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Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States Central States: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, - The State of Montana

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States Central States: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, - The State of Montana
This open-file report presents the results of the USGS Mineral Resources Program activity to compile a national-scale geologic map database to support national and regional level projects, including mineral resource and geo- environmental assessments. The only comprehensive sources of regional- and national-scale geologic maps are state geologic maps with scales ranging from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000. Digital versions of these state maps form the core of what is presented here. Because no adequate geologic map exists for the state of Alaska, it is being compiled in regional blocks that also form part of this national database. It is expected that this series will completed by approximately the end of 2007. These maps and databases are being released in blocks of states or, in the case of Alaska, as compiled blocks of 1:250,000-scale quadrangles as chapters in this series. For Alaska, formal maps as well as databases are being published here, whereas for the conterminous U.S. only state databases and preview graphics are presented, because published maps for most states already exist. For Alaska these regional compilations will form the base for compiling a new geologic map of the state. As documented in Chapter A, standards for the conterminous U.S. are somewhat different than those for Alaska and Hawaii.
This database consists of five major Arc/Info GIS datasets for each state; - one: geologic map with formations, - two: faults (where present), - three: dikes (where present), - four: miscellaneous line features (where present), - five: miscellaneous point features (where present).

  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Stoeser, Douglas B., Green, Gregory N., Morath, Laurie C., Heran, William D., Wilson, Anna B., Moore, David W., and Bradley S. Van Gosen, 2005, Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States Central States: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, - The State of Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1351, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Stoeser, Douglas B., Green, Gregory N., Morath, Laurie C., Heran, William D., Wilson, Anna B., Moore, David W., and Bradley S. Van Gosen, 2005, Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States Central States: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana.: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 1351, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -116.25
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -104.00
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.00
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 44.25
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2005Currentness_Reference: publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Lambert Conformal Conic.
      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 33
      Standard_Parallel: 45
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -100.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
      False_Easting: 0.00000
      False_Northing: 0.00000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.01
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.01
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Polygon attribute table for the Montana geologic coverage. (Source: ESRI)
    unmodified map unit symbol from source cover. (Source: Doug Stoeser)
    QgGlacial drift
    QglGlacial lake deposits
    QTiTerrace deposits
    TfFlaxville gravel
    TaArikaree formation
    TwrWhite River formation
    TwWasatch formation
    TfuFort Union formation
    TsTertiary sedimentary rocks, undifferentiated
    TvTertiary volcanic rocks
    TgTertiary coarse-grained intrusive rocks
    TdTertiary dikes and sills
    TwcWillow Creek formation
    TKbBoulder batholith and broadly related stocks
    TKlLivingston formation
    KsmSt. Mary River formation
    KhcHell Creek formation
    KhHorsethief sandstone
    KfhFox Hill sandstone
    KbBearpaw shale
    KjrJudith River formation
    KclClaggett formation
    KeuEagle sandstone
    KviEagle sandstone
    KtcTelegraph Creek formation
    KmMontana group, undifferentiated
    KlLennep sandstone
    KdgDiorite and gabbro
    KvCretaceous volcanic rocks
    KtmTwo Medicine formation
    KpPierre shale
    KnNiobrara formation
    KceCarlile shale
    KgGreenhorn formation
    KbfBelle Fourche shale
    KuCretaceous, undifferentiated
    KcbBasal part of Cody shale
    KcColorado shale
    KfFrontier formation
    KmoMowry shale
    KtThermopolis shale
    KiIdaho batholith and associated masses
    KibBorder zone of Idaho batholith and associated masses
    KkKootenai formation and associated rocks
    JuJurassic, undifferentiated
    TRuTriassic, undifferentiated
    JTRJurassic and Triassic rocks, undifferentiated
    PuPermian, undifferentiated
    PAuPennsylvanian, undifferentiated
    MuMississippian, undifferentiated
    DuDevonian, undifferentiated
    OuOrdovician, undifferentiated
    CAuCambrian, undifferentiated
    PZPaleozoic rocks, undifferentiated
    pCAmMissoula group
    pCAnbNorth Boulder group
    pCAbPurcell basalt
    pCAdDiabase, metagabbro, and diorite and related rocks
    pCAhHelena limestone
    pCAeEmpire shale
    pCAsSpokane shale
    pCAgGreyson shale
    pCAwWallace Formation
    pCAnNewland limestone
    pCAsiSiyeh limestone
    pCApiPiegan group
    pCAgaGrinnell argillite
    pCAapAppekunny argillite
    pCAaAltyn limestone
    pCAcChamberlain shale
    pCArRavalli group
    pCApPrichard formation
    pCAneNeihart quartzite
    pCAscStillwater complex
    pCAgsPre-Belt gneiss, schist, and related rocks
    sgmc_label = orig_label + ;n where n= province number (n=0 if no province number) (Source: Doug Stoeser)
    composite map label = ST + sgmc_label This creates a unique identifier for every unit in the CONUS (continental United States) covers. (Source: Doug Stoeser)
    reference to the source used (Source: Doug Stoeser)
    The geologic age from the source map used. (Source: Doug Stoeser)
    Holocenegeologic age
    Quaternarygeologic age
    Quaternary-Tertiarygeologic age
    Tertiarygeologic age
    Paleocene-Late Cretaceousgeologic age
    Tertiary-Late Cretaceousgeologic age
    Tertiary-Cretaceousgeologic age
    Late Archean - Tertiarygeologic age
    Tertiary - Archeangeologic age
    Late Cretaceousgeologic age
    Cretaceousgeologic age
    Cretaceous(?)geologic age
    Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceousgeologic age
    Early Cretaceousgeologic age
    Early Cretaceous; Jurassicgeologic age
    Jurassicgeologic age
    Jurassic-Triassicgeologic age
    Triassicgeologic age
    Paleozoicgeologic age
    Permiangeologic age
    Pennsylvaniangeologic age
    Mississippiangeologic age
    Ordoviciangeologic age
    Devoniangeologic age
    Cambriangeologic age
    Proterozoicgeologic age
    Middle-Proterozoicgeologic age
    Proterozoic; Late Cretaceous; Tertiarygeologic age
    The predominant lithology found in the formation. (Source: unit classification)
    alluvial terrace 
    fine-grained mixed clastic 
    medium-grained mixed clastic 
    coarse-grained mixed clastic 
    glacial drift 
    metamorphic rock 
    volcanic rock 
    The second most predominant lithology in the formation. (Source: unit classification)
    glacial drift 
    fine-grained mixed clastic 
    mixed fine-grained clastic 
    coarse-grained mixed clastic 
    metasedimentary rock 
    mixed clastic/volcanic 
    plutonic rock 
    Arc attribute table for Montana geologic coverage. (Source: ESRI)
    Unique identifier for the line feature (Source: AAT data dictionary, Appendix H)
    1contact, location certain
    2contact, location approximate
    3contact, location inferred, queried
    4normal fault, location certain
    6normal fault, location inferred, queried
    50dike or sills, unspecified
    52normal fault, concealed
    101thrust fault, direction of motion undefined, location certain
    103thrust fault, direction of motion undefined, location inferred
    121dike or sill , mafic
    124state boundary
    125international boundary
    Used for "decorated" lines where additional information is needed. (Source: AAT data dictionary)
    0no additional information
    1for normal faults, upthrown side is to the right
    "Scratch" field used mostly in Alaska. (Source: AAT data dictionary)
    0no additional information
    A coded reference citation indicating source material used. (Source: AAT data dictionary)
    Coding for polygon attributes:

    NAME: FEATURE: orig_label unmodified map unit symbols from source cover sgmc_label orig_label modified for standard geologic age symbols and an integer code added for province unit_link sgmc_label and a state code identifier source reference to source of data unit_age geologic age rocktype1 predominant lithology rocktype2 second most predominant lithology

    Coding for arc attributes:

    NAME: FEATURE: arc-code unique integer identifier arc-para1 used where additional information is needed arc-para2 scratch field source reference to source of data

    Coding for point attributes:

    NAME: FEATURE: point_feature name of feature on map source reference to source of data

    Coding for dikes (special arcs) attributes:

    NAME: FEATURE: orig_label unmodified map unit symbols from source cover sgmc_label orig_label modified for standard geologic age symbols and an integer code added for province arc-code unique integer identifier dike_lith general lithology dike_age geologic age source reference to source of data

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: ESRI

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) activity of the National Surveys and Analysis projects of the US Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Gregory N. Green
    U.S. Geological Survey
    MS 973, USGS, Denver Federal Center
    Denver, CO

    303-236-5390 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

A primary goal of this work is to develop geologic map datasets with standardized structure and attribution. The database design and standards are documented in Chapter A of this series. The intent is that contiguous databases can be merged seamlessly and without any additional effort. In addition to a common database structure, the conterminous U.S. state databases (the contiguous 48 states) have been fitted to a set of standard state boundaries so that, when states are merged, they match without slivers or overlap. No attempt has been made to reconcile differences in mapping across state boundaries.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Ross and others (1955) (source 1 of 4)
    Ross, C.P, Andres, D.A., and Witkind, I.J., 1955, Geologic map of Montana.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 5000000
    Source_Contribution: Preliminary geologic map of Montana
    MT001 (source 2 of 4)
    Raines, G.L., and Johnson, B.R., 1995, Digital representation of the Montana state geologic map in ARC/INFO export format.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital map
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
    Source_Contribution: Digital geologic map of Montana
    US001 (source 3 of 4)
    Johnson, Bruce R., unpublished material, 1:100,000 Scale State Boundaries of the Conterminous United States.

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 100,000
    Source_Contribution: Provided linework for state boundaries
    Johnson Lith Class 6.1 (source 4 of 4)
    Johnson, Bruce R., unpublished material, Geologic Map Unit Classification, ver. 6.1.

    Type_of_Source_Media: online;
    Source_Contribution: Classification scheme used for lithology.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2003 (process 1 of 6)
    The purpose of this standardization is to allow all SGMC covers to be seamlessly joined without any additional effort to form regional or national level digital maps. Note that for Alaska, the state is being compiled as blocks of 1:250k quadrangles that will ultimately be used to compile a new state map. Douglas Stoeser and Ric Wilson are co-coordinators for the overall SGMC effort, with Stoeser coordinating work on the mainland states and Wilson coordinating work for Alaska and Hawaii.
    Date: 23-Dec-2003 (process 2 of 6)
    G.N. Green obtained the digital geologic map of Montana from the website:

    Re-projected the coverage into the following:

    projection: Lambert Conformal Conic units: meters datum: NAD27 standard parallel 1: 33 0 0.000 standard parallel 2: 45 0 0.000 central meridian: -100 0 0.000 reference latitude: 0 0 0.000 false easting: 0.00000 false northing: 0.00000

    All attributes were deleted except FORMATION.

    (Note: Attributes associated with the generation of the coverages were not deleted. PAT - shape, area, perimeter, coverage#, and coverage-id AAT - shape, fnode#, tnode#, lnode#, rnode#, length, coverage#, and coverage-id)

    The values from FORMATION where then calculated into a new field called orig_label.
    Date: 18-Mar-2004 (process 3 of 6)
    The following attributes were exported from Filemaker as a comma delimited file

    map_symbol1 map_symbol2 unit_link reference_id unit_age rocktype1 rocktype2

    The attributes were then loaded into INFO with the following structures:

    item name: orig_label width: 12 output: 12 type: c

    item name: sgmc_label width: 16 output: 16 type: c

    item name: unit_link width: 18 output: 18 type: c

    item name: source width: 6 output: 8 type: c

    item name: unit_age width: 60 output: 60 type: c

    item name: rocktype1 width: 40 output: 40 type: c

    item name: rocktype2 width: 40 output: 40 type: c
    Date: 06-Jan-2004 (process 4 of 6)
    Once the .csv was loaded, it was joined in Arc/Info with the joinitem command. orig_label as the related item.
    Date: 23-Dec-2003 (process 5 of 6)
    Once the .pat file was correct, the .aat file was addressed. The following items were added to the table:

    item name: arc-code width: 3 output: 3 type: i

    item name: arc-para1 width: 3 output: 3 type: i

    item name: arc-para2 width: 3 output: 3 type: i

    item name: source width: 6 output: 8 type: c

    Date: 23-Dec-2003 (process 6 of 6)
    Arc-code was populated using the digital map source to tag the lines using the AAT line type data dictionary. Arc-para1 was populated when additional information was available such as upthrown side of a fault or angle of thrusting on a fault. Arc-para2 is a scratch field that is used mostly in Alaska. Source was populated with code that designates the source used for the linework; typically the paper map.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The values of the attributes ROCKTYPE1 and ROCKTYPE2 were assigned based on the information in the legends of the source maps (most of which are paper). The definitions of these values are described in the draft document Geologic Map Classification version 6.1 (Johnson and others); available at the following website: )
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The geologic map was digitized from compilations ranging in scale from 1:1,000,000 to 1:100,000 and is an accurate representation of the source maps. It is intended to be used at scales ranging from 1:1,000,000 to 1:500,000. Display at significantly larger scales may produce small errors in locations of contacts or faults relative to features contained in other data sets. Accuracy of Montana state boundary and those arcs intersecting it: The accuracy of the state boundary arcs is based on the 1:100000 scale original data used to produce this boundary. (Johnson, Bruce R. and Leveritch, Beth, 1998, 1:100,000 Scale State Boundaries of the Conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey, unpublished (see metadata file: st100kmeta.txt, Chapter A)) Those internal arcs intersecting the state boundary were extended or shortened as needed to complete polygons, possibly creating a small amount of error.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Bodies of water are classified as water, and the geologic units underlying them are not included in this coverage.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All internal polygons were checked for closure with vendor software and on hard copy plots. Overshoots and undershoots have been deleted or corrected as appropriate.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale other than 1:500,000.

Any hardcopies utilizing these data sets shall clearly indicate their source. If the licensee has modified the data in any way they are obligated to describe the types of modifications they have performed on the hardcopy map. Licensee specifically agrees not to misrepresent these data sets, nor to imply that changes they made were approved by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey Information Services
    U.S. Geological Survey
    507 National Center
    Reston, Virginia

    1-888-ASK-USGS or 1-703-648-5953 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS OFR 2005-1351
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) editorial standard nor with the North American stratigraphic codes. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the USGS. Although these data have been used by the USGS and have been successfully imported into data base programs, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to how successfully or accurately the data can be imported into any specific application software running on any specific hardware platform. The fact of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in connection therewith. This data base GIS is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale other than 1:500,000.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 18-Oct-2004
Last Reviewed: 19-Oct-2004
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Gregory N. Green
MS 973, USGS, Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO

1-303-236-5390 (voice)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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