Geologic units in Pittsylvania county, Virginia

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Fork Mountain Formation (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 37 % of this area

Fork Mountain Formation (Conley and Henika, 1973; Conley, 1985). Light- to medium-gray, fine- to medium grained, polydeformed and polymetamorphosed porphyroblastic aluminosilicate-mica schist, interlayered with medium-gray irregularly-layered garnetiferous biotite gneiss, migmatitic in part; calcsilicate granofels; amphibolite; rare white marble; and, coarse calc-quartzite lenses. Complex schistosity, multiple crenulation cleavages, and partly-retrograded, polymetamorphic aluminosilicate and garnet porphyroblasts are diagnostic of Fork Mountain schists. Primary sedimentary structures rarely are preserved. A spectacular polymictic breccia bed that can be traced along strike for several miles within the Fork Mountain near Stuart is a notable exception. Medium- to coarse-granular, blue quartz lenses, angular to rounded inclusions of boudinaged fine-grained, color-laminated, calc-silicate rock, and thick beds of coarse, clast-supported, epidotized lithic breccia are typical of the Fork Mountain biotite gneiss. Prograde regional metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + biotite + garnet + staurolite + magnetite- ilmenite + rutile; (2) quartz + muscovite + paragonite + plagioclase + garnet + staurolite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + rutile; (3) quartz + biotite + sillimanite + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + garnet + magnetite-ilmenite; (4) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + sillimanite + garnet + tourmaline; (5) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + hornblende + epidote + ilmenite; (6) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + muscovite + biotite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite + garnet + kyanite. Retrograde metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + muscovite + chlorite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chloritoid + chlorite; (3) quartz + muscovite + staurolite + chloritoid; (4) quartz + muscovite + kyanite. Contact metamorphic mineral assemblages: (1) andalusite + sillimanite + kyanite + corundum; (2) corundum + spinel + magnetite + kyanite. Geophysical signature: The Fork Mountain has a characteristic "curly maple" pattern on magnetic contour maps. This pattern is the result of isolated concentrations of highly magnetic minerals that produce rounded, high-intensity, positive and negative anomalies. The aluminosilicate-mica schist is the upper part of the Fork Mountain Formation and forms a series of northeastward-trending ridges along the northwest side of the Smith River allochthon. The garnetiferous biotite gneiss is at a lower structural level of the Fork Mountain Formation near Martinsville where lower strata have been intruded by the Martinsville igneous complex, and the remaining metasedimentary rocks contain extensive thermal meta mor phic zones locallized along the intrusive contacts (Conley and Henika, 1973). Biotite gneiss in the Fork Mountain Formation has been interpreted to be a highly metamorphosed diamictite (Rankin, 1975; Conley, 1985; and Pavlides, 1989). At the northeastern limit of the Fork Mountain outcrop belt, in Appomattox and Buckingham counties, the dominant lithologies are polydeformed yellowish-gray chloritoid-chlorite- muscovite quartzose phyllite and quartz-rich mica schist. Tightly-folded, transposed pinstriped segregation layering at a high angle to the penetrative schistosity defined by phyllosilicate minerals is characteristic; polycrystalline quartz-rich boudins are abundant. These rocks are lithologically indistinguishable from those along the highly-tectonized western margin of the metagraywacke, quartzose schist, and melange (CZpm) outcrop belt; current interpretation is that the Fork Mountain is correlative to some degree with CZpm.

Interlayered Mafic and Felsic Metavolcanic Rocks - Foliated felsite (Cambrian) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Foliated felsite; Heterogenous layered assemblage correlates with the Chopawamsic Formation and Ta River Metamorphic Suite, on strike to the northeast, and in traceable into the Milton belt in North Carolina (Geologic Map of North Carolina, 1985). Foliated felsite. Grayish-orange-pink to white, fine- to medium-grained, foliated to granular metavolcanic rocks range in composition from rhyolite to dacite. Includes muscovite feldspar- quartz schist, gneiss and granofels; massive crystal metatuff; welded ashflow tuff; and, inequigranular metavolcanic breccia. Relict primary volcanic textures are recognizable where metamorphic grade is low (Henika, 1975; 1977). This unit includes felsic gneiss with less common mafic and rare calcareous gneiss mapped by Tobisch (1972), in part the metamorphosed volcanic sequence of Gates (1981), and dominantly felsic-composition units mapped by Nelson (1992). The unit contains numerous granitic dikes, sills, and lit-par-lit injections where it occurs in close proximity to Shelton Formation (Ost). Felsites occur interlayered with amphibolite, amphibole gneiss and schist (Cmv), quartzofeldspathic biotite gneiss (Cbg), sillimanite-quartz-muscovite schist and gneiss (Csg), and ferruginous quartzite (Cfq).

Interlayered Mafic and Felsic Metavolcanic Rocks - Amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, and schist. (Cambrian) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, and schist.; Heterogenous layered assemblage correlates with the Chopawamsic Formation and Ta River Metamorphic Suite, on strike to the northeast, and in traceable into the Milton belt in North Carolina (Geologic Map of North Carolina, 1985). Amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss and schist. Black to moderate-olive-brown, medium- to coarse-grained, lineated and foliated; light-greenish-gray quartz-epidote stringers are common. Mineralogy: hornblende + tremolite-actinolite + oligoclase + biotite + epidote + garnet. Includes Blackwater Creek Gneiss and Catawba Creek amphibolite member of Hyco Formation of Baird (1989), hornblende gneiss of LeGrand (1960), gneiss unit of Kreisa (1980), and dominantly mafic-composition units mapped by Nelson (1992). Amphibolite is interlayered with biotite gneiss, as discussed above.

Bassett Formation - Biotite gneiss and granite gneiss. (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Light-gray to black-and-white, fine to medium-grained, leucocratic biotite gneiss that is mostly segregation-layered, but locally is a medium-grained quartzfeldspar granofels. Contains interlayers of muscovite-biotite schist, quartz schist, and epidote quartzite. Mineral assemblages: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + magnetite-ilmenite + tourmaline ± kyanite ± epidote ± titanite ± hornblende ± garnet; (2) quartz + plagioclase + epidote + pyroxene. Porphyroclasts of zoned plagioclase in an equigranular, polygonal quartz-potassium feldspar groundmass and medium to thick bedding suggest a volcaniclastic protolith (Conley, 1985). Gneisses are migmatitic and cut by numerous granite dikes and sills near the contacts with the Martinsville igneous complex. Geophysical signature: potassium feldspar-bearing gneisses have positive radiometric, and generally flat magnetic signatures relative to adjacent amphibolite units. In the core of the Sherwill anticline (Campbell and Appomattox counties), the dominant rock-type is graded salt-andpepper metagraywacke, interbedded with lesser mica schist and graphite schist. This association bears lithologic affinity to the Lynchburg Group, which occupies the cores of structural domes to the west; this correlation has been made by several workers (Brown, 1958; Kaldy, 1977; Gates, 1987).

Newark Supergroup; Sandstone, undifferentiated (Upper Triassic) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Fine- to coarse-grained, reddish-brown to gray, primary bedding features such as cross-beds, channel lags, and ripple marks , minor conglomerate, siltstone, and shale beds.

Newark Supergroup; Triassic Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (Upper Triassic) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Sandstone, very fine- to coarse-grained, reddish-brown to gray, micaceous, minor conglomerate beds. Siltstone, reddish-brown to gray, micaceous. Shale, reddish-brown, greenish-gray, gray, yellowish-brown, laminated, fossiliferous. Upward-fining sequences, discontinuous vertically and horizontally.

Leatherwood Granite (Cambrian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Leatherwood Granite (Jonas, 1928; Pegeau, 1932; Conley, 1985). Light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, porphyritic biotite granite generally shows rapakivi texture. Mineralogy: quartz + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote + apatite + titanite + zircon + mag ne tite. Geophysical signature: positive radiometric, negative magnetic. The major part of the Leatherwood occurs as sheets at the top of the Martinsville igneous complex. Leatherwood Granite and associated Rich Acres gabbro are cut by dikes of dark-gray, coarse-grained, porphyritic olivine norite. The Leatherwood was dated at 450 Ma (U-Pb zircon; Rankin, 1975); 464±20 Ma (Rb-Sr whole-rock, Odom and Russell, 1975); and 516 Ma (U-Pb zircon; Sinha and others, 1989).

Alligator Back Formation - Feldspathic metagraywacke (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Heterogeneous assemblage of rock-types includes medium- to light-gray, laminated quartzofeldspathic to calcareous gneiss with thin mica schist partings; white and gray, fine- to coarse-grained, generally laminated marble; gray to greenish-gray fine-grained graphitic mica schist and quartzite; light-gray, medium- to fine-grained mica schist; massive quartzite and micaceous blue quartz granule metasandstone; and, dark-greenish-black actinolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + potassium feldspar + pla ioclase + biotite + muscovite + calcite + epidote + titanite + magnetite- ilmenite; (2) quartz + muscovite + chlorite + graphite + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + albite + muscovite + biotite + titanite + ilmenite; (4) quartz + mus co vite + garnet + kyanite; (5) chlorite + tremolite + magnetite-ilmenite; (6) chlorite + actinolite-tremolite + talc + dolomite + magnetite-ilmenite; (7) quartz + albite + actinolite + biotite + epidote + magnetite. Units here mapped as Alligator Back Formation were previously mapped as the Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Gates, 1986; Patterson, 1987) and considered to be younger than the Lynchburg Group. Regional mapping by Henika (1991) and Scheible (1975) indicates that rocks assigned to Alligator Back Formation by Rankin and others (1973) are continuous with the upper part of the Lynchburg Group in the type section along the James River at Lynchburg (Jonas, 1927) and that the Alligator Back consistently dips southeast beneath the overlying Candler Formation from the Virginia-North Carolina border to the James River at Lynchburg. Sedimentary and structural facing criteria indicate that rock units immediately southeast of the Candler Formation in an outcrop belt from Stapleton on the James River, southwest to Leesville Dam on the Roanoke River, are older than the Candler (Henika, 1992). Although previously mapped as upper Evington Group (Espenshade, 1954; Brown, 1958; Redden, 1963; Patterson, 1987), these rocks are herein correlated with the Alligator Back Formation (upper Lynchburg Group), having been uplifted against the Candler Formation to the northwest along the Bowens Creek fault (Henika, 1992). Rocks in the same outcrop belt along strike to the southwest of the Leesville Reservoir were previously correlated with the Alligator Back Formation by Conley (1985). The sequence of lithologic units within the Alligator Back Formation southeast of the Bowens Creek fault is the same as that proposed by Brown (1951; 1958), and Espenshade (1954) for the formations in the Evington Group, that are structurally above the Candler Formation. The sequence is based on the detailed structural and stratigraphic relationships first established by Brown (1958) in the Lynchburg 15-minute quadrangle.

Interlayered Mafic and Felsic Metavolcanic Rocks (Cambrian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Heterogenous layered assemblage correlates with the Chopawamsic Formation and Ta River Metamorphic Suite, on strike to the northeast, and in traceable into the Milton belt in North Carolina (Geologic Map of North Carolina, 1985). Quartzofeldspathic biotite gneiss. Heterogeneous layered sequence consists of salt-and-pepper and segregation layered biotite granite gneiss interlayered with biotite schist; dark-gray to black, fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to thickly-laminated hornblende gneiss and schist; lesser quartz-muscovite schist; and, locally, gray to green, medium-grained, calcareous gneiss and calc-silicate granofels (Tobish and Glover, 1969). This unit includes the upper and lower felsic gneiss units and intermediate volcanic rocks in the Hyco Formation as used by Baird (1989, 1991); and biotite gneiss and interlayered gneiss of Kreisa (1980), correlative with the biotite gneiss unit of Marr (1980a; 1980b). Mineralogy: (quartzofeldspathic rocks), (1) quartz + albite + potassium feldspar + muscovite + chlorite + actinolite + epidote + calcite + magnetite + zircon; (2) quartz + oligoclase + muscovite + biotite + garnet + hornblende + magnetite + epidote + rutile + calcite + zircon; (mafic rocks), (1) quartz + albite + chlorite + epidote + actinolite + titanite + magnetite ilmenite. (2) quartz + oligoclase + andesine + hornblende + microcline + biotite + garnet + cordierite + magnetite + rutile + titanite + scapolite; (pelitic rocks), (1) quartz + albite + muscovite + chlorite + epidote + magnetite-ilmenite; (2) quartz + muscovite + biotite + kyanite + oligoclase + potassium feldspar + epidote + magnetite-ilmenite + garnet; (3) quartz + muscovite + sillimanite + magnetite-ilmenite; (calcareous rocks), (1) quartz + calcite + biotite + epidote + chlorite + tremolite + ilmenite; (2) calcite+ quartz + epidote + hornblende + pyroxene + scapolite. Geophysical signature: felsic rocks are delineated by strike-elongate positive radiometric anomalies (Henika and Johnson, 1980); mafic metavolcanic rocks and metasedimentary units are characterized by closed strike-elongate radiometric lows and closed strike-elongate aeromagnetic highs.

Shelton Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Pink to gray, coarse-grained, massive, strongly-lineated gneiss ranging in composition from granite to quartz monzonite (Henika, 1977), composed of microcline and perthite augen enclosed by biotite in a quartz-plagioclase matrix. A characteristic linear fabric is produced by rod-like feldspar porphyroblasts and crystalline aggregates. Thin veins of purple fluorite are common. Mineralogy: quartz + potassium feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite ± pyrite ± fluorite. Geophysical signature: pronounced positive radiometric signature, flat magnetic signature. Originally named Shelton granite (Jonas, 1928), the unit was renamed Shelton Formation (Henika, 1977). Simple linear fabric was cited as evidence for an intrusive origin by Henika (1980). The Shelton has been dated at 424±7 Ma (Rb-Sr whole-rock; Kish, 1983) and 463 Ma (U-Pb; Hund, 1987).

Interlayered Mafic and Felsic Metavolcanic Rocks - Quartz-muscovite schist and gneiss. (Cambrian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Quartz-muscovite schist and gneiss; Heterogenous layered assemblage correlates with the Chopawamsic Formation and Ta River Metamorphic Suite, on strike to the northeast, and in traceable into the Milton belt in North Carolina (Geologic Map of North Carolina, 1985). Quartz muscovite schist and gneiss. Very-light-gray to light-bluish-gray, fine- to medium-grained, layered kyanite mica schist, kyanite and sillimanite quartzite, and interlayered biotite-garnet schist. Mineralogy: quartz + muscovite + plagioclase ± biotite ± garnet ± sillimanite ± kyanite ± magnetite. Includes the schist and gneiss unit of Tobisch (1972), and muscovite-quartz schist of Baird (1989, 1991).

Alligator Back Formation (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Alligator Back Formation (Sauratown Mountains; Conley, 1985). Light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained porphyroblastic garnet-mica schist; contains interbeds of dark-gray graphitic mica schist, calc-gneiss, mica gneiss, feldspathic quartzite with blue quartz granule beds, and garnet-hornblende schist. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + muscovite + garnet + staurolite + biotite + magnetite; (2) quartz + muscovite + biotite + garnet + kyanite + staurolite + magnetite; (3) quartz + biotite + muscovite + garnet + chlorite + epidote + rutile + titanite + magnetite-ilmenite (retrograde assemblage locallized in sheared rocks along the Ridgeway fault). Garnet, kyanite, and staurolite porphyroblasts are generally pristine.

Newark Supergroup; Conglomerate, mixed clasts (Upper Triassic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Rounded to subangular pebbles, cobbles, and boulders of mixed lithologies including quartz, phyllite, quartzite, gneiss, schist, greenstone, and marble in a matrix of medium- to very-coarse-grained, reddish-brown to gray, locally arkosic, sandstone.

Ashe Formation (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Ashe Formation (Sauratown Mountains; Conley, 1985). Light-gray, medium-grained muscovite and muscovite biotite gneiss with thick interbeds of muscovite schist and pebbly feldspathic quartzite. Thick lenses of garnet- hornblende schist locally mark the basal and upper contacts with the underlying basement gneiss and the overlying metapelites respectively. The unit is cut by dikes, sills and thick sheets of pegmatite and alaskite, especially concentrated along the zone of transitional contact with Alligator Back mica schist units. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + plagioclase + Potassium feldspar + muscovite + biotite + tourmaline + epidote + titanite+ magnetite-ilmenite; (2) quartz + plagioclase + muscovite+ biotite + graphite + magnetite-ilmenite; (3) hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + garnet; (4) hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + epidote + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite. Geophysical signature: Low-amplitude, elongate, positive magnetic anomalies are associated with garnet-mica and hornblende schist outcrop belts; elongate magnetic lows coincide with areas underlain by gneiss units.

Bassett Formation - Amphibolite. (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Dark-greenish-gray to black-and-white, medium- to coarse-grained, layered to massive hornblende schist, hornblende gneiss, amphibolite, garnet-pyroxene granofels, and coarse uralitic hornblende metagabbro. Mafic rocks are interlayered with white to light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained quartz-feldspar granofels, and cut by alaskite and pegmatite dikes and sills. Ovoid masses of quartz, plagioclase, epidote and quartz that resemble flattened amygdules, and features that resemble graded bedding and cut-and-fill structures suggest a mixed volcanic-volcaniclastic protolith (Conley and Henika, 1970). Mineral assemblages: (1) hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + pyroxene + garnet + epidote + magnetite + titanite; (2) diopside + grossular + plagioclase + magnetite + quartz + epidote; (3) hornblende + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + quartz + epidote. Geophysical signature: Narrow, positive magnetic anomalies closely parallel amphibolite outcrops belts.

Newark Supergroup; Triassic shale and siltstone (Triassic) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Shale, light-greenish gray, light- to dark-gray, carbonaceous, and reddish-brown in cyclic sequences, laminated, silty to sandy, fossiliferous. Siltstone, typically reddish-brown to gray, sandy, micaceous, with minor fine-grained sandstone beds.

Candler Formation - Phyllite and schist (Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Medium- to dark-gray and greenish- gray mica phyllite and sandy laminated schist. Lenses and pods of feldspathic quartzite, metamorphosed quartzarenite, dolomitic marble, and dark-gray to medium-bluish-gray, laminated marble are common in the upper part. Mineralogy: quartz + albite + muscovite + chlorite + magnetite-ilmenite + epidote ± biotite ± chloritoid ± calcite. Chloritoid and magnetite porphyroblasts are common near the Bowens Creek fault. Geophysical signature: Low amplitude, linear magnetic highs are superimposed on a pronounced southeast-sloping magnetic gradient between Alligator Back units northwest of the Candler and a persistant linear magnetic trough localized along the trend of the Bowens Creek fault zone. Microstructural elements in the upper Candler indicate dextral transpression along a continuous shear zone (Bowens Creek fault zone) within the Candler outcrop belt from the Virginia-North Carolina boundary in Patrick County northeastward to at least the north end of Buffalo Ridge on the Amherst-Campbell County line. Conley and Henika (1970) and Gates (1986) hypothesized that the Bowens Creek fault is part of a major strike slip (wrench) system that is part or a continuation of the Brevard fault zone to the southwest . Northeast of the Scottsville Mesozoic basin, the Candler includes laminated metasiltstone (Ccas), ferruginous metatuff, dolomitic marble, and phyllite that are conformable above Catoctin metabasalt (Evans, 1984; Conley, 1989; Rossman, 1991); in Orange County, the Candler includes the True Blue formation of Pavlides (1989, 1990).

Stuart Creek Gneiss (Proterozoic Y) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Stuart Creek Gneiss (Conley, 1985). Light-gray to black and white, massive to irregularly-layered augen and flaser gneiss with anastamosing layers of mylonitic biotite schist, hornblende schist and foliated leucogranite. Augen gneiss is composed of microcline, plagioclase, and perthite porphyroclasts up to 4 cm across in a matrix of plagioclase, quartz, and biotite, with accessory titanite, epidote, hornblende, and opaque minerals. This rock was correlated with the Elk Park Group of the southwestern Blue Ridge by Espenshade and others (1975). Rankin and others (1971) obtained a lead-lead zircon age of 1192 Ma from a layered biotite gneiss unit in a similar stratigraphic position as the Stuart Creek but exposed in a quarry at Pilot Mountain, North Carolina, about 25 miles southwest of the Virginia-North Carolina boundary.

Rich Acres Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Rich Acres Formation (Conley and Henika, 1973; Conley, 1985). Dikes, sills, and irregularly-shaped plutons of dark-greenish-gray, medium-grained, locally porphryitic, biotite-hornblende gabbro. Mineralogy: plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + hornblende + biotite + magnetite + quartz + rutile + apatite + zircon + epidote + calcite + pyrite + titanite; plagioclase is altered to epidote; pyroxenes are altered to uralite. Outer parts of some plutons are injected with thin veins composed of hornblende + plagioclase, and hornblende + pyroxene + plagiocase, and with quartz-microcline-oligoclase pegmatite. The unit includes small, irregularly-shaped plutons of porphyritic norite composed of 1- to 4-cm orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene and 1-cm plagioclase laths in ophitic texture, hornblende, biotite, and olivine. The Rich Acres is part of the Martinsville igneous complex of Ragland (1974).

Ashe Formation - Biotite gneiss (Proterozoic Z) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Medium- to light-gray, massive, conglomeratic biotite schist and gneiss, with feldspar, quartz, and granitic clasts; grades upwards into medium- to fine-grained, salt-and-pepper-textured two-mica plagioclase gneiss with very-light-gray mica schist interbeds. Quartzite, impure marble, calcareous gneiss and amphibolite occur locally. Some dark-gray to black, pyrite-bearing mica schist occurs at tops of thick, fining-upwards graded sequences. Mineralogy: (1) quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + chlorite + epidote + ilmenite; (2) quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote-allanite + garnet + titanite + ilmenite; (3) quartz + calcite + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + epidote + ilmenite + titanite; chlorite occurs as a secondary mineral. Unit is unconformable on Grenville basement and cut by Late Precambrian mafic and felsic dikes.

Newark Supergroup; Triassic Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale, and Coal (Triassic) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Sandstone, fine-to coarse-grained, reddish-brown to gray, arkosic in places, micaceous, displays channel-type primary features. Siltstone light- to dark-gray, micaceous. Shale, light- to dark-gray, carbonaceous, micaceous, fossiliferous. Coal, bituminous, banded, moderate- to well-developed, fine- to medium-cleat, partings and inclusions of shale, siltstone, and sandstone; high methane concentrations recorded in the Richmond and Taylorsville basins. This lithologic unit occurs in the Richmond, Taylorsville, Farmville, Briery Creek, and Danville basins.

Mylonite, Mylonite Gneiss, and Cataclastic Rocks (Proterozoic - Paleozoic ?) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Mylonite. Includes protomylonite, mylonite, ultramylonite, and cataclastic rocks. Lithology highly variable, depending on the nature of the parent rock, and on intensive parameters and history of deformation. In most mapped belts of mylonite and cataclastic rock (my), tectonized rocks anastomose around lenses of less-deformed or undeformed rock. In the Blue Ridge, some of these lenses are large enough to show at 1:500,000 scale. In many places mylonitic and cataclastic rocks are gradational into less deformed or undeformed adjacent rocks, and location of contacts between tectonized rocks (my) and adjacent units is approximate or arbitrary. These boundaries are indicated on the map by color-color joins with superimposed shear pattern. Most mapped belts of mylonite represent fault zones with multiple movement histories. In the Blue Ridge, Paleozoic age contractional deformation fabrics are superimposed on Late Precambrian extensional fabrics (Simpson and Kalaghan, 1989; Bailey and Simpson, 1993). Many Piedmont mylonite zones contain dextral-transpressional kinematic indicators that formed during Late Paleozoic collision al tectonics (Bobyarchick and Glover, 1979; Gates and others, 1986). Paleozoic and older faults were reactivated in many places to form extensional faults during the Mesozoic (Bobyarchick and Glover, 1979).

Melrose Granite (Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Light-greenish-gray to pink-banded, massive, medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite; ranges in composition from quartz monzonite to quartz diorite. Fabric shows a southeastward progression from protomylonite to mylonite to ultramylonite where the unit is cut by the Brookneal shear zone (Gates and others, 1986). Mineralogy: quartz + plagioclase + potassium feldspar + biotite + muscovite + chlorite + epidote + titanite + garnet + mag ne tite-ilmenite + calcite + zircon (Gates, 1981). Geophysical signature: positive radiometric, negative magnetic. The Melrose has been dated at 515 Ma (U-Pb zircon; Sinha and others, 1989).

Alligator Back Formation - Actinolite schist (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Dark-grayish-green chlorite-actinolite schist metabasalt. Mineralogy: actinolite + epidote + chlorite ± biotite + albite + quartz + magnetite-ilmenite. Geophysical signature: linear, positive magnetic anomaly. Schist commonly contains recognizable flow structures, deformed and mineralized pillow basalts, pyroclastic breccia, pink and white marble, and laminated metatuff. Massive to thin beds are interlayered with metamorphosed sedimentary and mafic to ultramafic rocks. This unit was previously mapped as the Catoctin Formation or the Slippery Creek Greenstone in the Lynchburg quadrangle (Brown 1958).

Diorite Gneiss (Proterozoic) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

White to gray, fine- to medium grained, massive to layered quartz diorite gneiss, contains minor biotite and epidote; lenses of gray to black, medium-grained, layered hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and quartz-epidote clinopyroxene- hornblende-plagioclase gneiss occur locally (Tobisch, 1972).

Alligator Back Formation - Banded marble (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Light- and dark-gray, laminated fine to medium-grained marble, calcareous gneiss, and schist. Mineralogy: calcite + quartz + biotite + muscovite + plagioclase + pyrite + magnetite-ilmenite. Thick to thin beds of marble are interlayered with graphitic phyllite and mica schist; the lithology grades from impure marble to calcareous metagraywacke depending on per cent age of detrital calcite present. The unit includes the Arch Marble of Brown (1958) and the Archer Creek Formation of Espenshade (1954).

Ultramafic Rocks (Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Small pods and plutons of gray to greenish-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, locally porphyroblastic schist and granofels. Mineralogy: tremolite-actinolite + chlorite ± talc ± plagioclase ± quartz; locally contains relict olivine.

Shelton Granite Gneiss (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Poorly foliated; lineated granitic to quartz monzonitic gneiss.

Diabase (Jurassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Fine- to coarsely-crystalline, subaphanitic or porphyritic with aphanitic margins; dark-gray mosaic of plagioclase laths and clinopyroxene, with some masses characterized by olivine or bronzite, others granophyric. Also occurs as dikes and sills in the Valley and Ridge, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces.

Alaskite (Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Alaskite (Conley, 1985). White to light-gray, medium to coarse-grained leucocratic muscovite granite and granite gneiss. Mineralogy: potassium feldspar (perthite or microcline) + plagioclase + quartz + muscovite ± biotite ± epidote ± kyanite ± garnet. Geophysical signature: negative or flat magnetic signature; positive radiometric signature. Commonly occurs as folded sheets parallel to schistosity and as lit-par-lit injections in the Bassett and Fork Mountain Formations (Smith River Allochthon) and near the base of the Lynchburg Group (Ashe Formation or Moneta Gneiss) in the Blue Ridge or Sauratown Mountains anticlinoria.

Newark Supergroup, Dan River Group; Pine Hall Formation (Triassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sandstone, mudstone, and conglomerate, yellowish orange to brown.

Biotite Gneiss and Schist (Cambrian/Late Proterozoic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Inequigranular and megacrystic; abundant potassic feldspar and garnet; interlayered and gradational with calc-silicate rock, sillimanite-mica schist, mica schist, and amphibolite. Contains small masses of granitic rock.

Newark Supergroup, Dan River Group; Cow Branch Formation (Triassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mudstone with minor sandstone, gray, laterally-continuous bedding. Intertongues with Stoneville and Pine Hall formations.

Ultramafic Rocks (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Grayish-green to light-gray talc chlorite-actinolite or talc-tremolite schist. Mineralogy: (1) chlorite + actinolite + talc + dolomite + ilmenite + magnetite; (2) serpentine (antigorite) + talc + chlorite ± olivine ± augite; (3) tremolite + cummingtonite + chlorite + talc + magnetite-ilmenite ± quartz. Geophysical signature: elongate positive magnetic anomaly. Elongate, lenticular bodies generally trend parallel to schistosity of enclosing rocks and are concordant at variable stratigraphic levels within the Lynchburg Group.

Newark Supergroup, Dan River Group; Stoneville Formation (Triassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Conglomerate, sandstone, and mudstone, lenticular and laterally-gradational bedding.