Geologic units in Rockingham county, Virginia

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Beekmantown Group (Ordovician) at surface, covers 17 % of this area

Includes the Pinesburg Station Dolomite, the Rockdale Run Formation, and the Stonehenge Limestone (northern Virginia only) or the Beekmantown Formation and Stonehenge Limestone (central and southwestern Virginia). Pinesburg Station Dolomite (Sando, 1956). Dolostone, dark- to light-gray, fine- to medium-grained, medium- to thick bedded with minor nodular white chert. It ranges from 0 to 400 feet in thickness and is equivalent to beds in the upper Beekmantown Formation. Present only in Clarke and Frederick counties and is conformable with the underlying Rockdale Run Formation and unconformable with the overlying New Market or Lincolnshire Limestones. Rockdale Run Formation (Sando, 1958). Dominantly limestone and dolomitic limestone, lesser dolostone with minor chert throughout. Limestone, light- to medium-gray, fine-grained generally, but coarse, bioclastic limestone locally, medium- to thick-bedded. Dolostone, light-gray, fine- to medium- grained, thick-bedded with "butcher block" weathering and minor nodular or bedded chert in both limestone and dolostone. Unconformably overlain by the New Market Limestone where the Pinesburg Station Dolomite is absent. It is laterally equivalent to the Beekmantown Formation and conformably overlies the Stonehenge Limestone. The formation is about 2700 feet thick. Beekmantown Formation (Clarke and Schuchert, 1899). Dominantly dolostone and chert-bearing dolostone with lesser limestone. Dolostone, light- to very-dark-gray, fine- to coarse grained, mottled light- and dark-gray, with crystalline beds locally contains nodular, dark-brown or black chert and thick, hill forming, lenticular chert beds in lower part. Limestone, very-light- to medium-gray, fine-grained, medium- to thick bedded, locally dolomitic and locally fossiliferous. The formation is present from Page and Shenandoah counties southwestward in the easternmost exposures of the Lower Ordovician rocks. It and the underlying Stonehenge Limestone, are equivalent to the Mas cot and Kingsport Dolomites of the upper part of the Knox Group. It is unconformably overlain by Middle Ordovician limestones and conformably overlies the Stonehenge Limestone. Erosion, related to the unconformity at the top of the Beekmantown Group and Knox Group, has produced erosional breccias, local topographic relief, and paleokarst topography as well as significant regional thinning of the rock units. The Beekmantown Group thins from about 3000 feet in Page County to less than 700 feet in Washington County, largely because of post-Beekmantown erosion. Stonehenge Limestone (Sando, 1956). Limestone with interbedded dolostone in north western Virginia. Limestone, dark-gray, fine-grained, laminated to massive, with black nodular chert. Dolostone, light-gray, fine-to very-coarse-grained, as thin- to medium-interbeds or as coarse- grained, massive, reefoidal bodies. Reefoidal bodies are restricted to the middle portion of the formation. The formation conformably overlies the Conococheague Formation and thins northwestward from 400 or 500 feet in the southeasternmost exposures (Page County) to a few tens of feet in the north western exposures (western Rockingham County) and is not recognizable or included in the lower Beekmantown or upper Conococheague in much of southwestern or western Virginia. It is equivalent to the lower part of the Kingsport Dolomite.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Wildcat Valley Sandstone (Miller, Harris, and Roen, 1964). Sandstone, limestone, and shale. Sandstone, locally calcareous, locally quartzose, light-gray, grayish-orange, and dark-yellowish-brown, very-fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to massive-bedded, fossiliferous, friable, locally glauconitic; with chert nodules and beds. Locally dark-reddish-brown ironstone replaces sandstone. Limestone, gray, pinkish-gray, and light-brownish-gray, coarse-grained, thick- to massive bedded, sandy, locally present. Shale, yellowish-green to gray, locally present. Where the Wildcat Valley Sandstone is present it uncomformably overlies the Silurian Hancock Formation. The Wildcat Valley Sandstone is absent through out most of Lee County (Englund, 1964; Harris, 1965; Miller and Roen, 1973) but reaches a maximum of 60 feet in thickness to the northeast (Lower Devonian sandstone of Harris and Miller, 1963).

Chemung Formation (redefined as Foreknobs Formation) (Devonian) at surface, covers 11 % of this area

Chemung Formation (Hall, 1839). Redefined as the Foreknobs Formation (Dennison, 1970). Sandstone and shale, dark-gray and greenish-gray, fine-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, lithic sandstone and interbedded greenish gray, fissile, clay shale. Minor quartz-pebble conglomerate, thin red sandstone, and locally, fossil shell beds. Very thin or absent in southwestern Virginia; thickens to about 2500 feet northeastward in Frederick County. Gradational contact with underlying Brallier Formation and equivalent to part of the Chattanooga Shale to the southwest. Redefined and described as part of the Greenland Gap Group by Dennison (1970).

Martinsburg and Oranda Formations (Ordovician) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Martinsburg Formation (Geiger and Keith, 1891). Three lithologic packages are recognized in the Martinsburg (in ascending order): black shale and limestone; sandstone and shale; and sandstone (Rader and Biggs, 1976). The lower unit consists of 200 to 250 feet of black calcareous shale, black aphanic, argillaceous limestone; and thin, light-brown K-bentonites. The bulk of the formation, more than 2800 feet, is composed of olive-green to gray, fine- to medium-grained, lithic sandstone and greenish-gray shale and siltstone. These lithologies occur in base-truncated Bouma cycles. Graded bedding, flute casts, and load casts are common. The upper unit, about 170 feet thick, is brownish-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, quartz sandstone. The lower two-thirds of this sandstone contains near-shore, marine fossils. Oranda Formation (Cooper and Cooper, 1946). Limestone and siltstone. Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, fine-grained, very argillaceous. Siltstone, black to dark-gray; both lithologies silicified where in contact with a K-bentonite. Five K-bentonites identified in the type section (Rader and Read, 1989).

Conococheague Formation (Cambrian-Ordovician) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Conococheague Formation (Stose, 1908). Dominantly limestone with significant dolostone and sandstone beds in lower part and locally in upper part. Limestone, medium- to very-dark-gray, fine-grained, thin-bedded with wavy siliceous partings that weather out in relief. Vertically repetitious primary sedimentary features such as sharpstone conglomerate, laminated bedding, and algal structures indicate cyclic sedimentation. Dolostone, medium-gray, fine- to medium-grained, laminated to massive-bedded with primary features similar to those in the limestones. Sandstone, medium-gray, brown weathering, cross-laminated, medium to thin-bedded, forms linear ridges, largely associated with dolostone beds but quartz sand common in most lithologies. Formation is present throughout the Valley of Virginia southeast of the Pulaski and North Mountain faults. It ranges in thickness from about 2200 feet in northern Virginia to 1,700 feet near Abingdon. The Conococheague is approximately equivalent to the Copper Ridge and Chepultepec Formations and conformably overlies the Elbrook Formation.

Edinburg Formation, Lincolnshire and New Market Limestones (Ordovician) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

New Market Limestones (northeast of Roanoke County). Edinburg Formation (Cooper and Cooper, 1946). Limestone and shale. Limestone, dark-gray to black, aphanic, thin-bedded with thin, black shale partings, locally contorted limestone beds, intraformational limestone breccias, and olistoliths interstratified with typical planar bedded limestone (Liberty Hall lithofacies). Limestone, medium- to light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, nodular with very thin, black shale partings (Lantz Mills lithofacies). Limestone, light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick-bedded (St Luke Limestone Member). Shale, black, graptolites common, basal unit in Augusta, eastern Rockingham, and southern Page counties. Thickness ranges from 400 feet at Strasburg to approximately 100 feet west of Lexington with a maximum of nearly 1500 feet near Harrisonburg. Lincolnshire Limestone (Cooper and Prouty, 1943). Limestone, light- to dark-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, with black chert nodules. Light-gray, coarse-grained limestone probably represents carbonate mounds ( Murat limestone). Upper contact is gradational; the lower contact is disconformable. Thickness ranges from 25 feet west of Front Royal to 280 feet northwest of Lexington (Cooper and Cooper, 1946). New Market Limestone (Cooper and Cooper, 1946). Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, aphanic to fine-grained. The upper portion of the New Market, the major quarry rock of northern Virginia, is massive micrite that weathers to fluted ledges. The lower portion is dolomitic with scattered lenticular, black, pyritic limestone, locally conglomeratic at the base. Upper contact is disconformable and the lower contact is a locally angular unconformity. The thickness ranges from 0 near Staunton to 250 feet west of Edinburg.

Chilhowee Group (Cambrian) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Chilhowee Group (Keith, 1903). The Chilhowee Group includes the Antietam, Harpers, and Weverton Formations in the northeastern portion of the Blue Ridge Province and the Erwin, Hampton, and Unicoi Formations in the southwestern portion of the Blue Ridge Province. Antietam Formation (Williams and Clark, 1893). Quartzite, medium-gray to pale-yellowish-white, fine- to medium grained, locally with very minor quartz-pebble conglomerate, cross-laminated, medium- to very-thick-bedded, very resistant, forms prominent cliffs and ledges, contains a few thin interbeds of light-gray phyllite, has calcareous quartz sandstone at the top that is transitional with the overlying Tomstown Dolomite, and many beds contain Skolithos linearras. It is laterally equivalent to the Erwin Formation to the southwest. The formation interfingers with the underlying Harpers Formation and ranges in thickness from less than 500 feet in Clarke County to nearly 1000 feet in Rockingham County (Gathright and Nystrom, 1974; Gathright, 1976). Harpers Formation (Keith, 1894). Metasandstone, metasiltstone, and phyllite. Metasandstone, dark-greenish gray to brownish-gray, fine-grained, sericitic, thin- to medium-planar bedded, locally bioturbated, Skolithos-bearing litharenite; dark-gray, fine-grained, cross-laminated, thickbedded, laterally extensive bodies of quartzite; and very-dark gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick-bedded, ferruginous, very resistant, quartzitic sandstone. These beds were extensively mined for iron ore north of Roanoke (Henika, 1981). Metasiltstone, dark-greenish-gray, thin, even bedded, sericitic, and locally bioturbated. Phyllite, medium- to light-greenish gray, bronze weathering, laminated, sericitic. The Harpers is laterally equivalent to the Hampton Formation to the southwest and they are so similar that the names have been used interchaneably in the northern Blue Ridge (Gathright, 1976; Brown and Spencer, 1981). The Harpers conformably overlies the Weverton or Unicoi Formations, thickens northeastward from about 1500 feet north of Roanoke to about 2500 feet in Clarke County. The thicker sections are dominated by phyllite and metasiltstone and the thinner sections by metasandstone and quartzite. Weverton Formation (Williams and Clark, 1893). Quartzite, metasandstone, and phyllite. Quartzite, medium- to very dark-gray, weathers light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, well rounded quartz-pebble conglomerate beds locally, medium- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded, very resistant, with interbedded metasandstone, dark-greenish- gray, feldspathic, thick-bedded, with ferruginous cement in some beds. Phyllite, light- to dark-greenish-gray or dark-reddish-gray, laminated, sericitic, with coarse sand grains and quartz-pebble conglomerate in a few thin beds, generally in lower part. Formation ranges in thickness from more than 600 feet in Clarke County to less than 200 feet in Augusta County (Gathright and Nystrom, 1974; Gathright and others, 1977). The Weverton is lithologically very similar to strata in the upper portion of the Unicoi Formation to the south to which it may be equivalent. The Weverton appears to unconformably overlie the Catoctin and Swift Run Formations and the Blue Ridge basement complex and is present northeast of Augusta County.

Brallier Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Brallier Formation (Butts, 1918). Shale, sandstone, and siltstone. Shale, partly silty, micaceous, greenish-gray, gray ish-brown and medium- to dark-gray, black, weathers light-olive-gray with light-yellow, brown and purple tints; black shale in thin beds and laminae, sparsely fossiliferous. Sandstone, micaceous, medium-light-gray, very-fine- to fine-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, and light-brown siltstone interbedded with shale. Locally siltstone is in very-thin, nodular, ferruginous lenses (Bartlett, 1974). Lower contact transitional; base at lowest siltstone bed above relatively nonsilty dark-gray shale. Equivalent to part of the Chattanooga Shale. Formation thins southwestward; it ranges from 940 feet in thickness in southwestern Washington County (Bartlett and Webb, 1971) to more than 2200 feet in Augusta County (Rader, 1967).

Elbrook Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Elbrook Formation (Stose, 1906). Dolostone and limestone with lesser shale and siltstone. Dolostone, medium-to dark-gray, fine- to medium-grained, laminated to thick-bedded. Limestone, dark-gray, fine-grained, thin- to medium-bedded, with algal structures and sharpstone conglomerate. Shale and siltstone, light- to dark-gray, dolomitic, platy weathering, with minor grayish-red or olive-green shales. Interbedded limestone and dolostone dominate the upper part of the formation; dolomitic siltstone and shale and thin- bedded argillaceous limestone dominate the lower part. The formation ranges be tween 1500 and 2900 feet in thickness in the southeasternmost exposures but is incomplete elsewhere due to faulting. The Elbrook of northern Virginia is transitional with the Nolichucky and Honaker Formations (locally the limestone facies of the Nolichucky has been differentiated from the Elbrook by Bartlett and Biggs (1980). It is also approximately equivalent to the rock sequence comprised of the Nolichucky and Maryville Formations, the Rogersville Shale, and the Rutledge Formation. Farther southwest the Conasauga Shale is the Elbrook equivalent. The Elbrook appears to be conformable and gradational with the underlying Waynesboro or Rome Formations. From Washington County to Augusta County much of the Elbrook Formation adjacent to the Pulaski and Staunton faults is a breccia of the "Max Meadows tecontic breccia type" (Cooper and Haff, 1940). These breccias are composed of crushed rock clasts that range from sand size to blocks many feet long, derived almost entirely from the lower part of the Elbrook Formation. The breccia commonly forms low lands characterized by karst features.

Pocono Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Pocono Formation (Lesley, 1876). Quartzitic sandstone, light-gray or tan, medium- to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, thick-bedded, resistant, interbedded with thin, gray, organic shale and a few very-thin coal beds. Conformable with underlying Hampshire Formation; formation present northeast of Alleghany and Roanoke Counties. Thickness may exceed 750 feet. It is laterally equivalent to the Price Formation to the southwest.

Waynesboro Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Waynesboro Formation (Stose, 1906). Largely dolostone and limestone with distinctive upper and lower sequences of interbedded red mudrock, red sandstone, and dolostone. Dolostone, light- and dark-gray, mottled, fine- to coarse-grained, thick-bedded, calcareous. Limestone, medium-gray, fine-grained, thick-bedded, locally with black chert nodules. Mudrock, grayish-red, locally fissile, interbedded with dolostone and sandstone. Sandstone, dark- grayish red, fine- to medium-grained, medium- to thin-bedded, forms low ridges and hills. The Waynesboro Formation is laterally equivalent to the Rome Formation and is only present northeast of Roanoke. It is well exposed in Botetourt County (Haynes, 1991) and in Clarke County (Gathright and Nystrom, 1974) where lower shale beds of the Elbrook Formation were incorrectly included in the Waynesboro as an upper member. It is conformable with the underlying Tomstown Dolomite and is between 1100 and 1200 feet thick.

Catoctin Formation - Metabasalt (Proterozoic Z-Cambrian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Grayish-green to dark-yellowish-green, fine-grained, schistose chlorite- and actinolite-bearing metabasalt, commonly associated with epidosite segregations. Mineralogy: chlorite + actinolite + albite + epidote + titanite ± quartz + magnetite. Relict clinopyroxene is common; biotite porphyroblasts occur locally in southeastern outcrop belts. Geophysical signature: The Catoctin as a whole has a strong positive magnetic signature. However, between Warrenton and Culpeper the lowest part of the Catoctin, which consists of low-titanium metabasalt and low-titanium metabasalt breccia, is non-magnetic, and displays a strong negative anomaly. Metabasalt (CZc) is by far the most widespread unit comprising 3000 feet or more of section (Gathright and others, 1977). Primary volcanic features are well preserved in many places. In the north west ern outcrop belt, these include vesicles and amygdules, sedimentary dikes, flow-top breccia, and columnar joints (Reed, 1955; Gathright, 1976; Bartholomew, 1977); relict pillow structures have been reported in Catoctin greenstones east of Buena Vista (Spencer and others, 1989). In the southeastern outcrop belt, amygdaloidal metabasalts are common, as are volcanoclastic rocks interbedded with basaltic fl ows (Rossman, 1991). Fragmental zones occur locally between individual lava fl ows; map-scale hyaloclastite pillow breccias occur at three strati raphic levels within the southeastern outcrop belt (CZcb, CZhb, CZlb; Espenshade, 1986; Kline and others, 1990).

Millboro Shale and Needmore Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Millboro Shale (Cooper, 1939; Butts, 1940). Shale, black, fissile, pyritic, with septarian concretions locally, gradational with underlying Needmore Shale; present southwest of Shenandoah County except in southwesternmost Virginia; thickness is as much as 1000 feet in north-central western Virginia. Laterally equivalent to the Marcellus Shale and Mahantango Formation to the north east and the lower part of the Chattanooga Shale to the southwest. It is gradational with the underlying Needmore Formation. Needmore Formation. Refer to description under Dmrn.

Ridgeley Sandstone, Helderberg and Cayugan Groups (Silurian-Devonian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Ridgeley Sandstone and Helderberg and Cayuga Groups. Ridgeley Sand stone (Swartz, 1913). Sandstone, gray, fine-to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, weathers yellowish- to dark-yellowish-brown, friable, calcareous, and fossiliferous. Thickness ranges up to 150 feet but is highly variable locally; occurs in western Virginia north of Craig County. Same as the Oriskany Sandstone of Butts (1933), and is continuous with the Rocky Gap Sandstone to the southwest. It grades downward into the Licking Creek Limestone and has been extensively mined for iron ore (Lesure, 1957). Helderberg Group: Licking Creek Limestone (Swartz, 1929). Upper member is light-gray, coarse-grained, arenaceous limestone; lower member is medium-to dark-gray, fine-grained, chert bearing limestone. Thickness ranges from 0 to150 feet and is present northeastward from Craig County; same as the Becraft (upper member) and New Scotland (lower member) of Butts (1940). It conformably over lies the Heal ng Springs Sandstone where the sandstone is present. It was extensively mined for iron with the Ridgeley Sandstone. Healing Springs Sandstone (Swartz, 1929). Sandstone, light-gray, medium- to coarse-grained, cross-laminated, and calcareous with local lenses of chert. Present in Alleghany, Bath, and Augusta Counties where it is generally less than 20 feet thick and conformably overlies the New Creek Lime stone. It appears to be a northeast extending tongue of Rocky Gap Sandstone. New Creek Limestone (Bowen, 1967; Coeymans Limestone of earlier reports). Limestone, light- to-medium gray with pink calcite crystals, very-coarse-grained, crinoidal, with lenses of quartz sandstone locally in the lower part. Occurs as local reefoidal buildups northeast of Alleghany County. Keyser Formation (Swartz, 1913). Limestone, sandstone, and shale. Limestone (upper), medium- to dark-gray, fine- to medium-grained, nodular, scattered, small chert nodules, biohermal, fossiliferous. Limestone (lower), medium- to dark-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, medium- to thick-bedded, very nodular, shaly, with thin (1- to 3-inch thick) crinoidal layers. Sandstone, medium-light-gray, medium-grained, calcareous, cross-bedded. Shale, medium-gray, calcareous. Upper and lower boundaries are conformable north of Clifton Forge. Thickness ranges from 250 feet in Highland County to 50 feet in Augusta County. In Highland and Bath counties the upper and lower limestones are separated by a calcareous shale unit (Big Mountain Shale Member). To the south and southeast the shale is replaced by sandstone (Clifton Forge Sandstone Member). From Craig County southwestward, the Keyser becomes all sandstone and is equivalent to the lower portion of the Rocky Gap Sandstone. Southwest of Newcastle the lower contact is disconformable. For mapping purposes the Keyser is considered to be part of the Helderberg Group. Cayuga Group: Tonoloway Limestone (Ulrich, 1911). Limestone, very-dark-gray, fine-grained, thin-bedded to laminated, with some arenaceous beds; celestite locally occurs in vugs and as veins. Thickness ranges from a few feet in southwestern Virginia to more than 500 feet in Highland County. It is conformable with the underlying Wills Creek Formation and equivalent to the Hancock Formation of Southwest Virginia. Wills Creek Formation (Uhler, 1905). Limestone, medium-to dark-gray, fine-grained, arenaceous, thin-bedded, with calcareous shale and mudstone, and thin, quartzose sandstone beds. Occurs only in western Virginia where the thickness ranges from 0 to more than 400 feet. It conformably over lies the Bloomsburg Formation and is laterally equivalent to the upper part of the Keefer Sandstone to the east and southwest of Craig County where the typical Wills Creek lithology is absent. Bloomsburg Formation (White, 1893): Sandstone, reddish-gray, fine-grained, thick-bedded with red mudstone interbeds. Thickness ranges from 35 to 400 feet between Frederick County and the northern Massanutten Mountains respectively. It grades into the Wills Creek Formation to the southwest, and is probably equivalent, in part, to the Keefer Sandstone southwest of Craig and Botetourt counties. McKenzie Formation (Stose and Swartz, 1912): Shale, medium-gray, yellowish weathering and interbedded sandstone, medium-gray, medium-grained, friable, thin-bedded and calcareous. Thickens northeastward from a few feet in Bath County to about 200 feet in Frederick County. It is probably equivalent in part to the Keefer Sandstone to the southwest and southeast and appears to be conformable with the Keefer Sandstone in northwestern Virginia.

Massanutten Sandstone (Silurian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Massanutten Sandstone (Geiger and Keith, 1891).Quartzite and sandstone, very-light-gray, fine-grained, well-sorted, locally conglomeratic, thick-bedded and crossbedded, very resistant with minor shale partings in upper part. Thickness ranges from 600 to nearly 1200 feet. Present only in the Massanutten Mountains, the sandstone unconformably overlies the Martinsburg Formation and is a lateral equivalent to the Tuscarora, and Rose Hill Formations, and Keefer Sandstone (Perry, 1977).

Lower Devonian and Silurian Formations Undivided (Silurian-Devonian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Some landslides with intact stratigraphic units in Craig County area. Includes: Dsu, Skrt, Sm. (Shrc?)

Juniata, Oswego, Martinsburg (Reedsville and Dolly Ridge), and Eggleston Formations (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Juniata Formation. Refer to description under Ous. Oswego Formation (Prosser, 1890). Sandstone, greenish gray, fine- to coarse-grained, conglomeratic with chert, quartz, and lithic pebbles. Minor interbeds of olive-gray shale with thin sandstone layers. Conformable with underlying Reedsville Shale. Present northeast of Bath and Augusta counties but thins in all directions from a maximum thickness of 500 feet in western Rockingham County (Diecchio, 1985). Reedsville Shale. Refer to description under Ou. Dolly Ridge Formation (Perry, 1972). Limestone, medium-gray, fine-grained, thin-bedded, argillaceous, with interbedded olive-gray, calcareous claystone, silty argillaceous limestone, gray shale and thin K-bentonite beds. Thickness about 400 feet in Bath and Highland counties; laterally equivalent to the Trenton Limestone and part of the lower Martinsburg Formation of previous reports in western Virginia. It is gradational with the underlying Eggleston Formation. Eggleston Formation. Refer to description under Ou. Martinsburg Formation. Refer to Om (Martinsburg and Oranda Formations) for description. The Martinsburg is only present with this map unit (Oun) in northern Rockingham County where it occupies the Reedsville Shale - Dolly Ridge Formation interval.

Keefer, Rose Hill, and Tuscarora Formations (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Keefer Sandstone (Ulrich, 1911). Sandstone, light-gray, fine-grained, cross-laminated, medium-bedded, very resistant. Thins northward and southwestward from a maximum of over 300 feet in Craig and western Botetourt counties. To the north it appears to interfinger with the Wills Creek and McKenzie Formations. The Keefer is equivalent to the upper portion of the Massanutten Sandstone. (The Keefer Sandstone, as used in this report, includes all of the quartzarenites with minor Skolithus-bearing red sand stone and minor calcite cemented quartzarenite in the interval above the Rose Hill Formation and below the Tonoloway Limestone in Botetourt, Rockbridge, and Augusta counties between Eagle Rock and Augusta Springs (Lampiris, 1976). Rose Hill Formation (Swartz, 1923). Sandstone, dark grayish-red, fine- to coarse-grained, poorly-sorted, argillaceous; hematite cemented, quartz sandstone interbedded with red or yellowish-green clay shale and greenish-gray, fine-grained sandstone. It is largely siltstone and shale with minor sandstone and thin limonitic iron ore beds in Southwest Virginia. Conformable with the underlying Tuscarora Formation, the Rose Hill Formation ranges up to 500 feet in thickness in northern and western Virginia but pinches-out in southwest ern Botetourt and Roanoke counties where the Keefer and Tuscarora For ma tions merge. It is present with other Silurian rocks everywhere except in the Massanutten Mountains or where an unconformity exists in exposures east of Walker Mountain. Tuscarora Formation (Darton and Taff, 1896). Quartzite, quartzarenite, and minor shale. Quartzite, light-gray with few nearly white, porcelaneous beds, fine- to medium-grained, with quartz-pebble conglomerate locally near base, quartz cemented, thick-bedded, and cross-bedded, resistant, cliff- and ledge-former, generally not more than 75 feet thick, comprises entire unit in many areas or is upper member where unconformably overlying a lower quartzarenite and shale member. Quartzarenite, light-yellowish-brown or medium-gray, fine-grained, thin-bedded, ranges in thickness from 0 to 175feet. Shale, light- to medium-brownish-gray, arenaceous, thin interbeds in quartzarenite. Conformably overlies the Juniata Formation in central western Virginia. Where lower member is absent the upper member unconformably overlies the Juniata, Oswego, Martinsburg, or Reedsville Formations or may be conformable with the Juniata Formation in northern Virginia. In southwestern Virginia grayish-red, fine-grained, ferruginous sandstone with lenses of coarse-grained, quartz sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate are included in the upper part of the formation. The Tuscarora is equivalent to the Clinch Formation and to the lower part of the Massanutten Sandstone.

Charnockite (Proterozoic Y) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Includes dusky-green, mesocratic, coarse- to very-coarse-grained, equigranular to porphyritic, massive to vaguely foliated pyroxene-bearing granite to granodiorite; contains clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, intermediate-composition plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and blue quartz. Reddish-brown biotite, hornblende, and poikilitic garnet are present locally; accessory minerals include apatite, magnetite-ilmenite, rutile, and zircon. Geophysical signature: charnockite pods in the southeastern Blue Ridge produce a moderate positive magnetic anomaly relative to adjacent biotite gneisses, resulting in spotty magnetic highs. This unit includes a host of plutons that are grouped on the basis of lithology, but are not necessarily consanguineous. These include Pedlar charnockite, dated at 1075 Ma (U-Pb zircon, Sinha and Bartholomew, 1984) and Roses Mill charnockite (Herz and Force, 1987), dated at 1027±101 Ma (Sm-Nd, Pettingill and others, 1984).

Marcellus Shale and Needmore Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Marcellus Shale (Hall, 1839; Butts and Edmundson, 1966). Shale, dark-gray to black, more or less fissile, pyritic. Thickness estimated to be 500 feet in Frederick County and 350 to 400 feet in the Massanutten synclinorium (Rader and Biggs, 1976). Needmore Formation (Willard, 1939). Shale, dark or greenish gray, with thin beds or nodules of black, argillaceous limestone and the Tioga metabentonite beds (Dennison and Textoris, 1970), generally present with the Millboro or Marcellus Shale and is disconformable with the underlying Ridgeley Sand tone. Thickness ranges from 0 to 160 feet and is replaced to the southwest by the Huntersville Chert.

Rome Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pumpkin Valley Shale and Rome Formation. Pumpkin Valley Shale (Bridge, 1945). Shale, light-greenish-gray to dark-greenish-gray, grayish-brown, and maroon; a few beds of similar colored siltstone; sparse beds of limestone and dolostone. The Pumpkin Valley Shale conformably overlies the Rome Formation. The formation is approximately 350 feet thick. Harris (1964) identified the Pumpkin Valley Shale of Southwest Virginia as a formation within the Conasauga Group; however, because of similar lithologies it is often indistinguishable from the Rome Formation and the two formations commonly are mapped together. Rome Formation (Hayes, 1891). Siltstone, shale, sandstone, dolostone, and limestone. Siltstone and shale, greenish-gray and grayish-red, laminated to thin-bedded. Sandstone, micaceous, locally glauconitic, greenish-gray and reddish-gray, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin-bedded. Dolostone, light- to dark-gray, aphanic to medium-grained, thin-to massive-bedded, with ripple marks and mudcracks. Lime stone, argillaceous, very-light-gray to dark-gray, thin- to medium- bedded. Carbonate rocks range from sparse 1- to 2- feet-thick beds in western Scott County to discontinuous units as much as 50 feet thick which comprise 30 to 40 percent of the formation in western Russell and Washington counties (Evans and Troensegaard, 1991; Bartlett and Webb, 1971). Maximum recorded thickness is 1500 feet in the Clinchport area (Brent, 1963); although this may have included the Pumpkin Valley Shale. A complete thickness has not been determined because the lowermost part of the Rome Formation is normally absent due to faulting.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Non-marine shales and fine micaceous sandstones, mostly red to brownish-gray, including siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate. Generally distinguishable from the underlying Chemung by non-marine character and red color.

Layered Pyroxene Granulite (Proterozoic Y) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Medium- to dark greenish-gray, fine- to medium-grained, segregation-layered quartzofeldspathic granulite. Major minerals are quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar (includes assemblages with one alkali feldspar), orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, and magnetite-ilmenite; garnet, hornblende, and reddish-brown biotite are widespread minor constituents. Apatite and zircon are accessory minerals. Color index ranges from 15 to 35. Quartz and feldspars are granoblastic; ferromagnesian minerals define dark layers on the order of 1 to 3 mm thick, giving the rock a characteristic pinstriped appearance. Migmatitic leucosomes locally cut segregation layering. Geophysical signature: positive magnetic anomalies relative to adjacent biotite granulite and layered gneiss (Ygb). This unit pre-dates charnockite, alkali feldspar leucogranite, and other plutonic rocks on basis of cross-cutting relations, and is generally considered pre-Grenville-age country rock that was metamorphosed under granulite-facies metamorphic conditions and intruded by plutonic rocks during the Grenville orogeny. The unit includes Lady Slipper granulite gneiss (1130 Ma, U-Pb zircon, Sinha and Bartholomew, 1984), and Nellysford and Hills Mountain granulite gneisses of Bartholomew and others (1981).

Brallier Formation and Harrell Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Brallier Formation : predominantly olive-gray to dark, thickly laminated marine shale, with considerable siltstone and thin sandstone lenses; mainly nonfossiliferous. Harrell Shale: dark gray to black thinly laminated to fissile shale. Calcareous shale and limestone lenses near the base (Tully).

Chemung Group (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gray to brown siltstone and sandstone with shale and conglomeratic interbeds; mainly marine and sparingly fossiliferous; boundaries gradational. Can be divided into the Voreknobs and Scherr Formations along the Allegheny Front. Parkhead Sandstone Member near base.

Martinsburg Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly gray to dark shale, yellowish in the upper portion. Contains scattered thin limestone and sandstone interbeds, particularly in the lower portion. The upper portion constitutes the Reedsville Shale.

Valley and Ridge Igneous Intrusions; Basalt (Jurassic-Tertiary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Basalt (Mole Hill, Rockingham County, Brent, 1960), labradorite, augite, olivine, magnetite, serpentine, chlorite, dolomite, epidote(?). Radiometric age: 47± 1 Ma (Eocene, Wampler and Dooley, 1975). Dikes in Highland and adjacent counties are of three types: Mafic rocks, felsic rocks, and breccia. Mafic rocks are dark gray to black and range from aphanitic to porphyritic in texture. Phenocrysts include plagioclase, clinopyroxene and, occasionally, olivine and biotite. Amygdules may be present, and xenoliths of country rock are common. Felsic rocks are mineralogically variable and texturally complex.They are light to medium-gray when fresh and are generally porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, orthopyroxene, and orthoclase. Breccia (or "diatreme") contain abundant xenoliths of older igneous rock, sedimentary county rock, and xenocrysts of various minerals. Radiometric dates for some of the intrusive rocks are Eocene in age (Fuller and Bottino, 1969). Field relationships of other bodies suggest Mesozoic emplacement. Alkalic intrusive rocks, including nepheline-syenite, teschenite-syenite, and teschenite-picrite occur in Augusta County (Rader, 1967). Diabase dikes occur in several counties and are shown in red on the map.

Juniata and Oswego Formations (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

The Juniata is a thin-bedded, blocky, red sandstone and shale. In places it is underlain by the thick-bedded, gray Oswego Sandstone.

Tonoloway, Wills Creek, and Williamsport Formations (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes the thin-bedded platy argillaceous limestones of the Tonoloway, the thin-bedded shale with fossiliferous limestones of the Wills Creek, the Bloomsburg red clastic facies, and the greenish-brown to white Williamsport Sandstone. The Wills Creek contains anhydrite and rock salt, the latter supplying brine from deep wells along the Ohio River.

Pocono Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly hard gray massive sandstones, with some shale. In the Eastern Panhandle, has been divided into the Hedges, Purslane, and Rockwell Formations.

Tuscarora Sandstone (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Medium- to thick-bedded, white to gray or pinkish sandstone, fine to coarse, quartzitic, ridge-forming. Equivalent to the Clinch Sandstone of Tennessee.

McKenzie Formation and Clinton Group (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes the McKenzie Formation, consisting of shale with thin limestone lenses; the dark Rochester Shale; the white Keefer Sandstone; and the Rose Hill predominantly red shale, with thin sandstone interbeds, some of which are called "iron sandstones" from their reddish-brown color and hematite content.

Oriskany Sandstone and Huntersville Chert (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Oriskany Sandstone: sometimes designated Ridgeley in eastern West Virginia. White to brown coarse- to fine-grained, partly calcareous sandstone, locally pebbly or conglomeratic, and ridge-forming. May be white, nearly pure silica, and a source of glass sand, as at Berkeley Springs, Morgan County. Huntersville Chert (part of Onesquethaw ("Onondaga") Group): ranges from a nearly pure slightly calcitic or dolomitic chert to an inter-tonguing of such chert and the Needmore Shale. Grades westward in the subsurface to a limestone, commonly considered as "Onondaga". Contains the "glauconitic" Bobs Ridge Sandstone Member. Not mappable at scale of this map. Included with Do.

Mahantango Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

(part of Millboro Shale) - thickly laminated marine shale, siltstone, very fine sandstone, and some limestone, with an occasional coral reef or biostrome. Contains the Clearville and Chaneysville Siltstone Members of Pennsylvania.

Marcellus Formation and Needmore Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Marcellus Formation (part of Millboro Shale): predominantly gray-black to black thinly laminated non-calcareous pyritic shale. Contains one or more thin-bedded limestones, including the Purcell Member of Pennsylvania. Needmore Shale (part of Onesquethaw ("Onondaga") Group): predominantly dark grey or green, calcitic, mostly non-fissile shale. Gives strong "kick" on gamma ray logs. Tioga Bentonite near the top. Includes the black Beaver Dam Shale Member. Grades westward into the Huntersville Chert. Not mappable at scale of this map. Included with Dmn.

Helderberg Group (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly cherty limestone, with some sandstone and shale. Contains several named stratigraphic units, including the Keyser Formation, which is partly Silurian and includes the Clifton Forge Sandstone and Big Mountain Shale Members.