Geologic units in Skagit county, Washington

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the low-grade zone (Jurassic) at surface, covers 15 % of this area

Greenschist, phyllite, and slate; includes some limestone, quartzose phyllite, schistose metaconglomerate, breccia, and basic igneous rocks. Includes schist locally.

Glacial drift, undivided (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 13 % of this area

Glacial and glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and till; includes alpine glacier outwash and till as well as some Recent alluvium.

Alluvium (Holocene) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Mostly unconsolidated silt, sand, and gravel valley fill with some clay; includes low-level terrace, marsh, peat, artificial fill, and glacial deposits locally.

Pre-Upper Jurassic gneiss (Mostly Cretaceous) at surface, covers 12 % of this area

Biotite, quartz diorite, trondhjemite, and hornblende gneisses, many of which are migmatitic; includes small granitic bodies locally. Small areas of mica schist, marble, amphibolite, and lime-silicate rocks in Entiat Mountains area of Chelan County.

Pre-Tertiary sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, undivided (Mostly Early Cretaceous to Middle Jurassic, possibly includes minor Eocene rocks) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Graywacke, argillite, phyllite, chert, talc, and graphite schist; some faulted-in blocks of serpentinite and greenstone. Includes minor limestone on San Juan Island.

Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the medium and high-grade zone (Early Jurassic-Triassic) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Schist, amphibolite, and minor lime-silicate rocks, marble, quartzite, and metaconglomerate.

Younger glacial drift (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Younger glacial drift, undivided. Till, outwash, and associated deposits; sorted and unsorted sand, gravel, silt, and clay. Includes some alluvium.

Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the low-grade zone (Early Cretaceous metamorphism (Jurassic protolith)) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Greenschist of central Whatcom and Skagit Counties.

Tertiary-Cretaceous granitic intrusive rocks (Early Tertiary-Late Cretaceous) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Granite, granodiorite, trondhjemite, and quartz diorite. Late Cretaceous and/or early Tertiary.

Paleocene-Cretaceous nonmarine rocks (Eocene (see age coding)) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Brown-gray to light-gray, medium- to course-grained massive cross-bedded arkose with interbedded conglomerate and siltstone. Contains several coal seams in Whatcom County. Iron-rich laterite at base near Cle Elum and Blewett Pass in Kittitas and Chelan Counties.

Tertiary granitic rocks (Probably mostly Eocene; ranges from Miocene to Paleocene) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Granite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite, granodiorite, and trondhjemite. Includes dacite porphyry and granite breccia near Bumping Lake, Yakima County.

Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian; some Jurassic) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Cherty and slaty argillite, siltstone, graywacke, chert, greenstone, tuff, andesite, and spilitic volcanics.

Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian, minor Mesozoic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and slate; includes minor marble, siltstone, arkose, conglomerate, ribbon cherts, and volcanic rocks. Some Devonian rocks may be included in northwestern Washington.

Pre-Carboniferous intrusive rocks (Paleozoic) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Meta-quartz diorite, hypersthene diorite, and gneissose and directionless quartz diorite of eastern Skagit County. Quartz diorite and diorite in the San Juan Islands. Includes amphibolite and gneiss locally.

Younger glacial drift (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Till. Hard, blue-gray to gray concrete-like mixture of clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposited as end or recessional moraine. Principally Wisconsin in age.

Mesozoic granitic rocks, undivided (Mostly Cretaceous-Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Granite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite, granodiorite, and trondhjemite. Includes diorite in southeastern Washington; diorite and gabbro near Concunully in Okanogan County; gneiss, schist, and migmatites in areas of Chelan, Colville, and Okanogan batholiths. Includes high-grade metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age in Spokane area.

Carboniferous and Permian volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian; Triassic in Asotin County) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Predominantly altered andesite, basalt, and diabase with interbedded chert and argillite; includes some tuff, greenstone, and spilitic volcanic rocks; northern Cascade Mountains. Mostly schistose greenstone, some agglomerate, and rarely lapilli; includes minor beds of limestone with associated argillite and graywacke; northwestern Stevens County.

Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Cretaceous-Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Graywacke, argillite, siltstone, slate, volcanic rocks, phyllite, greenschist, and greenstone.

Pre-Tertiary volcanic rocks, undivided (Probably mostly Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Andesite and basalt flows, and greenstone; includes minor interbedded limestone, arkose, quartzite, and chert beds.

Pre-Tertiary ultrabasic intrusive rocks (Late-Jurassic) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Peridotite and pyroxenite; generally altered partly or completely to serpentine. Includes serpentinite and saxonite on Sumas Mountain, Whatcom County.

Younger glacial drift (Pleistocene) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Advance and recessional outwash, stratified drift, and associated deposits. Primarily silt, sand, and gravel with some clay. Includes alluvium locally and scabland deposits of eastern Washington.

Tertiary dunite intrusive rocks (Late Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

An intimate mixture of saxonite and dunite, partly serpentinized; Twin Sisters mountain area of Whatcom and Skagit Counties. Predominantly dunite and associated serpentinite in Jumbo Mountain area of central Snohomish County.

Pre-Middle Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Paleozoic deposition? with Cretaceous metamorphism?) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Graywacke, argillite, slate, greenstone, and spilitic volcanic rocks.

Basic intrusive rocks, undivided (Jurassic in central Cascades; Oligocene to Eocene in northern Cascades) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Predominantly gabbro; includes some serpentine. Age undetermined.

Pre-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks, undivided (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly greenstone and spilitic volcanic rocks; includes some slate, argillite, and graywacke.

Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks (Jurassic-Cretaceous on San Juan Islands; possibly Eocene in King County) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly volcanic rocks, mostly metamorphosed to greenstone and greenschist; includes some sedimentary rocks

Permian rocks (Permian-Triassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone, argillite and interbedded fossiliferous limestone, greenstone, and minor angular conglomerate in northwestern Stevens and Ferry Counties. Impure quartzite, sandstone, graywacke, greenstone, ribbon chert, chert breccia, and limestone in Snohomish County and on San Juan Island. Lower Permian limestone on Black Mountain in northwestern Whatcom County. Middle Permian rocks in northeastern Washington.

Oligocene nonmarine rocks (Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Andesite conglomerate, tuff beds, and mudflow material. Includes some interbedded andesite flows in Columbia River Gorge. Lake sediments with Oligocene flora in Republic area in Ferry County. Massive tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone with beds of coal and high-alumina clay in Castle Rock-Toledo coal district in Cowlitz and Lewis Counties; include local interbedded basalt flows and some marine and late Eocene rocks.

Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, mostly marine (Cretaceous) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lower Cretaceous greenish-gray massive arkosic sandstone and light-gray sandy shale in western Okanogan County. Includes phyllite in eastern Whatcom County.

Pre-Carboniferous crystalline complex (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Metahornblendite, amphibolite, gneiss, metadiorite, meta-quartz diorite, and trondhjemite. As klippes along western slope of northern Cascade Mountains.

Pre-Tertiary dunite intrusive rocks (Middle Jurassic) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Dunite associated with serpentine on Cypress Island in San Juan Islands and on Mount Chopaka near Oroville in Okanogan County.

Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and siltstone with some slate and phyllite; includes graywacke breccia and ribbon chert with minor local limestone lenses and basalt flows.

Pre-Tertiary metamorphic rocks, undivided (Probably Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite, amphibolite, greenstone, metaconglomerate, graywacke; includes metasedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive rocks. Some areas, as on San Juan Islands, show little if any metamorphism.

Oligocene marine rocks (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Massive, tuffaceous and nontuffaceous sandstone and siltstone; locally concretionary; includes conglomerate along the north coast of Olympic Peninsula and basaltic sandstone east of Chehalis.

Oligocene volcanic rocks (Oligocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Andesite and rhyodacite flows, tuff, and tuffaceous sandstones of northern Lincoln County and southwestern Stevens County.