Geologic units in Kentucky (state in United States)

Additional scientific data in this geographic area

Breathitt Formation, lower part (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 16 % of this area

lower part which includes Livingston Conglomerate Member of Lee Formation in eastern Rockcastle County

Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis Limestones, undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers 10 % of this area

Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis Limestones, undivided; includes Salem Limestone west of Christian County

Alluvium (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 8 % of this area

Alluvium; includes glacial deposits along the Ohio River and its tributaries west of Cannelton locks

Garrard Siltstone and Kope and Clays Ferry Formations, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 7 % of this area

Garrard Siltstone and Kope and Clays Ferry Formations, undivided

Breathitt Formation, middle part (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 6 % of this area

Breathitt Formation, middle part

Rocks of Chesterian age, lower part (Upper Mississippian) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Rocks of Chesterian age, lower part

Ashlock Formation, Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, and Fairview Formation, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 5 % of this area

Ashlock Formation, Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, and Fairview Formation, undivided

Lexington Limestone (Ordovician) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Lexington Limestone

Wildie, Nada, Halls Gap, Holtsclaw Siltstone, Cowbell, Nancy, Kenwood Siltstone, New Providence Shale, Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, undivided; Borden Formation locally includes Renfro Member in eastern Kentucky (Devonian to Mississippian) at surface, covers 4 % of this area

Wildie, Nada, Halls Gap, Holtsclaw Siltstone, Cowbell, Nancy, Kenwood Siltstone, New Providence Shale, Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, undivided; Borden Formation locally includes Renfro Member in eastern Kentucky

Renfro and Muldraugh Members of Borden Formation and Fort Payne Formation, undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Renfro and Muldraugh Members of Borden Formation and Fort Payne Formation, undivided

Continental deposits and loess, undifferentiated (Tertiary to Quaternary) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Continental deposits and loess, undifferentiated; West of the Tennessee River

Salem, Warsaw, and Harrodsburg Limestones, undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Salem, Warsaw, and Harrodsburg Limestones, undivided

Sturgis Formation (Middle to Upper Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 3 % of this area

Sturgis Formation

Caseyville Formation (Lower to Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Caseyville Formation

Tradewater Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Tradewater Formation

New Albany, Chattanooga, and Ohio Shales, Boyle Dolomite (Limestone), and Sellersburg Limestone, undivided (Devonian to Mississippian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

New Albany, Chattanooga, and Ohio Shales, Boyle Dolomite (Limestone), and Sellersburg Limestone, undivided

Drakes Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Drakes Formation

Rocks of Chesterian age, upper part (Upper Mississippian) at surface, covers 2 % of this area

Rocks of Chesterian age, upper part

Corbin Sandstone Member of Lee Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Corbin Sandstone Member of Lee Formation

Bull Fork Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Bull Fork Formation

Carbondale Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 1 % of this area

Carbondale Formation

Pennington Formation (Paragon Formation), Bangor Limestone, Hartselle Formation, and Kidder Limestone Member of Monteagle Limestone, undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers 1.0 % of this area

Pennington Formation (Paragon Formation), Bangor Limestone, Hartselle Formation, and Kidder Limestone Member of Monteagle Limestone, undivided

Breathitt Formation, upper part (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.9 % of this area

Breathitt Formation, upper part

Crab Orchard Formation and Brassfield Dolomite, undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.8 % of this area

Crab Orchard Formation and Brassfield Dolomite, undivided; locally includes Bisher Dolomite in Estill County

Laurel Dolomite, Osgood Formation, and Brassfield Dolomite, undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.7 % of this area

Laurel Dolomite, Osgood Formation, and Brassfield Dolomite, undivided

Monongahela and Conemaugh Formations, undivided (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.5 % of this area

Monongahela and Conemaugh Formations, undivided

Louisville Limestone and Waldron Shale, undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Louisville Limestone and Waldron Shale, undivided

Limestone bodies in the Fort Payne Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Limestone bodies in the Fort Payne Formation; including Cane Valley Limestone Member

Glacial deposits, undifferentiated (Pleistocene to Holocene) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Glacial deposits, undifferentiated; shown locally

Clayton and McNairy Formations, undivided (Paleocene to Upper Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.4 % of this area

Clayton and McNairy Formations, undivided

Jackson and Claiborne Formations, undivided (Tertiary) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Jackson and Claiborne Formations, undivided; includes some rocks of Oligocene age

Pennington Formation and Newman Limestone (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Pennington Formation and Newman Limestone; includes Carter Caves Sandstone in Carter County and vicinity

Rockcastle Sandstone Member of Lee Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Rockcastle Sandstone Member of Lee Formation

Lee Formation (Mississippian to Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

Lee Formation

High Bridge Group (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.3 % of this area

High Bridge Group

Tuscaloosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Tuscaloosa Formation

Newman Limestone (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Newman Limestone

Warsaw Limestone (Mississippian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Warsaw Limestone; west of Christian County

Preachersville Member of Drakes Formation and Bull Fork Formation, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Preachersville Member of Drakes Formation and Bull Fork Formation, undivided; in Bath and Montgomery Counties

Cumberland Formation and Leipers and Catheys (?) Limestones, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Cumberland Formation and Leipers and Catheys (?) Limestones, undivided; in southernmost Kentucky

Sellersburg and Jeffersonville Limestones, undivided (Lower to Middle Devonian) at surface, covers 0.2 % of this area

Sellersburg and Jeffersonville Limestones, undivided; in Jefferson and Oldham Counties

Drakes Formation and Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Drakes Formation and Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, undivided; in Boyle, Casey, and Marion Counties

Pennington Formation, Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, Grainger Formation, Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, undivided; Pennington Formation locally includes sandstone tongue of Lee Formation (Devonian to Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers 0.1 % of this area

Pennington Formation, Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, Grainger Formation, Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, undivided; Pennington Formation locally includes sandstone tongue of Lee Formation

Continental deposits, undifferentiated (Tertiary to Quaternary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Continental deposits, undifferentiated; East of the Tennessee River

Knifely Sandstone member of the Fort Payne Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Knifely Sandstone member of the Fort Payne Formation

Porters Creek Clay (Paleocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Porters Creek Clay

Bull Fork Formation and Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Bull Fork Formation and Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones, undivided; Along Ohio River in Oldham and Trimble Counties

Alluvial deposits (Quaternary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sand, silt, clay, and gravel. In flood plain of Mississippi River more than 100 feet thick; in smaller streams generally less than 20 feet thick.

Wilcox Formation (Eocene) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Wilcox Formation

Chattanooga and Ohio Shales, undivided (Devonian to Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Chattanooga and Ohio Shales, undivided; along and south of the Pine Fault

Bisher Dolomite (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Bisher Dolomite

Sandstone member of the Mooretown Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sandstone member of the Mooretown Formation

Holocene series (Quaternary-Holocene Series) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Alluvium - clay, silt, sand, and gravel.

Kanawha Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

(part of Pottsville Group) - sandstone (approx 50%), shale, siltstone, and coal. Contains several marine zones. Becomes more shaly westward in the subsurface. Extends from the top of the Homewood Sandstone to the top of the Upper Nuttall Sandstone. Includes the Stockton (Mercer), Coalburg, Winifrede, Chilton, Williamson, Cedar Grove, Alma, Peerless, Campbell Creek, Powellton, Eagle, Gilbert, and Douglas coals.

Quaternary Alluvium (Quaternary) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Alluvial deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay.

Lamprophyre dikes and sills (Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lamprophyre dikes and sills; in Caldwell, Crittenden, and Livingston Counties

Cretaceous undivided (Upper Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Cretaceous undivided, includes Post Creek (Tuscaloosa), McNairy, and Owl Creek Formations (southern Illinois).

Wise Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Wise Formation (Campbell, 1893) . Sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, coal, and underclay. Sandstone, lithic, feldspathic, micaceous, argillaceous, carbonaceous locally, light- to medium-gray to moderate- and pale-yellow- brown, fine- to coarse-grained, locally pebbly, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded to even-bedded, locally massive, well-cemented; contains fragments of shale, siltstone, and carbonized plant fossils locally. Siltstone and shale, light olive- gray, medium- to dark-gray and grayish-black, contains siderite ironstone in very-thin beds and nodules, carbonized plant fossils; invertebrate fossils in dark-gray to black shale and micrograined limestone in the upper part of formation (Miller, 1969; Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Henderson, and Miller,1988; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988a). Limestone, medium- to dark-gray, micrograined, in very-thin lenses and beds in shale and siltstone in two to three zones in lower part of formation (Taylor, 1989; Whitlock, Lovett, and Diffenbach, 1988). Coal interbedded with shale, siltstone, and sandstone. Underclay, light-gray, root casts, beneath coal; as much as 5 feet thick under the Williamson coal bed in Buchanan County (Henika, 1989b). A dark-gray to brownish-gray, flint clay in the Phillips (Fire Clay; No.7) coal bed in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973) and western Wise County is a volcanic ash deposit (Seiders, 1965) that covers parts of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia; it has been dated at an age of 311 - 312 million years (Lyons and others, 1992; Rice and others, 1990). Base of formation at bottom of Dorchester coal bed. Thickness 2150 to 2268 feet.

Point Pleasant Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Limestone (60%) and shale (40%) interbedded; gray to bluish gray weathers light gray; planar to lenticular, thin to medium bedded; 0 to 80 feet thick.

Lower Pope Group (Aux Vases Sandstone through Glen Dean Limestone) (Mississippian (Visean)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lower Pope Group (Aux Vases Sandstone through Glen Dean Limestone).

Carbondale Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. S, Springfield Coal Member

Patoka and Shelburn Formations (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone and coal. WF, top of West Franklin member

Harlan Sandstone (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Harlan Sandstone (Campbell, 1893) Sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. Sandstone, feldspathic, moderately quartzose, argillaceous, medium-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-bedded; quartzose sandstone is pebbly, moderately resistant, cliff-forming, and in lenticular bodies at base of formation where it fills channels (Miller, 1969; Miller and Roen, 1973). Sandstone comprises as much as 48 percent of formation. Siltstone and shale, medium- to dark-gray and brown, locally reddish-brown; contains 22 discontinuous coal beds. Miller (1969) changed the name from Harlan Sandstone (Campbell, 1893) to Harlan Formation because of the heterogeneous lithology and defined the base as the top of the High Splint coal bed. It is as much as 650 feet thick in northern Lee and western Wise counties, adjacent to Kentucky; upper part removed by erosion in Virginia (Miller and Roen, 1973; Nolde, Henderson, and Miller, 1988; Nolde, Whitlock, and Lovett, 1988a).

Lexington Limestone (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Micritic and skeletal limestone

Raccoon Creek Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. B, Buffaloville Coal Member; LB, Lower Block Coal Member

St. Louis Limestone (Mississippian (Visean)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

St. Louis Limestone.

Norton Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Norton Formation (Campbell, 1893). Siltstone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate, limestone, and coal. Siltstone and shale, light- to medium-gray, with siderite and claystone concretions, fossiliferous; interbedded with and grades into sandstone. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, argillaceous, light- to medium-gray, very-fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to very-thick-bedded, cross-bedded, locally massive, well-cemented. Conglomerate in thin zones in McClure Sandstone Member (lateral equivalent to part of Bee Rock Sandstone Member of the Lee Formation). Lime stone, medium-gray, micrograined, locally in lenses in two zones above the McClure Sandstone Member (Taylor, 1989; Whitlock, 1989). Coal in several beds and zones. A volcanic ash parting is in the Upper Banner coal bed locally (Diffenbach, 1988, 1989; Evans and Troensegaard, 1991; Henika, 1989a). The base of the Norton is defined as the top of the uppermost quartzarenite of the Lee Formation. On the western side of the coalfield the base of the Norton is at the top of the Bee Rock Sandstone Member of the underlying Lee Formation. However, the Bee Rock grades eastward into feldspathic, conglomeratic sandstone of the McClure Sandstone Member of the Norton. Several underlying Lee quartzarenites successively tongue out or grade into finer-grained clastic rocks to the southeast stratigraphically lowering the base of the Norton. This accounts for the great range in thickness of 500 to 2480 feet for the Norton Formation.

Kope Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale and thin skeletal limestone

Upper Pope Group (Tar Springs Sandstone through Kinkaid Limestone) (Mississippian (Serpukhovian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Upper Pope Group (Tar Springs Sandstone through Kinkaid Limestone).

Mauzy Formation (Lower Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mauzy Formation

Clayton Formation, Porters Creek Formation, Claiborne Formation, Wilcox Formation (Tertiary (Paleocene) to Tertiary (Pliocene)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Clayton and Porters Creek Formations; Claiborne and Wilcox Formations.

Peridotite intrusion (Permian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Peridotite intrusion; in northeastern corner of Elliot County

Allegheny Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Cyclic sequences of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and coal. Includes the Freeport, Kittanning and Clarion coals, also, the Princess coals of Kentucky . Extends from the top of the Upper Freeport coal to the top of the Homewood Sandstone.

Dillsboro Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Skeletal limestone and calcareous shale

Muscatatuck Group (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Limestone and dolomite

Conemaugh Group (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Cyclic sequences of red and gray shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with thin limestones and coals. Mostly non-marine. May be divided into Casselman and Glenshaw Formations. Extends from the base of the Pittsburgh coal to the top of the Upper Freeport coal. Includes the Elk Lick, Bakerstown, and Mahoning coals, and the Ames and Brush Creek Limestones.

Borden Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly siltstone; lenses of crinodial limestone in upper part. Much cherty and silty limestone and dolomite in northwest. NP, top of New Providence Shale

Lee Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lee Formation (Campbell, 1893). Quartzarenite, conglomerate, sandstone, shale, siltstone, and coal. Quartzarenite, white, very-light- to light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, quartz-pebble conglomer te lenses, cross-bed ded, channel-fill deposits. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, light-gray, fine- to medium-grained. Shale and siltstone, medium-dark-gray to dark-gray, interbedded; coal in several beds and zones. The quartzarenites terminate eastward by intertonguing and grading into finer grained and less quartzose rocks (Englund and DeLaney, 1966). Miller and Roen (1973) believe the lower three quartzarenites are Mississippian and intertongue with the Pennington Group. These die out northeastward from southwestern Lee County (Mill er, 1969). The quartzarenites in the upper part of the Lee tongue out or grade into fi ner clastic rocks of the Norton and Pocahontas Formations successively from highest to lowest southeastward (Englund, 1979; Miller, 1974). These quartzarenites consist of five tongues in northern Buchanan County (Lovett and others, 1992); but to the east only the lowest tongue exists (Whitlock, 1989; Nolde, 1989), and that grades eastward into sandstone in the New River Formation in eastern Buchanan, northeastern Russell, and western Tazewell counties. Formerly rocks east of the quartzarenites were considered Lee (Harnsberger, 1919; Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1963), but now are designated New River Formation (Englund, 1981) and correlative to the lower part of the Norton Formation. The Lee Formation thickens and truncates progressively older rocks northwestward (Miller, 1974). The intertonguing and unconformable relationship accounts for the great range in thickness for the Lee Formation. It ranges in thickness from 0 in southern Buchanan County (Meissner and Miller, 1981), to 1680 feet in Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973).

Allegheny and Pottsville Groups, Undivided (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale, siltstone, and underclay: Shale, black, gray, and olive; clayey to silty; locally contains marine fossils; calcareous in part. Siltstone, gray, greenish and olive; clayey to sandy; thin bedded to medium bedded; locally contain marine fossils. Underclay, gray and olive; generally 3 feet or less in thickness; clayey to silty; commonly rooted and underlying coal beds; nonbedded; locally varies from flint to plastic clay. Sandstone, light to medium gray weathers to shades of yellow-brown; mostly very fine to medium grained, locally quartzose and conglomeratic in lower one-third of unit; thin to massive to cross bedded; locally calcareous; Limestone, flint and coal. Limestone, black to light gray; micritic to medium grained; locally grades into flint; thin to medium bedded to discoidal concretions containing marine fossils; locally nonmarine, micritic limestones occur beneath coal beds in upper one third of unit. Coal, mostly banded bituminous, locally cannel; thin to locally as much as 12 feet thick; generally in discrete beds but locally contain shale partings and split into multiple beds. Lateral and vertical lithic variability and gradation common. Unit as much as 700 feet thick.

Pennington Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pennington Group (Campbell, 1893). Bluestone Formation, Princeton Sandstone, and Hinton Formation. Raised to Group rank by Harris and Miller (1958). The group consists of shale, sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate, siltstone, minor limestone, and coal locally. The shale, siltstone, and mud stone are gray to black and shades of red, and mottled red and gray. The sandstone is locally quartzose and conglomeratic, and ranges from shades of gray to brown, and only locally mottled within red shales; many sandstones pinch out southwestward in the Tazewell County area, but two persist farther west and southwest. The limestone is gray to brown, generally near the middle of the group, and is the most widespread marine unit. The Bluestone and Hinton For ma tions thin to the westsouthwest in southwestern Virginia; the widespread sandstone and limestone members nearly converge southwestward to with in 80 feet of each other from about 600 feet of separation in northern Tazewell County. The Princeton Sandstone wedges out in Tazewell County. The top of the Pennington Group is intertonguing to unconform ble with the overlying Lee Formation in the western part of the Southwest Virginia coalfield; basal contact is conformable. The Group thins westward; variation in thickness partly due to intertonguing and the unconformity. The Pennington Group ranges from 235 feet in thickness without the Pinacle Overlook Member of the Lee (as interpreted from Vanover and others, 1989) in the south west to 2355 feet (Trent and Spencer, 1990) in Tazewell County and 1335 feet in a partial section in Washington County (Bartlett and Webb, 1971), where it is mapped as the Pennington Formation. Bluestone Formation (Campbell, 1896). Sand stone, siltstone, shale, mudstone, minor limestone, coal, and underclay. Sand stone, argillaceous, micaceous, locally quartzose, verylight to dark-gray, light-olive- to greenish-gray, yellowish-orange to dark-yellowish-brown, moderate-red, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin- to very-thick-bedded, cross-bedded, locally ripple-bedded, interbedded with shale and siltstone; forms ledges and cliffs. Sand stone in middle of formation in Scott and Russell counties is conglomeratic with quartzite pebbles and other rock clasts (Evans and Troensegarrd, 1991; Nolde and Diffenbach, 1988). Upper part intertongued with Lee in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973). Siltstone, shale, and mudstone, partly calcareous, greenish-gray, dark gray to grayish-black, pale- to moderate-red and mottled red and greenish-gray; siderite nodules in variegated shales and silt stones; fossils in dark-gray shale (Englund, 1968). Limestone, argillaceous, medium-gray, thin, lenticular, fossiliferous, in middle of formation, and in thin discontinuous beds at the base of the formation in the sub sur face in western Tazewell and eastern Buchanan Counties (Englund, 1981). Thin coal bed in upper part of formation in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973); coal and impure coal in thin discontinuous beds in middle of formation in northern Tazewell County; underlain by underclay, locally as much as three feet thick, with root casts (Englund, 1968). Top un con form able with the overlying Lee Formation in northwestern Wise and Dickenson counties and extreme northwestern Buchanan County but is intertonguing to the southeast (Mill er, 1974) and southwest in northern Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973). Base conformable with the underlying Princeton Sandstone in northern Tazewell County, but is disconformable to the southwest because the Princeton wedges out southwestward in Tazewell County and the Bluestone lies on the Hinton Formation (Englund and Thomas, 1990). Bluestone thins northwestward and ranges in thickness from 40 feet in southwestern Lee County (Englund, Landis, and Smith, 1963) to as much as 850 feet to the northeast in Tazewell County (Englund and Thomas, 1990). Princeton Sandstone (Campbell and Mendenhall, 1896). Sandstone, light-gray to light-greenish-gray, weathered locally to pale-reddish-brown, fine- to coarse-grained, thin- to very thick- bedded, locally cross-bedded, calcite cemented, becomes friable upon weathering, contains conglomerate lenses as much as two feet thick with well-rounded to angular pebbles of quartz, shale, silt stone, limestone, chert, and ironstone; fossils in limestone clasts (Englund, 1968, 1979; Trent and Spencer, 1990). Wedges out southwestward in west-central Tazewell County (Englund, 1979). The Princeton as mapped in Lee County and southwestern Scott County (Harris and Miller, 1958; Miller and Roen, 1973) is a different sandstone. The Princeton ranges from 0 to 60 feet in thickness. Hinton Formation (Campbell and Mendenhall, 1896). Shale, siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, limestone, minor coal, underclay. Shale, siltstone, and mudstone, partly calcareous, grayish-red, medium-gray, and greenish-gray, fossiliferous. Sandstone, quartzose, feldspathic, very-light- to medium-light gray, greenish-gray, yellowish-brown, pale- to moderate-red, locally mottled, very-fine- to medium-grained, thin- to very thick- bedded, contains quartz-pebble con lomerate, tree trunk impressions, and coal fragments; cobbles in lowest member locally; interbedded with dark-gray to grayish-black shale. A widespread conglomeratic sandstone in the upper part of the formation has been misidentified as the stratigraphically higher Princeton Sandstone (Englund, 1979). Limestone, argillaceous, light-grayish-brown, medium-gray, thin-bedded, nodular, very fossiliferous, contains marine fossils of Chesterian age and is most widespread marine unit (Little Stone Gap Member) in the Hinton (Englund, 1979). Base conformable. The formation ranges from 164 feet in thickness in southwestern Lee County to 1320 feet in northern Tazewell County (Englund, 1968, 1979).

Caseyville Formation (Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Caseyville Formation

Ullin and Salem Limestones (Mississippian (Visean)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Ullin and Salem Limestones in southern Illinois.

Ohio Shale (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale; brownish black to greenish gray, weathers brown; carbonaceous to clayey, laminated to thin bedded, fissile parting; carbonate and/or siderite concretions in lowermost 50 feet; petroliferous odor; 250 to 500+ feet thick. Includes Olentangy Shale south of central Delaware Co.

Blue River Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly micritic, skeletal, and oolitic limestone

Lee Formation (Pennsylvanian - Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Lee Formation (Campbell, 1893). Quartzarenite, conglomerate, sandstone, shale, siltstone, and coal. Quartzarenite, white, very-light- to light-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, locally conglomeratic, quartz-pebble conglomer te lenses, cross-bed ded, channel-fill deposits. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, light-gray, fi ne- to medium-grained. Shale and siltstone, medium-dark-gray to dark-gray, interbedded; coal in several beds and zones. The quartzarenites terminate eastward by intertonguing and grading into fi ner grained and less quartzose rocks (Englund and DeLaney, 1966). Miller and Roen (1973) believe the lower three quartzarenites are Mississippian and intertongue with the Pennington Group. These die out northeastward from southwestern Lee County (Mill er, 1969). The quartzarenites in the upper part of the Lee tongue out or grade into fi ner clastic rocks of the Norton and Pocahontas Formations successively from highest to lowest southeastward (Englund, 1979; Miller, 1974). These quartzarenites consist of five tongues in northern Buchanan County (Lovett and others, 1992); but to the east only the lowest tongue exists (Whitlock, 1989; Nolde, 1989), and that grades eastward into sandstone in the New River Formation in eastern Buchanan, northeastern Russell, and western Tazewell counties. Formerly rocks east of the quartzarenites were considered Lee (Harnsberger, 1919; Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1963), but now are designated New River Formation (Englund, 1981) and correlative to the lower part of the Norton Formation. The Lee Formation thickens and truncates progressively older rocks northwestward (Miller, 1974). The intertonguing and unconformable relationship accounts for the great range in thickness for the Lee Formation. It ranges in thickness from 0 in southern Buchanan County (Meissner and Miller, 1981), to 1680 feet in Lee County (Miller and Roen, 1973).

West Baden Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale, sandstone, and micritic and skeletal limestone

New River Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

(part of Pottsville Group) - predominantly sandstone, with some shale, siltstone, and coal. Grades to nearly all sandstone in the subsurface. Extends from the top of the Upper Nuttall Sandstone to the top of the Flattop Mountain Sandstone. Includes the Iaeger, Sewell, Welch, Raleigh, Beckley, Fire Creek, and Pocahontas Nos. 8 and 9 coals.

St. Louis Limestone and Warsaw Limestone (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

St. Louis Limestone - Fine-grained, brownish-gray limestone, dolomitic and cherty. Thickness 100 to 280 feet; and Warsaw Limestone - Coarse-grained, gray, crossbedded limestone; somewhat shaly in the northeast. Thickness 40 to 150 feet.

Stephensport Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sandstone, micritic and skeletal limestone, and shale

Louisville Limestone through Brassfield Limestone (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Sexton Creek Limestone at base in Kentland area and on cross-section

Whitewater Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Skeletal limestone and calcareous shale; dolomitic mudstone (S, Saluda Member) at base

Kope Formation (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale (75%) and limestone (25%) interbedded; gray to bluish gray weathers light gray to yellowish gray; planar, thin to thick bedded; 200 to 260 feet thick.

Fort Payne Formation and Chattanooga Shale (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Fort Payne Formation - Bedded chert; calcareous and dolomitic silicastone; minor limestone and shale; scattered lenses of crinoidal limestone. Thin green shale (Maury) at base. Average thickness about 250 feet (475 in Wells Creek area); and Chattanooga Shale - Black carbonaceous shale, fissile. Thickness 0 to 70 feet; average about 20 feet. (Mapped as MDc on East-Central and East sheets)

Peebles Dolomite, Lilley and Bisher Formations, Undivided (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Peebles Dolomite, bluish gray weathers light gray; planar to irregular, thick to massive bedded; 0 to 120 feet thick; vuggy to cavernous porosity; cliffs former. Lilley Formation, dolomite with minor limestone, chert, and shale; bluish gray to gray weathers reddish gray to gray; planar to irregular, thin to thick bedded; 20 to 80 feet thick; fossiliferous. Bisher Formation, dolomite with minor shale; bluish gray to gray weathers yellowish-orange; argillaceous and silty in part; planar to lenticular, thin to thick bedded; 20 to 90 feet thick; Interval ranges from 80 to 160 feet in thickness. Peebles Dolomite overlies Lilley Formation and underlies Greenfield Dolomite, Hillsboro Sandstone, or Ohio Shale in southern OH. Age is Silurian (Wenlockian and Ludlovian) (Rexroad and Kleffner, 1984). Wenlockian age of the Lilley Formation is based on 10 species of conodont fauna. The Lilley Formation, Lilley-Peebles transition unit, and the Peebles Dolomite compose the upper Niagaran sequence along the east flank of the Cincinnati arch in southern OH. The Lilley consists of two main lithologies: 1) gray to blue gray, fine-grained argillaceous, variably fossiliferous uneven- to thin-bedded dolomite with dolomitic shale partings and 2) light-gray, medium to coarse-grained fossiliferous dolomite. Thickness averages 15 m in Adams and southeastern Highland Cos. and thickens to 24 m in western and northwestern Highland Co. Eustatic sea-level fall in early to middle Wenlockian is proposed as the cause for shoaling during deposition. Underlies Peebles Dolomite and overlies Bisher Formation (Kleffner, M.A., 1990).

Ste. Genevieve Limestone (Mississippian (Visean)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Ste. Genevieve Limestone.

Sanders Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly skeletal limestone, cherty in lower part

Chert and clay, undifferentiated (Lower and Middle Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Chert and clay, undifferentiated in Jackson Purchase

St. Louis Limestone and Warsaw Limestone (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

St. Louis Limestone - Residuum of nodules and blocks of chert in sandy clay. (Originally grayish-brown, medium-bedded limestone.) Maximum preserved thickness about 50 feet. Warsaw Limestone - Residuum of porous chert blocks in sandy clay. (Originally gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick- bedded limestone.) Thickness about 60 feet.

Mississippian Formations Undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Pennington Group, Bluefield Formation, Greenbrier Limestone, Maccrady Shale, and Price Formation; includes Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, and Grainger Formation in western Lee County. Refer to individual units for descriptions.

Bond Formation (Pennsylvanian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone and coal

Maxville Limestone; Rushville, Logan, and Cuyhoga Formations, Undivided (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale, siltstone, and sandstone, interbedded; various shades of gray, yellow to brown weather similar color; sandstone, silty to granular, local stringers of quartz pebbles. Shale, clayey to silty, locally fossiliferous. Medium to dark gray, thin to thick bedded limestone locally preserved at top of interval where unit crops out in southern half of state. Lithologies percentages vary in different areas where unit crops out; laterial and vertical gradation common at regional scale.

New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Black and greenish-gray shale

Shelburn-Patoka Formations undivided (Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shelburn-Patoka Formations undivided.

Fort Payne Formation and Chattanooga Shale (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Fort Payne Formation - Bedded chert and calcereous and dolomitic silicastone; minor coarse-grained limestone and shale. Thin green shale (Maury) at base. Thickness about 200 feet. Chattanooga Shale - Black carbonaceous shale, fissile. Thickness 0 to 70 feet.

Tradewater Formation (Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian to Moscovian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Tradewater Formation

Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian (Moscovian to Kasimovian)) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Carbondale Formation.

Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Poorly sorted, light-gray chert gravel in a matrix of silt and sand; locally interbedded with sand and clay lenses. Thickness 0 to 150 feet.

Chemung Formation (redefined as Foreknobs Formation) (Devonian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Chemung Formation (Hall, 1839). Redefined as the Foreknobs Formation (Dennison, 1970). Sandstone and shale, dark-gray and greenish-gray, fine-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, lithic sandstone and interbedded greenish gray, fissile, clay shale. Minor quartz-pebble conglomerate, thin red sandstone, and locally, fossil shell beds. Very thin or absent in southwestern Virginia; thickens to about 2500 feet northeastward in Frederick County. Gradational contact with underlying Brallier Formation and equivalent to part of the Chattanooga Shale to the southwest. Redefined and described as part of the Greenland Gap Group by Dennison (1970).

Buffalo Wallow Group (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of micritic limestone. L, Leopold Limestone member

Grant Lake Limestone and Fairview Formation, Undivided (Ordovician) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Limestone and shale, interbedded; gray to bluish-gray weathers light gray to yellowish-gray; planar to lenticular, thin to medium bedded in lower half; wavy to irregular to nodular, thin to thick bedded in upper half; fossiliferous.

Estill Shale (Silurian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale and minor dolomite interbedded, reddish to greenish gray, weathers light gray, planar to irregular bedding, thin to thick bedded, 30 to 180 feet thick. Diagnostic features include dominance of shale and the units susceptibility to be unstable on slopes and cause landslides.

Sunbury Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Bedford Shale, Undivided (Devonian and/or Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Shale and sandstone; upper 10 to 50 feet shale; black to brown, weathers light brown; carbonaceous; thin, planar bedding. Underlain by 10 to 50 feet sandstone; brown, weathers light brown to reddish brown; thin to thick bedded, planar to lenticular bedding; minor shale interbeds. Basal 80 to 100 feet shale and interbedded sandstone; gray to brown, weathers light gray to light brown; thin to medium bedded, planar to lenticular bedding; thick. Interval thickness ranges from 100 to 200 feet.

Pennington Formation (Mississippian) at surface, covers < 0.1 % of this area

Highly variegated clay shale distinctive; contains siltstone beds and locally gray, fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 300 to 500 feet near Cumberland Plateau; maximum of about 1,250 feet to the east.