Geologic units in Kittitas county, Washington

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Miocene volcanic rocks (Middle Miocene) at surface, covers 46 % of this area

Dark-gray to black, dense aphanitic basalt flows; commonly columnar jointed, less commonly irregularly and platy jointed; some flows vesicular, grading to scoriaceous; includes minor pillow lava, palagonite beds, and interbedded soil profiles and sedimentary beds; contains diatomite beds locally. Maximum thickness in south-central Washington may be in excess of 10,000 feet; much thinner in western Washington, where flows are mostly associated with marine sedimentary rocks. Includes acidic and intermediate volcanic rocks in northern Cascade Mountains.

Alluvium (Holocene) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Mostly unconsolidated silt, sand, and gravel valley fill with some clay; includes low-level terrace, marsh, peat, artificial fill, and glacial deposits locally.

Paleocene-Cretaceous nonmarine rocks (Eocene (see age coding)) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Brown-gray to light-gray, medium- to course-grained massive cross-bedded arkose with interbedded conglomerate and siltstone. Contains several coal seams in Whatcom County. Iron-rich laterite at base near Cle Elum and Blewett Pass in Kittitas and Chelan Counties.

Eocene nonmarine rocks (Eocene) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Predominantly sandstone and shale. Includes some conglomerate in the Cle Elum area in Kittilas County. Contains extensive coal seams near Roslyn and carbonaceous shale and coal beds in White Pass area. Contains tuff beds in northwestern Ferry County.

Quaternary nonmarine deposits (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Periglacial eolian deposits. Buff to light-brown, massive, homogenous, unconsolidated loessial silt; some water-laid material locally. Probably early Pleistocene.

Oligocene-Miocene volcanic rocks (Miocene) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Andesite flow breccia, andesite flows, and minor tuff beds; includes some basalt flows and flow breccia. Commonly more massive and less altered than similar-appearing Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks. Clastic flows and flows of black glass, and course to fine-grained clastic and pyroclastic rocks in the Republic and Curlew areas of Ferry County.

Upper Eocene volcanic rocks (Late Eocene to Oligocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Predominantly basalt flows and flow breccia; includes some pyroclastic and andesite rocks. Chiefly in western Washington.

Miocene-Pliocene nonmarine rocks (Miocene-Pliocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Tuffaceous and pumiceous andesitic sandstone and siltstone with interbedded conglomerate and claystone. Conglomerate beds chiefly andesitic, but also quartzitic, granitic, and basaltic; includes basalt flows locally.

Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks (Eocene-Oligocene) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Predominantly light-green, bedded andesite breccia with interbedded andesite and basalt flows, mudflows, and tuff beds; becomes more tuffaceous near top of unit. Includes tuffaceous and arkosic sandstone, shale, and carbonaceous shale beds in central and southern Cascade Mountians. Rhyodacite and quartz latite flows in northwestern Ferry County.

Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the low-grade zone (Jurassic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Greenschist, phyllite, and slate; includes some limestone, quartzose phyllite, schistose metaconglomerate, breccia, and basic igneous rocks. Includes schist locally.

Pre-Tertiary ultrabasic intrusive rocks (Late-Jurassic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Peridotite and pyroxenite; generally altered partly or completely to serpentine. Includes serpentinite and saxonite on Sumas Mountain, Whatcom County.

Upper Eocene volcanic rocks (Late-Middle Eocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Rhyolite flows and some interbedded tuff beds in Cle Elum area, Kittitas County.

Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks (Miocene-Pliocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Dark-gray, fine-grained, dense, porphyritic in part, basalt flows in central and south-central part of State; commonly interbedded with conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone. Includes small areas of rhyolite north of Cle Elum in Kittitas County, and andesite north of Leavenworth in Chelan County.

Pre-Upper Jurassic gneiss (Mostly Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Biotite, quartz diorite, trondhjemite, and hornblende gneisses, many of which are migmatitic; includes small granitic bodies locally. Small areas of mica schist, marble, amphibolite, and lime-silicate rocks in Entiat Mountains area of Chelan County.

Lower Tertiary volcanic rocks, undivided (Eocene) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Predominantly andesite flows and flow breccia; includes basalt flows, minor rhyolitic rocks, and some sedimentary rocks.

Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the medium and high-grade zone (Early Jurassic-Triassic) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Schist, amphibolite, and minor lime-silicate rocks, marble, quartzite, and metaconglomerate.

Tertiary granitic rocks (Probably mostly Eocene; ranges from Miocene to Paleocene) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Granite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite, granodiorite, and trondhjemite. Includes dacite porphyry and granite breccia near Bumping Lake, Yakima County.

Pre-Tertiary volcanic rocks, undivided (Probably mostly Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Andesite and basalt flows, and greenstone; includes minor interbedded limestone, arkose, quartzite, and chert beds.

Younger glacial drift (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Advance and recessional outwash, stratified drift, and associated deposits. Primarily silt, sand, and gravel with some clay. Includes alluvium locally and scabland deposits of eastern Washington.

Miocene nonmarine rocks (Late Miocene) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Poorly to moderately consolidated tuffaceous sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone in western Washington. Chiefly clay and shale with minor sand, gravel, and diatomaceous earth near Spokane. Includes diatomite beds near Yakima and Quincy, and some marine beds in Western Washington.

Pre-Carboniferous crystalline complex (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Metahornblendite, amphibolite, gneiss, metadiorite, meta-quartz diorite, and trondhjemite. As klippes along western slope of northern Cascade Mountains.

Tertiary dikes, sills, and small intrusive bodies (Middle to Late Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Dikes are commonly diabase; plugs and sills are generally andesite porphyry and dacite.

Mesozoic granitic rocks, undivided (Mostly Cretaceous-Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Granite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite, granodiorite, and trondhjemite. Includes diorite in southeastern Washington; diorite and gabbro near Concunully in Okanogan County; gneiss, schist, and migmatites in areas of Chelan, Colville, and Okanogan batholiths. Includes high-grade metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age in Spokane area.

Tertiary volcanic rocks, undivided (Mostly Oligocene-Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes andesite, basalt, and rhyolite flows, and associated pyroclastic rocks. In isolated areas across the northern part of the State.

Basic intrusive rocks, undivided (Jurassic in central Cascades; Oligocene to Eocene in northern Cascades) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly gabbro; includes some serpentine. Age undetermined.

Pre-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks, undivided (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly greenstone and spilitic volcanic rocks; includes some slate, argillite, and graywacke.

Younger glacial drift (Pleistocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Younger glacial drift, undivided. Till, outwash, and associated deposits; sorted and unsorted sand, gravel, silt, and clay. Includes some alluvium.