Wise Formation (Campbell, 1893) . Sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, coal, and underclay. Sandstone, lithic, feldspathic, micaceous, argillaceous, carbonaceous locally, light- to medium-gray to moderate- and pale-yellow- brown, fine- to coarse-grained, locally pebbly, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded to even-bedded, locally massive, well-cemented; contains fragments of shale, siltstone, and carbonized plant fossils locally. Siltstone and shale, light olive- gray, medium- to dark-gray and grayish-black, contains siderite ironstone in very-thin beds and nodules, carbonized plant fossils; invertebrate fossils in dark-gray to black shale and micrograined limestone in the upper part of formation (Miller, 1969; Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Henderson, and Miller,1988; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988a). Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, micrograined, in very-thin lenses and beds in shale and siltstone in two to three zones in lower part of formation (Taylor, 1989; Whitlock, Lovett, and Diffenbach, 1988). Coal interbedded with shale, siltstone, and sandstone. Underclay, light-gray, root casts, beneath coal; as much as 5 feet thick under the Williamson coal bed in Buchanan County (Henika, 1989b). A dark-gray to brownish-gray, flint clay in the Phillips (Fire Clay; No.7) coal bed in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973) and western Wise County is a volcanic ash deposit (Seiders, 1965) that covers parts of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia; it has been dated at an age of 311 - 312 million years (Lyons and others, 1992; Rice and others, 1990). Base of formation at bottom of Dorchester coal bed. Thickness 2150 to 2268 feet.
Norton Formation (Campbell, 1893). Siltstone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate, limestone, and coal. Siltstone and shale, light- to medium-gray, with siderite and claystone concretions, fossiliferous; interbedded with and grades into sandstone. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, argillaceous, light- to medium-gray, very-fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to very-thick-bedded, cross-bedded, locally massive, well-cemented. Conglomerate in thin zones in McClure Sandstone Member (lateral equivalent to part of Bee Rock Sandstone Member of the Lee Formation). Lime stone, medium-gray, micrograined, locally in lenses in two zones above the McClure Sandstone Member (Taylor, 1989; Whitlock, 1989). Coal in several beds and zones. A volcanic ash parting is in the Upper Banner coal bed locally (Diffenbach, 1988, 1989; Evans and Troensegaard, 1991; Henika, 1989a). The base of the Norton is defined as the top of the uppermost quartzarenite of the Lee Formation. On the western side of the coalfield the base of the Norton is at the top of the Bee Rock Sandstone Member of the underlying Lee Formation. However, the Bee Rock grades eastward into feldspathic, conglomeratic sandstone of the McClure Sandstone Member of the Norton. Several underlying Lee quartzarenites successively tongue out or grade into finer-grained clastic rocks to the southeast stratigraphically lowering the base of the Norton. This accounts for the great range in thickness of 500 to 2480 feet for the Norton Formation.
Lee Formation (Campbell, 1893). Quartzarenite, conglomerate, sandstone, shale, siltstone, and coal. Quartzarenite, white, very-light- to light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, quartz-pebble conglomer te lenses, cross-bed ded, channel-fill deposits. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, light-gray, fine- to medium-grained. Shale and siltstone, medium-dark-gray to dark-gray, interbedded; coal in several beds and zones. The quartzarenites terminate eastward by intertonguing and grading into finer grained and less quartzose rocks (Englund and DeLaney, 1966). Miller and Roen (1973) believe the lower three quartzarenites are Mississippian and intertongue with the Pennington Group. These die out northeastward from southwestern Lee County (Mill er, 1969). The quartzarenites in the upper part of the Lee tongue out or grade into fi ner clastic rocks of the Norton and Pocahontas Formations successively from highest to lowest southeastward (Englund, 1979; Miller, 1974). These quartzarenites consist of five tongues in northern Buchanan County (Lovett and others, 1992); but to the east only the lowest tongue exists (Whitlock, 1989; Nolde, 1989), and that grades eastward into sandstone in the New River Formation in eastern Buchanan, northeastern Russell, and western Tazewell counties. Formerly rocks east of the quartzarenites were considered Lee (Harnsberger, 1919; Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1963), but now are designated New River Formation (Englund, 1981) and correlative to the lower part of the Norton Formation. The Lee Formation thickens and truncates progressively older rocks northwestward (Miller, 1974). The intertonguing and unconformable relationship accounts for the great range in thickness for the Lee Formation. It ranges in thickness from 0 in southern Buchanan County (Meissner and Miller, 1981), to 1680 feet in Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973).
Pennington Group, Bluefield Formation, Greenbrier Limestone, Maccrady Shale, and Price Formation; includes Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, and Grainger Formation in western Lee County. Refer to individual units for descriptions.
Chattanooga Shale (Hayes, 1891). Shale, siltstone, and sandstone. Shale, carbonaceous, grayish-black to black, fissile to platy, thin- to thick-laminated, locally fossiliferous and pyritic, locally contains phosphatic nodules in the upper part, locally has strong petroliferous odor (Henika, 1988); with beds and zones of medium-gray to greenish-gray, locally silty shale. Siltstone, light-gray to grayish-black, laminated to thick-bedded, locally wavy- and ripple-bedded. Sandstone, light-gray, very-fine-grained. Grayish-black to black, carbonaceous shale comprises 100 percent of the formation in western Lee County and is predominant in the formation throughout southwest Virginia. The Chattanooga Shale uncomformably overlies the Silurian Hancock Formation throughout most of Lee County and the lower Devonian Wildcat Valley Sandstone to the northeast. The Chattanooga Shale ranges in thickness from 200 feet in western Lee County (Englund, 1964) to 1870 feet in northwestern Russell County (Meissner and Miller, 1981). Roen and others (1964) and Kepferle and others (1981) discussed divisions of the Chattanooga Shale and correlation with other units. Wildcat Valley Sandstone (Miller, Harris, and Roen, 1964). Sandstone, limestone, and shale. Sandstone, locally calcareous, locally quartzose, light-gray, grayish-orange, and dark-yellowish-brown, very-fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to massive-bedded, fossiliferous, friable, locally glauconitic; with chert nodules and beds. Locally dark-reddish-brown ironstone replaces sandstone. Limestone, gray, pinkish-gray, and light-brownish-gray, coarse-grained, thick- to massive bedded, sandy, locally present. Shale, yellowish-green to gray, locally present. Where the Wildcat Valley Sandstone is present it uncomformably overlies the Silurian Hancock Formation. The Wildcat Valley Sandstone is absent throughout most of Lee County (Englund, 1964; Harris, 1965; Miller and Roen, 1973) but reaches a maximum of 60 feet in thickness to the northeast (Lower Devonian sandstone of Harris and Miller, 1963).
Hancock Formation (Keith, 1896). Dolomite, limestone, and sandstone. Dolomite, locally calcareous, locally siliceous, light-olive-gray and light-to dark-gray, aphanic to fine-grained, finely-laminated to massive-bedded, locally stromatolitic and vuggy. Lime stone, medium- to dark-gray and bluish-gray, aphanic to fine-grained, laminated to thickbedded, ribbon-banded, mottled, locally emits petroliferous odor when broken. Sandstone, locally calcareous, generally quartzose, medium-grained to pebbly and conglomeratic locally at base of formation; and fine- to medium-grained sandstone locally interbedded with limestone. The formation grades from dolomite with minor limestone and a basal sandstone in southwestern Lee County (Cayuga Dolomite of Miller and Fuller, 1954) to limestone with an underlying or interbedded dolomite with sandstone partings, and a basal sandstone to the northeast and east (Harris and Miller, 1958; Miller and Roen, 1971). The Hancock Formation ranges from 75 to 225 feet in thickness and correlates with the Tonoloway Limestone. Rose Hill Formation . Refer to description under Skrt. Clinch Formation (Safford, 1856). Quartzarenite and shale. Quartzarenite, very-light gray, olive-gray, and brownish- gray with local grayish-red beds, very-fine-grained to very-coarse-grained with local conglomeratic zones, thin- to thick-bedded with thin, green ish-gray and dark-gray shale beds and partings in upper part. Shale, light-olive-gray to gray ish-green; with thin, very fine- to fine-grained sandstone interbeds in the lower one-third to one-quarter of the unit. Erosional unconformity at base of unit identified in northern Lee County (Mill er and Roen, 1973). The Clinch Formation ranges from 220 to 330 feet in thickness. The Division of Mineral Resources uses the name Clinch Formation for exposures in Lee, Wise, and Scott counties where the lower Silurian rocks include the lower Hagan Shale Member and the upper Poor Valley Ridge Sand stone Member. The name Tuscarora Formation is used for the lower Silurianquartzitic sandstone unit in all areas northward in the Valley and Ridge of Virginia, including the Clinch Mountain area where the name Clinch Formation was first used, because of similarity between the Tuscarora and the rocks on Clinch Mountain. In the past many geologists used the name Clinch Sandstone in the southern part of the Valley and Ridge of Virginia and the name Tuscarora Formation in the northern part of the Valley and Ridge of Virginia (Butts, 1940) for essentially the same group of quartzitic sandstones. Dennison and Boucot (1974) and Mill er (1976) described the facies change of the lower Silurian Clinch Sandstone of Southwest Virginia from quartzitic sandstones in the Clinch Mountain belt in Scott and Wise Counties to sandstones and shales in the Lee, southwestern Wise, and western Scott counties area.
Harlan Sandstone (Campbell, 1893) Sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. Sandstone, feldspathic, moderately quartzose, argillaceous, medium-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded; quartzose sandstone is pebbly, moderately resistant, cliff-forming, and in lenticular bodies at base of formation where it fills channels (Miller, 1969; Miller and Roen, 1973). Sandstone comprises as much as 48 percent of formation. Siltstone and shale, medium- to dark-gray and brown, locally reddish-brown; contains 22 discontinuous coal beds. Miller (1969) changed the name from Harlan Sandstone (Campbell, 1893) to Harlan Formation because of the heterogeneous lithology and defined the base as the top of the High Splint coal bed. It is as much as 650 feet thick in northern Lee and western Wise counties, adjacent to Kentucky; upper part removed by erosion in Virginia (Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Henderson, and Miller, 1988; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988a).
Wise Formation (Campbell, 1893) . Sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, coal, and underclay. Sandstone, lithic, feldspathic, micaceous, argillaceous, carbonaceous locally, light- to medium-gray to moderate- and pale-yellow-brown, fine- to coarse-grained, locally pebbly, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded to even-bedded, locally massive, well-cemented; contains fragments of shale, siltstone, and carbonized plant fossils locally. Siltstone and shale, lightolive- gray, medium- to dark-gray and grayish-black, contains siderite ironstone in very-thin beds and nodules, carbonized plant fossils; invertebrate fossils in dark-gray to black shale and micrograined limestone in the upper part of formation (Miller, 1969; Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Henderson, and Miller,1988; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988a). Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, micrograined, in very-thin lenses and beds in shale and siltstone in two to three zones in lower part of formation (Taylor, 1989; Whitlock, Lovett, and Diffenbach, 1988). Coal interbedded with shale, siltstone, and sandstone. Underclay, light-gray, root casts, beneath coal; as much as 5 feet thick under the Williamson coal bed in Buchanan County (Henika, 1989b). A dark-gray to brownish-gray, flint clay in the Phillips (Fire Clay; No.7) coal bed in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973) and western Wise County is a volcanic ash deposit (Seiders, 1965) that covers parts of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia; it has been dated at an age of 311 - 312 million years (Lyons and others, 1992; Rice and others, 1990). Base of formation at bottom of Dorchester coal bed. Thickness 2150 to 2268 feet. Gladeville Sandstone (Campbell, 1893). Quartzarenite and sublitharenite, silica cemented, locally feldspathic and micaceous, conglomeratic, white to medium-gray to pale-yellowish- orange, weathers yellowish-gray, fine- to medium-grained, thin- to very-thick-bedded, thin- to thick- planar and trough cross-beds, slabby to blocky, contains fragments of dark-gray shale, coal, and fossil plants and quartz-pebble conglomerate near base. Underlies Wise Formation in northeastern Lee, southern Wise, and western Dickenson counties and pinches out in northern Wise and eastern Dickenson counties. A sandstone in the underlying Norton Formation below the Norton coal bed, as much as 100 feet below the stratigraphic position of the Gladeville, was misidentified as Gladeville in Lee County, and parts of Wise, Dickenson, and in Buchanan counties prior to the 1980s (Henika, 1989a; Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988b; Whitlock,1987). Because of this, coal beds in the upper Norton and lower Wise Formations were miscorrelated where the Gladeville was absent. Thickness 0 to 65 feet.
Sequatchie Formation (Ulrich, 1913). Siltstone, limestone, and shale. Siltstone, calcareous, medium-gray to grayish-red, maroon, and green, even and wavy thin-beds. Limestone, argillaceous, gray, greenish-gray, and grayish-red to dusky-red, nodular, in 1-inch to 3-feet thick planar beds. Shale, grayish-red. Percentage of each lithotype varies throughout the lateral and vertical extent of the formation. The Sequatchie Formation ranges from 250 to 440 feet in thickness. Laterally equivalent to the Juniata Formation. Reedsville Shale (Ulrich, 1911). Shale, siltstone, and minor limestone. Shale, locally silty, calcareous, yellowish gray, grayish-olive, greenish-gray, and medium-gray. Siltstone, calcareous, greenish-gray to olive-gray, in 1- to 2-inch thick planar beds. Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, fossiliferous, in 6-inch thick beds; and silty to argillaceous, medium-light-gray to medium-dark-gray and olive-gray, micrograined to medium-grained limestone, generally in 1- to 2-inch thick planar beds. A few very-fine grained sandstone beds are present within the unit. The shales are predominant throughout most of southwestern Virginia (Miller and Brosgé, 1954; Miller and Fuller, 1954). Siltstones and limestones are subordinate to and interbedded with the shales. The Reedsville Shale ranges from 275 feet in Lee County to approximately 1000 feet in Frederick County. It is equivalent to the upper Martinsburg of previous reports in western Virginia and is conformable with the underlying Trenton Limestone and Dolly Ridge Formation. Trenton Limestone (Vanuxem, 1838). Limestone, medium-light-gray to dark-gray and brownish-gray, micrograined to medium-grained, fossiliferous, thin- to medium-bedded, wavy- to platy-bedded with grayish-yellow and dark-gray shale partings, minor olive-black chert nodules; and one bentonite bed noted in western Scott County (Harris and Miller, 1958). (See Eggleston Formation description for additional discussion of the bentonite beds). Locally some of the dark-colored beds emit a petroliferous odor when broken. The Trenton Limestone ranges from 300 to 600 feet in thickness. Eggleston Formation (Matthews, 1934). Mudstone, siltstone, limestone, and bentonite. Mudstone and siltstone, light-gray, greenish-gray and yellowish-gray, locally contains gray and white mottled calcite patches and stringers. Limestone, light-olive-gray to olive-gray and light-brown, aphanic to medium-grained, thin-bedded; with argillaceous, yellowish-gray, micrograined to medium-grained limestone. Two thick (1-3 feet), greenish-gray, bentonite beds in upper part of unit. Olive-black chert nodules are locally present. Mudstone is dominant in lower and locally in upper part; light-olive-gray to olive-gray limestone is dominant in middle part of unit. The Eggleston Formation ranges from 125 to 180 feet in thickness. Haynes (1992) reported on three K-bentonite beds in the Trenton and Eggleston Limestones and the Moccasin Formation in the Valley and Ridge Province of southwest Virginia. The uppermost K-bentonite bed has not been correlated regionally and is known locally as the V-7. The lower two K-bentonite beds have been identified from regional correlations as the Deicke K-bentonite overlain by the Millbrig K-bentonite.
Pennington Group (Campbell, 1893). Bluestone Formation, Princeton Sandstone, and Hinton Formation. Raised to Group rank by Harris and Miller (1958). The group consists of shale, sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate, siltstone, minor limestone, and coal locally. The shale, siltstone, and mud stone are gray to black and shades of red, and mottled red and gray. The sandstone is locally quartzose and conglomeratic, and ranges from shades of gray to brown, and only locally mottled within red shales; many sandstones pinch out southwestward in the Tazewell County area, but two persist farther west and southwest. The limestone is gray to brown, generally near the middle of the group, and is the most widespread marine unit. The Bluestone and Hinton For ma tions thin to the westsouthwest in southwestern Virginia; the widespread sandstone and limestone members nearly converge southwestward to with in 80 feet of each other from about 600 feet of separation in northern Tazewell County. The Princeton Sandstone wedges out in Tazewell County. The top of the Pennington Group is intertonguing to unconform ble with the overlying Lee Formation in the western part of the Southwest Virginia coalfield; basal contact is conformable. The Group thins westward; variation in thickness partly due to intertonguing and the unconformity. The Pennington Group ranges from 235 feet in thickness without the Pinacle Overlook Member of the Lee (as interpreted from Vanover and others, 1989) in the south west to 2355 feet (Trent and Spencer, 1990) in Tazewell County and 1335 feet in a partial section in Washington County (Bartlett and Webb, 1971), where it is mapped as the Pennington Formation. Bluestone Formation (Campbell, 1896). Sand stone, siltstone, shale, mudstone, minor limestone, coal, and underclay. Sand stone, argillaceous, micaceous, locally quartzose, verylight to dark-gray, light-olive- to greenish-gray, yellowish-orange to dark-yellowish-brown, moderate-red, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin- to very-thick-bedded, cross-bedded, locally ripple-bedded, interbedded with shale and siltstone; forms ledges and cliffs. Sand stone in middle of formation in Scott and Russell counties is conglomeratic with quartzite pebbles and other rock clasts (Evans and Troensegarrd, 1991; Nolde and Diffenbach, 1988). Upper part intertongued with Lee in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973). Siltstone, shale, and mudstone, partly calcareous, greenish-gray, dark gray to grayish-black, pale- to moderate-red and mottled red and greenish-gray; siderite nodules in variegated shales and silt stones; fossils in dark-gray shale (Englund, 1968). Limestone, argillaceous, medium-gray, thin, lenticular, fossiliferous, in middle of formation, and in thin discontinuous beds at the base of the formation in the sub sur face in western Tazewell and eastern Buchanan Counties (Englund, 1981). Thin coal bed in upper part of formation in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973); coal and impure coal in thin discontinuous beds in middle of formation in northern Tazewell County; underlain by underclay, locally as much as three feet thick, with root casts (Englund, 1968). Top un con form able with the overlying Lee Formation in northwestern Wise and Dickenson counties and extreme northwestern Buchanan County but is intertonguing to the southeast (Mill er, 1974) and southwest in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973). Base conformable with the underlying Princeton Sandstone in northern Tazewell County, but is disconformable to the southwest because the Princeton wedges out southwestward in Tazewell County and the Bluestone lies on the Hinton Formation (Englund and Thomas, 1990). Bluestone thins northwestward and ranges in thickness from 40 feet in southwestern Lee County (Englund, Landis, and Smith, 1963) to as much as 850 feet to the northeast in Tazewell County (Englund and Thomas, 1990). Princeton Sandstone (Campbell and Mendenhall, 1896). Sandstone, light-gray to light-greenish-gray, weathered locally to pale-reddish-brown, fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to very thick- bedded, locally cross-bedded, calcite cemented, becomes friable upon weathering, contains conglomerate lenses as much as two feet thick with well-rounded to angular pebbles of quartz, shale, silt stone, limestone, chert, and ironstone; fossils in limestone clasts (Englund, 1968, 1979; Trent and Spencer, 1990). Wedges out southwestward in west-central Tazewell County (Englund, 1979). The Princeton as mapped in Lee County and southwestern Scott County (Harris and Miller, 1958; Miller and Roen, 1973) is a different sandstone. The Princeton ranges from 0 to 60 feet in thickness. Hinton Formation (Campbell and Mendenhall, 1896). Shale, siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, limestone, minor coal, underclay. Shale, siltstone, and mudstone, partly calcareous, grayish-red, medium-gray, and greenish-gray, fossiliferous. Sandstone, quartzose, feldspathic, very-light- to medium-light gray, greenish-gray, yellowish-brown, pale- to moderate-red, locally mottled, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin- to very thick- bedded, contains quartz-pebble con lomerate, tree trunk impressions, and coal fragments; cobbles in lowest member locally; interbedded with dark-gray to grayish-black shale. A widespread conglomeratic sandstone in the upper part of the formation has been misidentified as the stratigraphically higher Princeton Sandstone (Englund, 1979). Limestone, argillaceous, light-grayish-brown, medium-gray, thin-bedded, nodular, very fossiliferous, contains marine fossils of Chesterian age and is most widespread marine unit (Little Stone Gap Member) in the Hinton (Englund, 1979). Base conformable. The formation ranges from 164 feet in thickness in southwestern Lee County to 1320 feet in northern Tazewell County (Englund, 1968, 1979).
Nolichucky Formation. Refer to description under [nmrr]. Honaker Formation (Campbell, 1897). Dolostone, limestone, and shale. Dolostone, light- to dark-gray to dark-bluish-gray, aphanic to coarse-grained, thin- to massive-bedded, "butcher-block" weathering; with sparse interbeds of argillaceous limestone, and minor dark-gray chert. Limestone, argillaceous, ribbon-banded in part, light- to medium-gray, very-fine-grained, thick-bedded. Shale, greenish-gray, laminated to thin-bedded. The Honaker Formation is predominantly dolostone with subordinate limestone. The dolostone becomes more dominant in the northeastern part of outcrop belt (Evans and Troensegaard, 1991). Shale is locally present as a 20- to 60-feet-thick unit in the middle of the formation and as thin interbeds with the dolostone and limestone throughout the area. The Honaker Formation ranges from about 1000 to 1100 feet in thickness. It is laterally equivalent to the lower Elbrook to the east.
Pennington Formation, Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, Grainger Formation, Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, undivided; Pennington Formation locally includes sandstone tongue of Lee Formation
Breathitt Formation, middle part
lower part which includes Livingston Conglomerate Member of Lee Formation in eastern Rockcastle County