Shelburn-Patoka Formations undivided.
Silurian System undivided, includes Sexton Creek Limestone, St. Clair Limestone, and Moccasin Springs Formation in southern Illinois; includes Wilhelmi Formation, Elwood Dolomite, Kankakee Dolomite, Joliet Dolomite, Sugar Run Dolomite, and Racine Dolomite in northeastern Illinois; includes Mosalem, Tete des Morts, Blanding, Sweeney, Marcus, and Racine Dolomites in northwestern Illinois.
Galena Group (Trenton Limestone), includes Decorah, Dunleith, Wise Lake and Dubuque Formations in northern Illinois.
Maquoketa Formation or Group, includes Cape Limestone, Cape La Croix Shale, Thebes Sandstone, Orchard Creek Shale, Girardeau Limestone, and Leemon Formation in southern Illinois; includes Scales Shale, Fort Atkinson Limestone, Brainard Shale, and Neda Formation in northern Illinois; includes Noix Oolite in western Illinois.
Meppen Limestone, Fern Glen Formation, and Burlington-Keokuk Limestone.
Warsaw Formation and Salem Limestone in western Illinois.
Ancell Group, includes St. Peter Sandstone, Dutchtown Limestone, Joachim Dolomite, and Glenwood Formation; includes Prairie du Chien Group in Jo Daviess County of northwestern Illinois.
New Albany Shale, Blocher Shale, Sylamore Sandstone, Selmier Shale, Sweetland Creek Shale, Grassy Creek Shale, Saverton Shale, and Louisiana Limestone.
St. Louis Limestone.
Platteville Group, includes Pecatonica, Mifflin, Grand Detour, Nachusa, and Quimbys Mill Formations; includes Plattin Limestone in southwestern Illinois.
Lower Pope Group (Aux Vases Sandstone through Glen Dean Limestone).
Muscatatuck Group, includes Grand Tower Limestone and St. Laurent (Alto and Lingle) Formation in southern Illinois; includes Detroit River Formation, Wapsipinicon Limestone, and Cedar Valley Limestone in northern and western Illinois.
Upper Pope Group (Tar Springs Sandstone through Kinkaid Limestone).
Borden Siltstone, includes Chouteau Limestone in east-central Illinois.
Prairie du Chien Group, includes Gunter Sandstone, Oneota Dolomite, New Richmond Sandstone, and Shakopee Dolomite in northern Illinois.
Cretaceous undivided, includes Post Creek (Tuscaloosa), McNairy, and Owl Creek Formations (southern Illinois).
Glen Park Formation, Hannibal Shale, Chouteau Limestone, McCraney Limestone, Prospect Hill Siltstone, and Starrs Cave Limestone.
Tamms Group, includes Bailey Limestone, “Flat Gap Limestone”, Grassy Knob Chert, Backbone Limestone, and Clear Creek Formation.
Cambrian System, includes Mt. Simon Sandstone, Eau Claire Formation, Ironton-Galesville Sandstone, Franconia Formation, Potosi Dolomite, and Eminence Dolomite.
Ste. Genevieve Limestone.
Clayton and Porters Creek Formations; Claiborne and Wilcox Formations.
Baylis Formation (western Illinois).
Kimmswick (Trenton) Limestone and Decorah Formation in southern and western Illinois.
Ullin and Salem Limestones in southern Illinois.
Paleozoic undifferentiated, includes Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata within the Des Plaines Structure in northern Cook County.
Ft. Payne Formation, includes Springville Shale and Chouteau Limestone in southern Illinois.
Alluvium - clay, silt, sand, and gravel.
Dolomite with some limestone and shale; includes Galena, Decorah, and Platteville Formations
Tertiary and Cretaceous undivided.
Dolomite, undivided; includes Cayugan, Niagaran, and Alexandrian series
Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone and coal. WF, top of West Franklin member
Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone and coal
Interval includes Little Cedar, Coralville, Lithograph City, and Shell Rock formations; Shell Rock Fm in northern Iowa only. Primary Lithologies: limestone, fossiliferous, variably argillaceous, part biostromal; dolomite, part fossil-moldic to vuggy, variably argillaceous. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, dense, “sublithographic”; dolomite/limestone breccia (evaporite collapse); limestone, sparse to unfossiliferous, argillaceous to shaly; shale, gray to green-gray, dolomitic. Minor: anhydrite/gypsum (outcrop belt only in Grundy, Tama, Poweshiek counties; extensive in subsurface of central and southern Iowa); chert; glauconite; sandy limestone/sandstone. Maximum thicknesses in outcrop belt: southeast Iowa, 80-135 ft (24-41 m); east-central Iowa 130-210 ft (40-64 m); northern Iowa 250-350 ft (76-107 m). Cedar Valley Group thins and is overstepped by Dl westward in Winnebago County.
Orthoquartzitic sandstone with minor limestone, shale and conglomerate; includes Glenwood and St. Peter Formations
Shale, dolomitic shale and dolomite; includes overlying Neda Formation (age uncertain) consisting of oolitic iron oxides and shale
Interval includes Burlington, Keokuk, and Warsaw formations. Upper Warsaw strata locally preserved at top of interval in extreme southeast Iowa are lower Meramecian age . Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part argillaceous to shaly; dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous; fossiliferous limestone (especially crinoidal packstone-grainstone). Secondary Lithologies: glauconitic limestone/dolomite; shale, gray to green-gray, part dolomitic, part silty; chert, nodular to bedded. Minor: quartz crystals, quartz geodes, chalcedony; phosphatic dolomite/limestone (“bone bed”); siltstone, dolomitic. Lithologies noted only in northern Iowa: oolitic limestone; “sublithographic” limestone; dolomite/chert breccia. Interval is erosionally beveled beneath sub-“St. Louis” and sub-Pennsylvanian unconformities. Maximum thicknesses in northern Iowa: 85-105 ft (26-32 m). Maximum thicknesses in southern Iowa: 155-240 ft (47-73 m).
Formation includes Anamosa, Brady, LeClaire (Scott-Muscatine counties) members; Brady and LeClaire members are carbonate mound facies. Erosionally beveled and truncated beneath Dw. Primary Lithologies: laminated dolomite (Anamosa Mbr), part fetid/organic to east (Scott-Clinton counties); dolomite mudstone, dense, featureless. Secondary Lithologies: dolomite, fossiliferous to vuggy, moldic, part brachiopod-rich (Brady Member); dolomite, part coarsely crystalline, vuggy, fossiliferous to sparsely fossiliferous, part crinoidal (LeClaire Member). Minor: chert; intraclastic dolomite. Maximum thickness: 180 ft (55 m); beveled and truncated beneath Dw.
Includes Elgin, Clermont, Fort Atkinson, Brainard, and Neda members. Overlain by Silurian strata in east-central Iowa, incised paleovalleys beneath Mosalem Fm.; truncated beneath Devonian strata in northern-most counties. Primary lithologies: shale, green-gray, variably dolomitic, mostly unfossiliferous; dolomite, argillaceous, part shaly, variably fossiliferous (part with common trilobites); dolomite, part argillaceous, part cherty to very cherty (northern Iowa). Secondary lithologies: shale, brown to brown-gray, organic, part graptolitic, part finely laminated (lower strata); dolomitic limestone to limestone, argillaceous, part cherty to very cherty, variably fossiliferous, part crinoidal (northern Iowa); interbedded dolomite and shale, part nodular, part fossiliferous. Minor: phosphorite, granular to massive (basal unit); dolomite, phosphatic to very phosphatic, argillaceous (Elgin Mbr.); ooidal ironstone and red shale (Neda Mbr.); pyrite, finely disseminated to nodular, pyrite cements. Maximum thicknesses: generally 200-275 ft (60-85 m) beneath Silurian, locally 100-200 ft (30-60 m) beneath Mosalem Fm.; 75-180 ft (23-55 m) where capped by Devonian strata in northern Iowa.
Galena Group includes Decorah, Dunleith, Wise Lake, Dubuque formations; Platteville Formation includes Pecatonica, McGregor members; Glenwood Shale forms thin basal shale unit. Primary lithologies: dolomite, part porous to vuggy, fossiliferous, part cherty; limestone and dolomitic limestone, fossiliferous, part cherty (note: Galena Group entirely limestone to north, entirely dolomite to south, interstratified limestone-dolomite in intervening areas). Secondary lithologies: shale, green-gray, calcareous, with thin to nodular limestone, part fossiliferous (Decorah Sh); limestone, wavy-bedded to nodular, part fossiliferous (Decorah-Platteville); dolomite and limestone, slightly argillaceous. Minor: shale partings and thin beds, green-gray to brown-gray, part fossiliferous (Dubuque Fm); shale partings and thin beds, light to dark brown, part organic-rich (Decorah-Platteville); dolomite, sandy to very sandy (Pecatonica Mbr); shale, green-gray, noncalcareous, unfossiliferous, part sandy (Glenwood Sh); thin sandstone to siltstone (Glenwood Sh); dark phosphatic grains (primarily Glenwood, Pecatonica, Decorah); phosphate-pyrite-iron oxide crusts (on some hardground surfaces); pyrite nodules; thin K-bentonite beds (Galena Gp); ironstone ooids (Decorah Sh). Maximum thicknesses total interval: 330 ft (100 m); Galena Group, 250-280 ft (76-85 m); Platteville Formation, 25-55 ft (8-17 m); Glenwood Shale, 3-10 ft (1-3 m).
Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. S, Springfield Coal Member
Mosalem Formation infills erosional paleovalleys incised into Maquoketa Shale; absent outside of paleovalleys. Lower Hopkinton Formation locally contains carbonate mound facies in Bremer County. Blanding Formation oversteps Tete des Morts-Mosalem edge in southern outcrop area. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, fossil-moldic to vuggy, fine to coarse crystalline; dolomite, dense to porous, cherty to very cherty, nodular to bedded chert (especially Blanding Fm). Secondary Lithologies: dolomite, dense, sparsely fossiliferous; dolomite, argillaceous, part laminated (Mosalem Fm). Minor: chalcedony, silicified fossils. Maximum thicknesses total interval: 160-330 ft (49-100 m), thickest in Dubuque, Jackson, Jones counties where Mosalem present; southern outcrop total thickness 65-130 ft (20-40 m). Formation thicknesses: Hopkinton, 65-160 ft (20-49 m); Blanding, 25-65 ft (8-20 m); Tete des Morts, 0-35 ft (11 m); Mosalem, 0-100 ft (30 m).
Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of coal
Interval includes Grassy Creek Shale, Saverton Shale, “Maple Mill” Shale, English River Formation, Louisiana Limestone (Lee County only), Aplington Formation (northern and western Iowa only), Sheffield Shale (central and northern Iowa). Famennian strata onlap Lime Creek Fm to the northwest. Primary Lithologies: shale, gray to green-gray, part silty; siltstone (especially English River Fm). Secondary Lithologies: shale, olive-brown and medium to dark brown, part laminated (Grassy Creek Fm, southeast Iowa); dolomite, part fossiliferous, part cherty, part argillaceous (Aplington Fm). Minor: interstratified dolomite and limestone, part fossiliferous (Louisiana Limestone); ooidal ironstone and phosphorite; phosphatic siltstone (“bone bed”); shale, red-brown. Maximum thicknesses in outcrop belt: southeast Iowa, 135-310 ft (41-95 m), thickest in Washington, Louisa, Des Moines counties; northern and central Iowa, 25-135 ft (8-41 m).
Limestone, dolomite, and argillaceous dolomite
Sandstone with some dolomite and shale, undivided; includes Trempealeau, Tunnel City, and Elk Mound Formations
Mostly siltstone; lenses of crinodial limestone in upper part. Much cherty and silty limestone and dolomite in northwest. NP, top of New Providence Shale
Interval includes Pinicon Ridge, Otis, Spillville, and Bertram formations. Otis and Bertram formations restricted to east-central Iowa only; Spillville Formation in northeast Iowa only. Pinicon Ridge Formation oversteps Spillville and Otis edges in Fayette, Bremer, Black Hawk, Buchanan, southern Chickasaw counties to directly overlie Sh, Sw, or Om. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part laminated, variably argillaceous, part fetid; limestone, dense, “sublithographic”, part laminated to intraclastic; dolomite, fossil-moldic to vuggy (Otis-Spillville fms). Secondary Lithologies: limestone/dolomite breccia (evaporite collapse); dolomitic shale and shaly dolomite, gray to green-gray, part silty-sandy; limestone, part peloidal to fossiliferous (Otis Fm). Minor: chert and chalcedony nodules (Pinicon Ridge Fm); sandstone; oolitic limestone (Otis Fm). Extensive anhydrite/gypsum in subsurface outside of outcrop belt. Maximum thicknesses in outcrop belt: east-central Iowa, 60-160 ft (18-49 m); northern Iowa, 10-130 ft (3-40 m), locally absent in Bremer County beneath Dc.
Prairie du Chien Group includes Oneota Fm (Coon Valley, Hager City members) and Shakopee Fm (New Richmond Sandstone, Willow River members); St. Peter Sandstone includes Readstown and Tonti members. Sub-St. Peter erosional surface bevels and locally truncates Prairie du Chien strata. Primary lithologies: dolomite, part cherty, part sandy, mostly unfossiliferous, common voids and vugs (Prairie du Chien); sandstone, quartzose, very fine to medium grained (St. Peter, Shakopee). Secondary lithologies: dolomite, laminated to stromatolitic, part intraclastic; dolomite, fossil molds (primarily mollusks); interbedded very fine to fine sandstone and dolomite (Coon Valley, Shakopee); conglomerate, dolomite and chert clasts in sandy matrix (Readstown). Minor: oolitic dolomite and oolitic chert (Shakopee); shale, green, part sandy (Shakopee); shale, green-brown to gray, part laminated, silty to sandy, part fossiliferous (locally in St. Peter of Winneshiek Co.); coarse sand grains (St. Peter, Shakopee); breccia, dolomite-chert clasts; chalcedony/quartz nodules. Maximum thicknesses total interval: generally 300-400 ft (90-120 m), may reach thicknesses to 700 ft (210 m) (locally thick St. Peter in Winneshiek Co.). Unit thicknesses: Prairie du Chien Group, 225-335 ft (69-102 m), locally thinner where overlain by thick St. Peter; Oneota Fm, 130-225 ft (40-69 m), locally thinned beneath thick St. Peter; Shakopee Fm, 55-100 ft (17-30 m), locally thinned to absent beneath thick St. Peter; St. Peter Sandstone, generally 40-75 ft (12-23 m), varies 25-225 ft (8-69 m), may locally reach thicknesses to 700 ft (210 m) in Winneshiek Co.
Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. B, Buffaloville Coal Member; LB, Lower Block Coal Member
Dolomite with some sandstone and shale; includes Shakopee and Oneota Formations
Formation includes Welton, Buck Creek Quarry, Waubeek, Palisades-Kepler, Johns Creek Quarry members; Palisades-Kepler and Johns Creek Quarry members contain carbonate mound facies. Erosionally beveled and truncated beneath Dw. Primarily Lithologies: dolomite, porous, fossil-moldic to vuggy, part very crinoidal (includes Welton Mbr); dolomite, cherty to very cherty, dense (Buck Creek Quarry Mbr). Secondary Lithologies: dolomite, sparsely fossil-moldic, dense, part vuggy (includes Waubeek Mbr); dolomite, coarsely crystalline, part very crinoidal (within Johns Creek Quarry, Palisades-Kepler mbrs); dolomite mudstone, dense. Minor: dolomite, slightly argillaceous; quartz druse, chalcedony, silicified fossils. Maximum thicknesses: 94-240 ft (29-73 m); may reach thicknesses to 300 ft (90 m); beveled and truncated beneath Dw.
Permian ultramafic intrusions.
Interval includes Sweetland Creek Shale in southeast Iowa, and “Amana beds” of Iowa County. Lime Creek Fm onlaps eroded Ordovician surface in northwestern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: shale, gray to green-gray, dolomitic to calcareous; limestone, variably argillaceous, fossiliferous, part biostromal; dolomite, variably argillaceous, part fossiliferous. Secondary Lithologies: limestone, dense, “sublithographic” (upper part of carbonate-dominated facies in central and northwestern Iowa); shale, green-gray to brown, silty (Sweetland Creek Shale). Minor: siltstone; chert; oolitic limestone, carbonate breccia (central to northwestern Iowa). Thickness variations in outcrop belt: Sweetland Creek Shale of southeastern Iowa, 3-30 ft (1-9 m); Lime Creek Fm of southeastern to north-central Iowa, 40-200 ft (12-60 m); Lime Creek Fm of northwestern Iowa, 200-350 ft (60-105 m).
Interval includes Prospect Hill, Chapin, Maynes Creek, and Wassonville formations; locally includes basal Crapo (“McCraney”) Formation in southeastern Iowa. Primary Lithologies: dolomite, part cherty to very cherty, part fossiliferous (Maynes Creek-Wassonville formations); limestone, skeletal to oolitic (Chapin Fm; lower Wassonville Fm/Starrs Cave Member; middle Maynes Creek/“Eagle City” member; basal Crapo Fm); siltstone (Prospect Hill Fm). Secondary Lithologies: shale, gray, silty (Prospect Hill Fm of southeastern Iowa); limestone, dense, “sublithographic” to stromatolitic (upper Maynes Creek Fm); limestone and dolomite, dense, nodular to banded, part silty (Crapo Fm). Maximum thicknesses for total interval: 100-175 ft (30-53 m). Thickness variations: Crapo (“McCraney”) Fm, 0-65 ft (20 m); Prospect Hill Fm, 0-90 ft (27 m), generally < 25 ft (8 m); Chapin Fm, 0-30 ft (9 m), generally < 10 ft (3 m); Maynes Creek Fm, 35-155 ft (11-47 m), thickest in central to northern Iowa; Wassonville Fm (southeast Iowa only), 0-70 ft (21 m), replaced to northwest by Maynes Creek and Chapin formations, beveled beneath sub-Burlington unconformity to southeast.