin beds are interlayered with metamorphosed sedimentary and mafic to ultramafic rocks. This unit was previously mapped as the Catoctin Formation or the Slippery Creek Greenstone in the Lynchburg quadrangle (Brown 1958).

Leatherwood Granite (Cambrian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Leatherwood Granite (Jonas, 1928; Pegeau, 1932; Conley, 1985). Light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, porphyritic biotite granite generally shows rapakivi texture. Mineralogy: quartz + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote + apatite + titanite + zircon + mag ne tite. Geophysical signature: positive radiometric, negative magnetic. The major part of the Leatherwood occurs as sheets at the top of the Martinsville igneous complex. Leatherwood Granite and associated Rich Acres gabbro are cut by dikes of dark-gray, coarse-grained, porphyritic olivine norite. The Leatherwood was dated at 450 Ma (U-Pb zircon; Rankin, 1975); 464±20 Ma (Rb-Sr whole-rock, Odom and Russell, 1975); and 516 Ma (U-Pb zircon; Sinha and others, 1989).

Bassett Formation - Amphibolite. (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Dark-greenish-gray to black-and-white, medium- to coarse-grained, layered to massive hornblende schist, hornblende gneiss, amphibolite, garnet-pyroxene granofels, and coarse uralitic hornblende metagabbro. Mafic rocks are interlayered with white to light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained quartz-feldspar granofels, and cut by alaskite and pegmatite dikes and sills. Ovoid masses of quartz, plagioclase, epidote and quartz that resemble flattened amygdules, and features that resemble graded bedding and cut-and-fill structures suggest a mixed volcanic-volcaniclastic protolith (Conley and Henika, 1970). Mineral assemblages: (1) hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + pyroxene + garnet + epidote + magnetite + titanite; (2) diopside + grossular + plagioclase + magnetite + quartz + epidote; (3) hornblende + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + quartz + epidote. Geophysical signature: Narrow, positive magnetic anomalies closely parallel amphibolite outcrops belts.

Candler Formation - Phyllite and schist (Cambrian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Medium- to dark-gray and greenish- gray mica phyllite and sandy laminated schist. Lenses and pods of feldspathic quartzite, metamorphosed quartzarenite, dolomitic marble, and dark-gray to medium-bluish-gray, laminated marble are common in the upper part. Mineralogy: quartz + albite + muscovite + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite + epidote ± biotite ± chloritoid ± calcite. Chloritoid and magnetite porphyroblasts are common near the Bowens Creek fault. Geophysical signature: Low amplitude, linear magnetic highs are superimposed on a pronounced southeast-sloping magnetic gradient between Alligator Back units northwest of the Candler and a persistant linear magnetic trough localized along the trend of the Bowens Creek fault zone. Microstructural elements in the upper Candler indicate dextral transpression along a continuous shear zone (Bowens Creek fault zone) within the Candler outcrop belt from the Virginia-North Carolina boundary in Patrick County northeastward to at least the north end of Buffalo Ridge on the Amherst-Campbell County line. Conley and Henika (1970) and Gates (1986) hypothesized that the Bowens Creek fault is part of a major strike slip (wrench) system that is part or a continuation of the Brevard fault zone to the southwest . Northeast of the Scottsville Mesozoic basin, the Candler includes laminated metasiltstone (Ccas), ferruginous metatuff, dolomitic marble, and phyllite that are conformable above Catoctin metabasalt (Evans, 1984; Conley, 1989; Rossman, 1991); in Orange County, the Candler includes the True Blue formation of Pavlides (1989, 1990).

Rich Acres Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Rich Acres Formation (Conley and Henika, 1973; Conley, 1985). Dikes, sills, and irregularly-shaped plutons of dark-greenish-gray, medium-grained, locally porphryitic, biotite-hornblende gabbro. Mineralogy: plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + hornblende + biotite + magnetite + quartz + rutile + apatite + zircon + epidote + calcite + pyrite + titanite; plagioclase is altered to epidote; pyroxenes are altered to uralite. Outer parts of some plutons are injected with thin veins composed of hornblende + plagioclase, and hornblende + pyroxene + plagiocase, and with quartz-microcline-oligoclase pegmatite. The unit includes small, irregularly-shaped plutons of porphyritic norite composed of 1- to 4-cm orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene and 1-cm plagioclase laths in ophitic texture, hornblende, biotite, and olivine. The Rich Acres is part of the Martinsville igneous complex of Ragland (1974).

Mafic Igneous Complex Undivided (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Metamorphosed stratiform mafic and ultramafic rocks include: greenish-gray, locally layered, coarse-grained metagabbro; dark-greenish-black schistose metabasalt; and, gray to grayish-green talc-chlorite-tremolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) chlorite + epidote + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + ilmenite; (2) chlorite + actinolite + biotite + epidote + titanite + plagioclase + quartz; (3) chlorite + actinolite + talc + dolomite + magnetite-ilmenite; (4) tremolite + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite; (5) serpentine + talc + chlorite + actinolite ± olivine ± augite. Geophysical signature: strike-elongate positive magnetic anomaly. Metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic complexes are generally sheet-like bodies, concordant near the base of the Alligator Back and Charlottesville Formations. In Nelson County, these rocks are cut by metagabbroic dikes (CZmd) that are likely related to the Catoctin. Hess (1933) reports a stratified association of ultramafic, mafic, and minor silicic lithologies at Schuyler which he attributes to in situ differentiation of a sheet-like concordant intrusion. Glover and others (1989) report a non-tectonized intrusive contact between Charlottesville Formation metasiltstone and ultramafic schist at Schulyer. In contrast, Conley (1985) presents evidence that ultramafic-mafic complexes in Franklin County are tectonicly-emplaced slices of oceanic crust (ophiolites). Tectonic setting and mode of emplacement for these rock assemblages remain enigmatic; correlation of complexes in the southwestern Piedmont with those in the central Blue Ridge may ultimately prove invalid.

Ashe Formation - Biotite gneiss (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Medium- to light-gray, massive, conglomeratic biotite schist and gneiss, with feldspar, quartz, and granitic clasts; grades upwards into medium- to fine-grained, salt-and-pepper-textured two-mica plagioclase gneiss with very-light-gray mica schist interbeds. Quartzite, impure marble, calcareous gneiss and amphibolite occur locally. Some dark-gray to black, pyrite-bearing mica schist occurs at tops of thick, fining-upwards graded sequences. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + chlorite + epidote + ilmenite; (2) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote-allanite + garnet + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + calcite + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote + ilmenite + titanite; chlorite occurs as a secondary mineral. Unit is unconformable on Grenville basement and cut by Late Precambrian mafic and felsic dikes.

Ashe Formation - Amphibolite (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Dark-greenish-gray to black, coarse to fine-grained amphibolite, hornblende gneiss, and schist, with interlayered biotite-muscovite gneiss and mica schist. Coarse garnetiferous amphibolite, pink and white marble, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-calcite veins are common near the top of the Ashe. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + actinolite + epidote + chlorite; (2) quartz + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + garnet + magnetite. Geophysical signature: amphibolite, and hornblende gneiss and schist give positive linear magnetic anomalies. Relict amygdaloidal textures and hyaloclastic (pillow) structures indicate massive to thick-bedded amphibolite and hornblende gneiss were derived from basaltic flows or shallow sills. Some thin-bedded hornblende gneiss and schist units that commonly contain interbedded micaceous and feldspathic layers may be derived from volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks.

Alligator Back Formation; Gneiss (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Finely laminated to thin layered; locally contains massive gneiss and micaceous granule conglomerate; includes schist, phyllite, and amphibolite.

Metamorphosed Granitic Rock (Ordovician/Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Equigranular to megacrystic, foliated to massive. Includes Toluca Granite.

Banded Gneiss (Cambrian/Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Interlayered with calc-silicate rock, metaconglomerate, amphibolite, sillimanite-mica schist, and granitic rock.

Alligator Back Formation; Mica schist and phyllite (Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Laminated to thin layered; interlayered with minor biotite-muscovite gneiss and amphibolite.

Amphibolite (Cambrian/Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Equigranular, massive to well foliated, dioritic to basaltic dikes and sills; variably metamorphosed.

Ultramafic Rocks (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Grayish-green to light-gray talc chlorite-actinolite or talc-tremolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) chlorite + actinolite + talc + dolomite + ilmenite + magnetite; (2) serpentine (antigorite) + talc + chlorite ± olivine ± augite; (3) tremolite + cummingtonite + chlorite + talc + magnetite-ilmenite ± quartz. Geophysical signature: elongate positive magnetic anomaly. Elongate, lenticular bodies generally trend parallel to schistosity of enclosing rocks and are concordant at variable stratigraphic levels within the Lynchburg Group.

Felsic Volcanic and Volcaniclastic Rocks (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Dark-gray to black, biotite- and pyrite-rich volcaniclastic rock interbedded with medium-gray, fine-grained rocks with numerous quartzfilled vesicles; upper part of the unit consists of medium dark-gray, fine-grained felsic rock with numerous clasts of fine-grained, white-weathering, vesiculated felsite interlayered with fine-grained, clast-free felsic rock. Dikes of clast-free felsic rock cut nearby Middle Proterozoic granitic gneiss (Ybp); conformably overlain by feldspathic metasandstones of the Fauquier Formation.

Mica Schist (Cambrian/Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Garnet, staurolite, kyanite, or sillimanite occur locally; lenses and layers of quartz schist, micaceous quartzite, calc-silicate rock, biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and phyllite.