Geologic units in Berkeley county, West Virginia

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Martinsburg Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 22 % of this area

Predominantly gray to dark shale, yellowish in the upper portion. Contains scattered thin limestone and sandstone interbeds, particularly in the lower portion. The upper portion constitutes the Reedsville Shale.

Mahantango Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 15 % of this area

(part of Millboro Shale) - thickly laminated marine shale, siltstone, very fine sandstone, and some limestone, with an occasional coral reef or biostrome. Contains the Clearville and Chaneysville Siltstone Members of Pennsylvania.

Conococheague Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Predominantly algal and mechanically deposited limestone, with interbeds of aphanitic limestone and dolomite. Contains siliceous and dolomitic laminations. Resistant sandy Big Spring Station Member near the base.

Elbrook Formation (Cambrian) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Thin-bedded blue-gray argillaceous limestone and platy shale, with some siliceous limestone and minor dolomite.

Rockdale Run Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 9 % of this area

Bluish to light gray and brown, thick-bedded dolomite and limestone, containing gray chert and zones of Cryptozoa and Lecanospira.

Pocono Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Predominantly hard gray massive sandstones, with some shale. In the Eastern Panhandle, has been divided into the Hedges, Purslane, and Rockwell Formations.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Non-marine shales and fine micaceous sandstones, mostly red to brownish-gray, including siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate. Generally distinguishable from the underlying Chemung by non-marine character and red color.

Stonehenge Limestone (Ordovician) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Gray, thin-bedded to massive, fossiliferous limestone, largely mechanically deposited, with small black chert nodules and beds of "edgewise" conglomerate. The highly resistant Stoufferstown Limestone member is found at the base.

Chemung Group (Devonian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Gray to brown siltstone and sandstone with shale and conglomeratic interbeds; mainly marine and sparingly fossiliferous; boundaries gradational. Can be divided into the Voreknobs and Scherr Formations along the Allegheny Front. Parkhead Sandstone Member near base.

Tonoloway, Wills Creek, and Williamsport Formations (Silurian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Includes the thin-bedded platy argillaceous limestones of the Tonoloway, the thin-bedded shale with fossiliferous limestones of the Wills Creek, the Bloomsburg red clastic facies, and the greenish-brown to white Williamsport Sandstone. The Wills Creek contains anhydrite and rock salt, the latter supplying brine from deep wells along the Ohio River.

Ordovician, middle calcareous units (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Ordovician - middle calcareous units.

Oriskany Sandstone and Helderberg Group, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Oriskany Sandstone: sometimes designated Ridgeley in eastern West Virginia. White to brown coarse- to fine-grained, partly calcareous sandstone, locally pebbly or conglomeratic, and ridge-forming. May be white, nearly pure silica, and a source of glass sand, as at Berkeley Springs, Morgan County. Helderburg Group: mostly cherty limestone, with some sandstone and shale. Contains several named stratigraphic units, including the Keyser Formation, which is partly Silurian and includes the Clifton Forge Sandstone and Big Mountain Shale Members.

Brallier Formation and Harrell Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Brallier Formation : predominantly olive-gray to dark, thickly laminated marine shale, with considerable siltstone and thin sandstone lenses; mainly nonfossiliferous. Harrell Shale: dark gray to black thinly laminated to fissile shale. Calcareous shale and limestone lenses near the base (Tully).

Trenton Group and Black River Group, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Trenton Group: dark, crystalline, nodular, and argillaceous limestones, with some metabentonite streaks. Includes the Nealmont, Oranda, Edinburg, and the upper part of the Chambersburg Limestones of northeastern West Virginia; also the Moccasin and Eggleston Formation of Mercer and Monroe Counties. Black River Group: predominantly gray aphanitic limestones, with many bioclastic streaks; siliceous in the lower part.

Pinesburg Station Dolomite (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Fine- to medium-crystalline, brown to light gray dolomite, containing nodular chert.

Tuscarora Sandstone (Silurian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Medium- to thick-bedded, white to gray or pinkish sandstone, fine to coarse, quartzitic, ridge-forming. Equivalent to the Clinch Sandstone of Tennessee.

Quaternary Alluvium (Quaternary) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Alluvial deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay.

Marcellus Formation and Needmore Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Marcellus Formation (part of Millboro Shale): predominantly gray-black to black thinly laminated non-calcareous pyritic shale. Contains one or more thin-bedded limestones, including the Purcell Member of Pennsylvania. Needmore Shale (part of Onesquethaw ("Onondaga") Group): predominantly dark grey or green, calcitic, mostly non-fissile shale. Gives strong "kick" on gamma ray logs. Tioga Bentonite near the top. Includes the black Beaver Dam Shale Member. Grades westward into the Huntersville Chert. Not mappable at scale of this map. Included with Dmn.

McKenzie Formation and Clinton Group (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Includes the McKenzie Formation, consisting of shale with thin limestone lenses; the dark Rochester Shale; the white Keefer Sandstone; and the Rose Hill predominantly red shale, with thin sandstone interbeds, some of which are called "iron sandstones" from their reddish-brown color and hematite content.

St. Paul Group (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Includes the New Market and Row Park Limestones. Predominantly medium-gray aphanitic limestone, containing very low-silica, cream-colored member of considerable economic importance. Chert nodules and dolomite occur in the Row Park.

Brallier Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Predominantly olive-gray to dark, thickly laminated marine shale, with considerable siltstone and thin sandstone lenses; mainly nonfossiliferous.

Conococheague Limestone (Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Dark blue, laminated, oolitic, argillaceaous, and siliceous limestone, algal limestone, and flat-pebble conglomerate; siliceous shale partings; some sandstone and dolomite; thickness 1,600 to 1,900 feet.

Beekmantown or Lower Ordovician Group (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mainly thick-bedded limestone and dolomite. Various units produce much chert on outcrop. Consists of units: Pinesburg Station Dolomite, Rockdale Run Formation, and Stonehenge Limestone.

Rockdale Run Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Upper one-third gray, mottled, cherty dolomite and dolomitic limestone; lower two-thirds gray, cherty argillaceous calcarenite and algal limestone with interbedded dolomite and oolitic limestone; thickness at least 1,700 feet east of Conococheague Creek, increases to about 2,500 feet in west.

Martinsburg Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Upper part rhythmically interbedded graywackes, siltstones, and dark shales; lower part dark brown, dark gray, and black, thin-bedded fissile shale; thickness 2,000 to 2,500 feet.

Stonehenge Limestone (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Upper part gray, thin-bedded, coarse-grained to conglomeratic, oolitic calcarenite; some dolomite; lower part gray, thick-bedded, fine-grained algal limestone; thickness 500 to 800 feet.

Hamilton Group (including Mahantango Formation and Marcellus Shale), and including Tioga Metabentontite Bed, and Needmore Shale (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Hamilton Group including Mahantango Formation - Dark gray, laminated shale, siltstone, and very fine-grained sandstone; thickness 600 feet in west, increases to 1,200 feet in east, and Marcellus Shale - Gray-black, thinly laminated, pyritic, carbonaceous shale; thickness 250 feet in east, increases to 500 feet in west. Also includes Tioga Metabentonite Bed - Brownish-gray, thinly laminated shale containing sand-size mica flakes; thickness less than one foot; and Needmore Shale - Olive-gray to black shale and dark, thin-bedded, fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone; thickness ranges from 70 to 145 feet.

Pinesburg Station Dolomite (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Light gray, laminated and mottled cherty dolomite; nonfossiliferous; thickness 375 to 500 feet.

Chambersburg Limestone and St. Paul Group (including New Market Limestone and Row Park Limestone) (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Chambersburg Limestone - Dark gray, fine- to medium-grained, thin-bedded argillaceous limestone; nodular and fossiliferous; thickness 225 to 250 feet; and St. Paul Group, including New Market Limestone - Upper part gray, thick-bedded calcilutite; fossiliferous; lower part light gray, thin-bedded, laminated argillaceous calcilutite; thickness 285 feet in south, increases to 700 feet in north; and Row Park Limestone - Light gray, fine-grained, medium- to thick-bedded calcarenite; calcilutite, and dolomitic limestone; interbedded dark gray, cherty, granular limestone; thickness 100 feet in south, increases to 680 feet in north.