Geologic units in Mineral county, West Virginia

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Brallier Formation and Harrell Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 25 % of this area

Brallier Formation : predominantly olive-gray to dark, thickly laminated marine shale, with considerable siltstone and thin sandstone lenses; mainly nonfossiliferous. Harrell Shale: dark gray to black thinly laminated to fissile shale. Calcareous shale and limestone lenses near the base (Tully).

Chemung Group (Devonian) at surface, covers 14 % of this area

Gray to brown siltstone and sandstone with shale and conglomeratic interbeds; mainly marine and sparingly fossiliferous; boundaries gradational. Can be divided into the Voreknobs and Scherr Formations along the Allegheny Front. Parkhead Sandstone Member near base.

Conemaugh Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 14 % of this area

Cyclic sequences of red and gray shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with thin limestones and coals. Mostly non-marine. May be divided into Casselman and Glenshaw Formations. Extends from the base of the Pittsburgh coal to the top of the Upper Freeport coal. Includes the Elk Lick, Bakerstown, and Mahoning coals, and the Ames and Brush Creek Limestones.

Mahantango Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

(part of Millboro Shale) - thickly laminated marine shale, siltstone, very fine sandstone, and some limestone, with an occasional coral reef or biostrome. Contains the Clearville and Chaneysville Siltstone Members of Pennsylvania.

Oriskany Sandstone and Huntersville Chert (Devonian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Oriskany Sandstone: sometimes designated Ridgeley in eastern West Virginia. White to brown coarse- to fine-grained, partly calcareous sandstone, locally pebbly or conglomeratic, and ridge-forming. May be white, nearly pure silica, and a source of glass sand, as at Berkeley Springs, Morgan County. Huntersville Chert (part of Onesquethaw ("Onondaga") Group): ranges from a nearly pure slightly calcitic or dolomitic chert to an inter-tonguing of such chert and the Needmore Shale. Grades westward in the subsurface to a limestone, commonly considered as "Onondaga". Contains the "glauconitic" Bobs Ridge Sandstone Member. Not mappable at scale of this map. Included with Do.

Marcellus Formation and Needmore Shale, undivided (Devonian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Marcellus Formation (part of Millboro Shale): predominantly gray-black to black thinly laminated non-calcareous pyritic shale. Contains one or more thin-bedded limestones, including the Purcell Member of Pennsylvania. Needmore Shale (part of Onesquethaw ("Onondaga") Group): predominantly dark grey or green, calcitic, mostly non-fissile shale. Gives strong "kick" on gamma ray logs. Tioga Bentonite near the top. Includes the black Beaver Dam Shale Member. Grades westward into the Huntersville Chert. Not mappable at scale of this map. Included with Dmn.

Helderberg Group (Devonian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Mostly cherty limestone, with some sandstone and shale. Contains several named stratigraphic units, including the Keyser Formation, which is partly Silurian and includes the Clifton Forge Sandstone and Big Mountain Shale Members.

Tonoloway, Wills Creek, and Williamsport Formations (Silurian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Includes the thin-bedded platy argillaceous limestones of the Tonoloway, the thin-bedded shale with fossiliferous limestones of the Wills Creek, the Bloomsburg red clastic facies, and the greenish-brown to white Williamsport Sandstone. The Wills Creek contains anhydrite and rock salt, the latter supplying brine from deep wells along the Ohio River.

Quaternary Alluvium (Quaternary) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Alluvial deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay.

McKenzie Formation and Clinton Group (Silurian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Includes the McKenzie Formation, consisting of shale with thin limestone lenses; the dark Rochester Shale; the white Keefer Sandstone; and the Rose Hill predominantly red shale, with thin sandstone interbeds, some of which are called "iron sandstones" from their reddish-brown color and hematite content.

Allegheny Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Cyclic sequences of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and coal. Includes the Freeport, Kittanning and Clarion coals, also, the Princess coals of Kentucky . Extends from the top of the Upper Freeport coal to the top of the Homewood Sandstone.

Pottsville Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Includes the Kanawha, New River, and Pocahontas Formations. Predominantly sandstones, some of which are conglomeratic, with thin shales and coals. Undivided in northern West Virginia.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Non-marine shales and fine micaceous sandstones, mostly red to brownish-gray, including siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate. Generally distinguishable from the underlying Chemung by non-marine character and red color.

Mauch Chunk Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Red, green, and medium-gray shale and sandstone, with a few thin limestones.

Tuscarora Sandstone (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Medium- to thick-bedded, white to gray or pinkish sandstone, fine to coarse, quartzitic, ridge-forming. Equivalent to the Clinch Sandstone of Tennessee.

Monongahela Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Non-marine cyclic sequences of sandstone, siltstone, red and gray shale, limestone, and coal. Contains the Uniontown and Pittsburgh Formations. Extends from the top of the Waynesburg coal to the base of the Pittsburgh coal. Includes the Waynesburg, Uniontown, Sewickley, Redstone and Pittsburgh coals. Thickness is 170 feet in Mineral and Grant Counties.

Pocono Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Predominantly hard gray massive sandstones, with some shale. In the Eastern Panhandle, has been divided into the Hedges, Purslane, and Rockwell Formations.

Greenbrier Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.6 % of this area

Marine limestone and marine and non-marine red and gray shale, and minor sandstone beds in numerous formational units.

Allegheny Formation and Pottsville Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Allegheny Formation - Interbedded sandstone, siltstone, claystone, shale, and coal beds; Upper Freeport coal at top; where present, Brookville coal defines base; thickness 275 feet in northeast, increases to 325 feet in south and west. And Pottsville Formation - Interbedded sandstone, siltstone, claystone, shale, and coal beds; conglomeratic orthoquartzite and protoquartzite at base; thickness 60 feet in northeast, increases to 440 feet in southwest

"Chemung" Formation, Parkhead Sandstone, Brallier Formation, and Harrell Shale (Devonian) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

"Chemung" Formation - Predominantly marine beds characterized by gray to olive-green graywacke, siltstone, and shale; thickened ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Parkhead Sandstone - Gray to olive-green sandy shale, conglomeratic sandstone and graywacke; present in Washington County, identification uncertain in west; thickness averages 400 feet; Brallier Fomation - (Woodmont Shale of earlier reports). Medium to dark gray, laminated shale and siltstone; weathers to light olive-gray; grain size coarsens upward; thickness about 2,000 feet in west, about 1,7000 feet in east; and Harrell Shale - Dark gray laminated shale; absent in east where Brallier lies directly on Mahantango, Tully Limestone lies near base in west, in subsurface of Garrett County; total thickness in west 140 to 300 feet.

Hamilton Group (including Mahantango Formation and Marcellus Shale), and including Tioga Metabentontite Bed, and Needmore Shale (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Hamilton Group including Mahantango Formation - Dark gray, laminated shale, siltstone, and very fine-grained sandstone; thickness 600 feet in west, increases to 1,200 feet in east, and Marcellus Shale - Gray-black, thinly laminated, pyritic, carbonaceous shale; thickness 250 feet in east, increases to 500 feet in west. Also includes Tioga Metabentonite Bed - Brownish-gray, thinly laminated shale containing sand-size mica flakes; thickness less than one foot; and Needmore Shale - Olive-gray to black shale and dark, thin-bedded, fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone; thickness ranges from 70 to 145 feet.

Juniata and Oswego Formations (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

The Juniata is a thin-bedded, blocky, red sandstone and shale. In places it is underlain by the thick-bedded, gray Oswego Sandstone.

Clinton Group, including Rochester Shale (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gray, thin-bedded calcareous shale and dark gray, thin- to medium-bed7 ded lenticular limestone; thickness 25 to 40 feet; Keefer Sandstone - White to yellowish-gray, thick-bedded protoquartzite and orthoquartzite; calcareous to west; thickness 10 feet in west, increases to 35 feet in east; and Rose Hill Formation - Olive-gray to drab, thin-bedded shale; some purple shale and gray, thin-bedded sandstone; including Cresaptown Iron Sandstone Member - Purple, hematite-cemented, quartzose sandstone; thickness 5 to 30 feet; occurs in lower half of formation; total thickness 300 feet in east, increases to 570 feet in west.

Tonoloway Limestone (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gray, thin-bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone, and calcareous shale; thin sandstone member in east 20 feet above base; fossiliferous; thickness 400 feet in east, increases to 600 feet in west.

Mauch Chunk Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Red and green shale, reddish-purple mudstone, and red, green, brown, and gray thin-bedded and cross-bedded sandstones; thickness 500 feet in west, increases to about 800 feet in east.

Conemaugh Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Includes the rocks between the base of the Pittsburgh coal and the top of the Upper Freeport coal; consists of two unnamed members which are separated by the Barton coal; both members are gray and brown claystone, shale, siltstone and sandstone, with several coal beds; lower member also contains redbeds and fossiliferous marine shales; thickness 825 to 925 feet.

Hampshire Formation (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Interbedded red shale, red mudstone, and red to brown cross-bedded siltstone and sandstone; some thin green shale; greenish-gray sandstone and shale toward top; fragmentary plant fossils; thickness 1,400 to 2,000 feet in west, increases to 3,800 feet in east.

Oriskany Group including Ridgeley Sandstone and Shriver Chert (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Oriskany Group, including Ridgeley Sandstone - White, medium- to coarse-grained, fossiliferous, calcareous orthoquartzite; thickness 160 feet in west. Medium to dark gray cherty, arenaceous limestone in east; thickness 50 feet; and Shriver Chert - Dark gray, brown, and black silty shales, cherty shales, and nodular and bedded black chert; fossiliferous; thickness 170 feet in west, upper boundary gradational with Ridgeley. Thickness 14 feet in east where the lower Shriver intertongues with the Licking Creek Limestone Member of the Helderberg Formation

Helderberg Formation and Keyser Limestone (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Helderberg Formation, including Licking Creek Limestone Member - (Becraft Limestone of earlier reports.) Present only in east. Medium gray, medium-grained limestone near top; bedded black chert and thin-bedded limestone in middle; silty argillaceous limestone and shale near base; contains tongues of Shriver and Mandata; thickness 110 feet; Mandata Shale Member - Dark brown to black, thin-bedded shale; fossiliferous; thickness 20 to 30 feet in west, intertongues with Licking Creek Limestone Member in east; Corriganville Limestone Member (Head) - (New Scotland Limestone of earlier reports.) Medium gray, medium-grained, medium-bedded limestone, interbedded with chert; fossiliferous; thickness 15 to 30 feet; New Creek Limestone Member - (Coeymans Limestone of earlier reports.) Medium gray, thick-bedded, coarse-grained limestone; fossiliferous; thickness 9 to 10 feet. Limestone changes facies eastward into sandstone, the Elbow Ridge Sandstone Member - Medium-bedded, medium- to coarse-grained, calcarous sandstone; thickness 10 to 18 feet.; and the Keyser Limestone - Dark gray, thin- to thick-bedded, fine- to coarse-grained calcarenite; contains nodular limestone, dolomitic limestone, and calcarous shale; cherty near top; fossiliferous; thickness 200 to 300 feet.

Wills Creek Shale and Bloomsburg Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Wills Creek Shale - Olive to yellowish-gray, thin-bedded mudstone, calcareous shale, argillaceous limestone, and sandstone; thickness 450 feet in west, increases to 600 feet in east; and Bloomsburg Formation - Bright red, hematitic, thin- to thick-bedded sandstone and shale; some dark sandstone and green shale; Cedar Creek Limestone Member - Dark gray, fine- to medium-grained argillaceous limestone, occurs in middle part of formation; total thickness 20 feet in west, increases to 200 feet in east.

McKenzie Formation (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Gray, thin-bedded shale and argillaceous limestone; interbedded red sandstone and shale in east; thickness 160 feet in western Washington County, increases to 300 feet in east and 380 feet in west.

Greenbrier Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Upper part red calcareous shale and sandstone interbedded with greenish-gray and reddish-gray argillaceous limestone; Loyalhanna Limestone Member: Gray to red, cross-bedded, arenaceous calcarenite; total thickness 200 to 300 feet.