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Geologic units containing evaporite

Earth material > Sedimentary rock > Chemical sedimentary rock
Evaporite
A nonclastic sedimentary rock composed primarily of minerals produced from a saline solution as a result of extensive or total evaporation of the solvent.
This category is also used for gypsum.
Subtopics:
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Arizona - California - Colorado - Iowa - Idaho - Illinois - Kansas - Michigan - Mississippi - Montana - Nebraska - New Jersey - New Mexico - Nevada - New York - Ohio - Oklahoma - Oregon - South Dakota - Texas - Utah - Virginia - Wyoming
Arizona
Cretaceous to Late Jurassic sedimentary rocks with minor volcanic rocks (Late Jurassic to Cretaceous)
Sandstone and conglomerate, rarely forms prominent outcrops; massive conglomerate is typical near base of unit and locally in upper part. These deposits are nonmarine except in southeastern Arizona, where prominent gray marine limestone (Mural Limestone) forms the middle of the Bisbee Group. Sandstones are typically medium-bedded, drab brown, lithic-feldspathic arenites. Includes Bisbee Group (largely Early Cretaceous) and related rocks, Temporal, Bathtub, and Sand Wells formations, rocks of Gu Achi, McCoy Mountains Formation, and Upper Cretaceous Fort Crittenden Formation and equivalent rocks. (80-160 Ma)
Permian to Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks (Pennsylvanian to Permian)
Interbedded sandstone, shale, and limestone usually characterized by ledgy outcrops. Orange to reddish sandstone forms cliffs near Sedona. This unit includes Supai Group and Hermit Shale in northern Arizona and Naco Group in southern Arizona. It was deposited in coastal-plain to shallow-marine settings during time of variable and changing sea level. Rocks of this map unit in southern Arizona may be in part equivalent to Permian rocks of map unit P in central and northern Arizona. (280-310 Ma)
California
Miocene marine rocks (Oligocene to Pliocene)
Sandstone, shale, siltstone, conglomerate and breccia; in part Pliocene and Oligocene.
Oligocene nonmarine rocks, unit 2 (Central and Southern California) (middle Eocene to early Miocene)
Sandstone, shale, and conglomerate; in part Miocene and Eocene.
Plio-Pleistocene and Pliocene loosely consolidated deposits (Miocene to Pleistocene)
Pliocene and/or Pleistocene sandstone, shale, and gravel deposits; in part Miocene.
Colorado
Chinle and Chugwater Fms (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic)
Chugwater Fm (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic)
Red sandstone, siltstone, shale, and local limestone and gypsum
Eagle Valley Fm (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
Siltstone, shale, and local gypsum
Eagle Valley Fm - evaporitic facies (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
Gypsum, siltstone, and shale; salt present in deep borings. Intertongues with Minturn and Lower Maroon Fms. Diapiric structure in many places
Evaporitic facies of Minturn And Belden Fms in South Park and southward (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
Gypsum, siltstone, and shale
Hermosa Fm (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
Arkosic sandstone, conglomerate, shale, and limestone; gypsum and salt in Paradox Member present in salt anticlines near Utah border
Moenkopi Fm (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic)
Red siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, and local gypsum
Morrison and Ralston Creek Fms (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic)
Ralston Creek Fm: Claystone, sandstone, limestone, and gypsum
Morrison Fm and Wanakah Fm (Junction Creek Sandstone Member at or near top; Pony Express Limestone Member at base) (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic)
Wanakah Fm: Sandstone, shale, limestone, and local gypsum
Iowa
Ft. Dodge Beds (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic)
Gypsum and red and green shale; in Webster CO only
Wapsipinicon Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Devonian-Middle)
In descending order, finely crystalline limestone; brown dolomite with gypsum; gray, sandy shale and argillcceous limestone; and massive, finely crystalline, dolomitic limestone and pale-orange dolomite.
Idaho
Metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks; Jurassic greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks; western Idaho, Blue Mountains island-arc complex (Jurassic)
Jurassic mixed marine detrital and volcanic rocks of western Idaho.
Siltstone, evaporites, and redbeds; Late Jurassic Cordilleran retroarc-foreland-basin deposits; southeastern Idaho (Late Jurassic)
Upper Jurassic shallow-marine to non-marine sediments; glauconitic and variegated sandstone, siltstone and oolitic limestone of eastern Idaho.
Illinois
Ancell Group (Ordovician)
Ancell Group
Middle Devonian (Devonian)
Middle Devonian
Kansas
Nippewalla Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Custerian Cimarronian])
Dog Creek FM- maroon silty shale, siltstone, fine-grained feldspathic sandstone. Blaine FM- (base B) gypsum beds separated by dolomite and red shale. Flower Pot Shale -(base FL) red gypsiferous shale silty shale and minor sandstone and siltstone. Cedar Hills Sandstone- feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and silty shale. Salt Plain FM- red flaky, silty shale and some siltstone with thick salt beds at base. Harper Sandstone with Kingman Sandstone member (base K)- red argillaceous siltstone and fine silty sandstone with a few beds of res shale and white sandstone. Stone Coral FM- dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum and salt.
Sumner Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Cimarronian])
Ninnescah Shale (base N)- mostly red silty shale with some gray shale , argillaceous limestone and dolomite. Wellington FM with Carlton Limestone Member (base CR)-mostly gray and some red shale with minor limestone and dolomite, siltstone, gypsum and anhydrite
Michigan
Bayport Limestone (Mississippian)
Bayport Limestone
Michigan Formation (Mississippian)
Michigan Formation
Salina Group (Late Silurian)
Salina Group
Mississippi
Forest Hill formation and Red Bluff clay (Oligocene)
Forest Hill formation and Red Bluff clay - Forest Hill sand, cross-bedded fine gray sand, laminated fine sand and clay, and a little lignite; in Wayne and Clarke Counties lower part merges eastward into Red Bluff clay, blue-green glauconitic, gypsiferous, fossiliferous clay and thin limestone beds.
Montana
Devonian, undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Devonian)
Devonian, undifferentiated: comprises Three Forks formation consisting of carbonaceous and calcareous shale with some sandstone and limestone, Jefferson limestone, and unnamed units of Devonian age.
Jurassic and Triassic rocks, undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic Jurassic)
Jurassic and Triassic rocks, undifferentiated: in east-central Madison County where scale did not permit differentiation on map.
Jurassic, undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic)
Jurassic, undifferentiated: calcareous shale and sandstone; includes the Morrison formation, the Ellis group, Sundance formation, and other rocks of Jurassic age.
Nebraska
Pierre Shale (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Mostly medium to dark-gray, brownish-gray, and black, fissle clay shale. Locally grades to thin beds of calcareous, silty shale or claystone, marl, shaly sandstone, and sandy shale. Locally contains thin seams of gypsum and sparse selenite crystals. Approx. max thickness 1970 ft.
New Jersey
Boonton Formation (Lower Jurassic)
Boonton Formation (Olsen, 1980) - Reddish-brown to brownish-purple, fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone; sandstone commonly micaceous, interbedded with siltstone and mudstone in fining-upward sequences mostly 1.5 to 4 m (5-13 ft) thick. Red, gray and brownish-purple siltstone and black, blocky, partly dolomitic siltstone and shale common in lower part. Irregular mudcracks, symmetrical ripple marks, and burrows, as well as gypsum, glauberite, and halite pseudomorphs are abundant in red mudstone and siltstone. Gray, fine-grained sandstone may have carbonized plant remains and reptile footprints in middle and upper parts of unit. Near Morristown, beds of quartz-pebble conglomerate (unit Jbcq) as much as 0.5 m (1.6 ft) thick interfinger with beds of sandstone, siltstone, and shale. Northeast of Boonton, beds of quartz-pebble conglomerate (not mapped separately as Jbcq) occur locally with conglomerate containing abundant clasts of gneiss and granite in matrix of reddish-brown sandstone and siltstone. Maximum thickness is about 500 m (1,640 ft).
New Mexico
Artesia Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Artesia Group; shelf facies forming broad south-southeast trending outcrop from Glorieta to Artesia area; includes Grayburg, Queen, Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill Formations; Guadalupian. May locally include Moenkopi Formation (Triassic) at top
Castile Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Castile Formation; dominantly anhydrite sequence; Upper Permian
Chinle Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic)
Chinle Group; Upper Triassic; includes Moenkopi Formation (Middle Triassic) at base in many areas; in eastern part of state the following five formations are mapped:
Grayburg and Queen Fromations (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Grayburg and Queen Formations; sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite, and red mudstone; Guadalupian
Panther Seep Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian)
Panther Seep Formation; Organ, Franklin, and San Andres Mountains
Quartermaster Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Quartermaster Formation; red sandstone and siltstone; Upper Permian
Quatermaster and Rustler Formations (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Quartermaster and Rustler Formations; Upper Permian
Rustler Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Rustler Formation; siltstone, gypsum, sandstone, and dolomite; Upper Permian
Salado Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Salado Formation; evaporite sequence; Upper Permian
San Andres Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
San Andres Formation; limestone and dolomite with minor shale; Guadalupian in south, in part Leonardian to north
San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone; Guadalupian and Leonardian
San Rafael Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic)
San Rafael Group; consists of Entrada Sandstone, Todilto and Summerville Formations, Bluff Sandstone, and locally Zuni Sandstone (or only Acoma Tongue of Zuni)
Seven Rivers Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Seven Rivers Formation; gypsum, anhydrite, salt, dolomite, and siltstone; Guadalupian
Yates and Tansill Formations (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Yates and Tansill Formations; sandstone, siltstone, limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite; Guadalupian
Yesa Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Yeso Formation; sandstones, siltstones, anhydrite, gypsum, halite, and dolomite; Leonardian
Yeso, Glorieta, and San Andres Formations, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Yeso, Glorieta and San Andres Formations, undivided
Nevada
Cherty limestone and sparse dolomite, shale, and sandstone (Permian)
CHERTY LIMESTONE AND SPARSE DOLOMITE, SHALE, AND SANDSTONE (Lower and Upper Permian)-Includes units such as Park City Group and equivalent rocks in northern Nevada and Toroweap Formation and Kaibab Limestone in southern Nevada
Horse Spring Formation (Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene)
HORSE SPRING FORMATION-Tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, southern Nevada
Siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and dolomite (commonly silty or sandy) and gypsum (Early Permian)
SILTSTONE, SANDSTONE, LIMESTONE, AND DOLOMITE (COMMONLY SILTY OR SANDY), AND GYPSUM (Lower Permian)-Includes units such as Rib Hill Sandstone and Pequop Formation of Steele (1959) in Elko County, Rib Hill Sandstone and Arcturus Formation in White Pine County, Queantoweap Sandstone of NcNair (1951), Hermit Shale, and Coconino Sandstone in Clark and southern Lincoln Counties.
New York
Camillus and Syracuse Formations (Upper Silurian)
Camillus and Syracuse Formations - shale, dolostone, gypsum, salt.
Camillus, Syracuse, and Vernon Formations (Upper Silurian)
Camillus, Syracuse, and Vernon Formations - shale, dolostone, salt, and gypsum.
Syracuse Formation (Upper Silurian)
Syracuse Formation - dolostone, shale, gypsum, salt.
Ohio
Detroit River Group (Devonian)
Detroit River Group - Dolomite; brown to gray; medium to thick bedded; laminated; nodules or interbeds of anhydrite and/or gypsum; basal part becomes sandy dolomite or fine-grained sandstone; as much as 170 feet thick.
Salina Group (Silurian)
Salina Group - Dolomite, gray, yellow-gray to olive-gray, laminated to thin bedded; occasional thin bed and laminae of dark gray shale and anhydrite and/or gypsum; brecciated zones in part.
Oklahoma
Blaine Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Alternating cyclic sequence of 3 or 4 massive gypsum beds with red-brown shales, generally with a named dolomite at the base of each gypsum, and a greenish-gray shale at the base of each dolomite. The named unmapped sequence is (ascending) "Cedar Springs Dolomite, Medicine Lodge Gypsum," shale, "Magpie Dolomite, Nescatunga Gypsum," shale, "Altona Dolomite, Shimer Gypsum," shale, and"Haskew Gypsum" at top. Thickness ranges up to 90 feet, with the shales being thinner northward. CLINTON- "Blaine Formation," Pb, 3 to 4 gypsum and dolomite beds, about 100 to 200 feet thick, separated by reddish-brown shale. Gradational southward and eastward into Chickasha Formation. OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly thin gypsums with thin dolomites below each gypsum, interbedded with red-brown shale; grades southward into "Chickasha Formation". Thickness, 50 to 75 feet. (El Reno Group)
Cloud Chief Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Red-brown and greenish-gray shale and siltstone with some orange-brown fine-grained sandstone and siltstone. At base are two or more thin, pink to maroon to greenish-gray dolomite beds and (or) gypsum beds ("Moccasin Creek Bed") eroding into a mappable escarpment. About 25 feet above the base is a white to light-gray dolomite ("Day Creek Bed") not mapped. Thickness ranges up to 160 feet, with top eroded in many places. CLINTON- Reddish-brown to orange-brown shale, interbedded with siltstone and sandstone in the middle part and some dolomite and much gypsum in lower part; thickness about 400 feet, thinning northward to about 175 feet. The "Moccasin Creek Gypsum Member" is at the base. LAWTON- Represented in this area by the "Moccasin Creek Gypsum Member," which is about 30 feet (9 m) thick.
DeQueen Limestone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early )
McALESTER TEXARKANA- Limestone and marl, blue- to pinkish- to yellowish-gray, locally siliceous, interbedded with varicolored calcareous shales; basal limestone conglomerate in places where unconformable upon Ouachita rocks but absent where conformable on Holly Creek Formation; contains 80 feet of gypsum and anhydrite in subsurface; thickness, 38 feet, lensing out to 1 foot westward but thickening to 190 feet southeastward in subsurface.
Dog Creek Shale (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Red-brown shale and silty shale, with gypsum, dolomite, and orange-brown sandstone. In upper part are many thin,dense light-gray dolomite beds, the basal one of which is named "Southard Bed" (unmapped); in lower part is much satin-spar gypsum with a greenish-gray dolomite at top termed "Watonga Bed" (unmapped). Thickness ranges from 30 feet or less at Kansas border to 100 feet in southern part of area. CLINTON- "Dog Creek Shale," Pdc, reddish-brown shale with thin beds of siltstone and dolomite; thickness, about 220 feet; gradational eastward into the Chickasha Formation. OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly red-brown silty shale and some fine-grained sandstone. Contains one or two layers of thin dolomite (or gypsum) in lower part; basal part grades southward into "Chickasha Formation". Thickness averages about 200 feet. (El Reno Group) LAWTON- "Dog Creek Shale," Pdc, reddish-brown silty shale, 85 to 190 feet (26 to 58 m) thick. (El Reno Group) ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Shale, red-brown, blocky, silty, weakly indurated, gradational southward into "Chickasha Formation;" thickness, 0 to about 130 feet. (El Reno Group)
Elm Fork Member of Blaine Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
LAWTON- "Elm Fork Member," Pbe, of the Blaine Formation contains 3 dolomite-gypsum sequences with a total thickness of 80 to 110 feet (24 to 34 m).
El Reno Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
CLINTON- Primarily evaporites and reddish-brown shale, with deltaic clastics to the southeast. Where separate formations have not been distinguished, the "El Reno Group" is mapped as Per; El Reno Group. Includes: "Dog Creek Shale," Pdc, reddish-brown shale with thin beds of siltstone and dolomite; thickness, about 220 feet; gradational eastward into the Chickasha Formation. "Blaine Formation," Pb, 3 to 4 gypsum and dolomite beds, about 100 to 200 feet thick, separated by reddish-brown shale. Gradational southward and eastward into Chickasha Formation. "Flowerpot Shale," Pf, reddish-brown shale containing several salt and gypsum beds in the upper part. Thickness, about 300 to 450 feet; gradational southward and eastward into Chickasha Formation and Duncan Sandstone. "Cedar Hill Sandstone," Pch, greenish-gray sandstone and reddish-brown shales; thickness, about 180 feet; gradational southward into Duncan Sandstone. "Chickasha Formation," Pc, reddish-brown to maroon mudstone conglomerate with some shale, silstone, and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone; thickness, about 600 feet; gradational northward and westward into the Flowerpot Shale and the Blaine Formation and westward into Dog Creek Shale. "Duncan Sandstone," Pd, light-gray and reddish-brown, cross-bedded, fine-grained sandstone and mudstone conglomerate with some interbedded yellowish-gray and reddish-brown shales; thickness, about 200 feet; gradational into the Cedar Hills Sandstone northward and into the Flowerpot Shale northward and westward. LAWTON- Primarily evaporites and reddish-brown shale, with deltaic clastics to the east. In the eastern part of the quadrangle, separate formations have not been distinguished, and the "El Reno Group" is mapped as Per; in the western part of the quadrangle, the group has been mapped as four separate formations. "El Reno Group undifferentiated," Per, in northeastern part of the quadrangle, includes "Chickasha Formation" sandstone, shale, and siltstone, 400 to 580 feet (120 to 180 m) thick-and underlying "Duncan Sandstone" (equivalent to San Angelo Sandstone)-sandstone with some shale, 100 to 250 feet (30 to 76 m) thick.
Flowerpot Shale (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Red-brown silty shale with some thin gypsum and dolomite beds in upper 50 feet and fine-grained sandstones in upper part to north. The middle and upper parts contain 50 feet or more of rock salt in the immediate subsurface, giving origin to the Ferguson Salt Plain in Blaine County and the Big and Little Salt Plains in Woods and Harper Counties on the Cimarron River. Thickness ranges from 180 feet in north part to 430 feet in south part. The "Chickasha Formation" (Pc) is a deltaic tongue of red-brown to greenish-gray to orange-brown cross-bedded mudstone conglomerate, siltstone, shale, and fine-grained sandstone, about 30 feet thick, in the middle of the Flowerpot Shale, pinching out northward. CLINTON- "Flowerpot Shale," Pf, reddish-brown shale containing several salt and gypsum beds in the upper part. Thickness, about 300 to 450 feet; gradational southward and eastward into Chickasha Formation and Duncan Sandstone. OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly red-brown silty clay shale with stringers of gypsum (satin spar and selenite); grades southward into "Chickasha Formation". Thickness, 20 to 40 feet. (El Reno Group) LAWTON- "Flowerpot Shale," Pf, reddish-brown and greenish-gray shale, interbedded with greenish-gray siltstone; thickness, about 175 to 195 feet (53 to 59 m).
Marlow Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Orange-brown fine-grained sandstone and siltstone, with some interbedded red-brown shale and silty shale in upper part and some thin gypsum beds at base, about 35 feet above base, and at top. The upper two gypsum and (or) dolomite beds are generally pink to maroon and less than 1 foot thick; they may erode into mappable escarpments about 20 feet apart, being named "Emanuel Bed" at top (mapped) and "Relay Creek Bed" 15 to 20 feet below the top (not mapped). In places the basal Marlow is a greenish-gray medium-grained sandstone. In Woods and Woodward Counties, the "Doe Creek Lentil" (Pmd) is a coarse-grained calcareous sandstone with algal clumps and invertebrate fossils, ranging up to 70 feet thick from the base of the Marlow to the Relay Creek Bed, cropping out in a narrow band of high hills striking northeast. Thickness is about 120 feet, with top eroded at many places. CLINTON- "Marlow Formation," Pm, orange-brown, fine-grained sandstone and siltstone, about 100 to 130 feet thick, thinning northward. This formation has 2 gypsum and (or) dolomite beds in upper 20 feet--the "Emanuel Bed" (at top) and the "Relay Creek Bed" (20 feet below top). Two thin, pale shales occur; the first is 1 foot below the top ("Gracemont") and the second is 55 feet above the base (unnamed). OKLAHOMA CITY- Mostly orange-brown fine-grained gypsiferous sandstone, with some red-brown shale. Contains 10 feet of calcitic sandstone lenses near middle and 2 thin dolomites (or gypsums) at top. Exposed thickness, about 50 feet (top 50 to 75 feet eroded). (Whitehorse Group) LAWTON- "Marlow Formation," Pm, very fine-grained sandstone with some silty shale; thickness, about 90 to 130 feet (27 to 40 m); contains 2 thin gypsum and (or) dolomite beds in upper 20 feet (6 m)-the "Emanuel Bed" (at top) and the "Relay Creek Bed" (20 feet below top). (Whitehorse Group) ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Sandstone, orange-brown, fine- to medium-grained, moderately indurated, with "Verden Sandstone Lentil," Pmv, 10 feet thick near middle, and "Relay Creek" and "Emanuel" dolomite and gypsum beds at top; thickness, 105 to 135 feet. (Whitehorse Group)
Permian rocks undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
TEXAS- Red to dark reddish-brown shale, sandstone, and siltstone. Gypsum occurs in all rock units as a cementing agent, as tiny flakes, as thin irregular veinlets, and as discontinuous beds ranging from less than an inch to more than 30 feet thick. Maximum thickness exceeds 2,000 feet. BEAVER- Red shale, sandstone, and siltstone, are predominant rocks with lesser amounts of limestone, dolomite, gypsum, and salt. The undifferentiated Permian rocks include the Whitehorse Group, the Cloud Chief Formation, and the Quartermaster Formation; also included are local outcrops in the southwestern part of the county, which maybe Triassic in age, 3,800 feet thick
Rush Springs Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
WOODWARD- Orange-brown fine-grained sandstone, commonly crossbedded, with some interbedded red-brown shale, silty shale, and gypsum beds. In southern part of area, about 30 feet below top is a thin massive gypsum bed ("Weatherford Bed" or "One Horse Bed"), not mapped here. About 100 feet lower is another thin gypsum bed ("Old Crow Bed") not mapped here. Thickness is about 190 feet in southern part and 90 feet near Kansas border, with top eroded in many places. CLINTON- "Rush Springs Formation," Pr, orange-brown, cross-bedded, fine-grained sandstone with some dolomite and gypsum beds. Thickness, about 300 feet, thinning northward to about 186 feet. LAWTON- "Rush Springs Formation," Pr, very fine-grained, cross-bedded sandstone, 136 to 300 feet (41 to 90 m) thick. The "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, contains gypsum and dolomite and is as much as 60 feet (18 m) thick in the upper part of the Rush Springs. (Whitehorse Group) ARDMORE-SHERMAN- Sandstone, orange-brown, fine- to medium-grained, moderately indurated, with "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, 2 to 15 feet thick, near top. Thickness, about 280 feet, top eroded (Whitehorse Group)
Van Vacter Member of Blaine Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
LAWTON- "Van Vacter Member," Pbv, of the Blaine Formation contains 6 dolomite-gypsum-shale sequences with a total thickness of 80 to 105 feet (24 to 32 m).
Weatherford Gypsum Bed of Rush Springs Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
CLINTON- The "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, dolomite and gypsum beds, is about 30 to 60 feet below the top (mapped in southeastern part only). LAWTON- "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, contains gypsum and dolomite and is as much as 60 feet (18 m) thick in the upper part of the Rush Springs. (Whitehorse Group) ARDMORE-SHERMAN- "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, 2 to 15 feet thick, near top of Rush Springs Formation
Weno Clay and Soper Limestone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early )
McALESTER TEXARKANA- "Weno Clay", clay and shale, brownish-gray, with selenite gypsum; interbedded with red- to yellow-brown fine-grained sandstones; thickness, 30 to 53 feet. "Soper Limestone" at base, limestone, gray-brown to red-brown, compact, fossiliferous, with "Rastellum carinatum;" thickness, 1 to 2 feet.
Whitehorse Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian )
CLINTON- Predominantly orange-brown, fine-grained sandstone, the "Whitehorse Group" is mapped as Pwh where separate formations have not been distinguished and as the "Rush Springs Formation" and the "Marlow Formation" where identified. "Rush Springs Formation," Pr, orange-brown, cross-bedded, fine-grained sandstone with some dolomite and gypsum beds. Thickness, about 300 feet, thinning northward to about 186 feet. The "Weatherford Gypsum Bed," Prw, is about 30 to 60 feet below the top (mapped in southeastern part only). "Marlow Formation," Pm, orange-brown, fine-grained sandstone and siltstone, about 100 to 130 feet thick, thinning northward. This formation has 2 gypsum and (or) dolomite beds in upper 20 feet--the "Emanuel Bed" (at top) and the "Relay Creek Bed" (20 feet below top). Two thin, pale shales occur; the first is 1 foot below the top ("Gracemont") and the second is 55 feet above the base (unnamed). The "Verden Sandstone Lentil," Pmv, is a coarse-grained, calcareous, fossiliferous sandstone (2 to 10 feet thick) that occurs in the middle of the Marlow, about 25 feet below the Relay Creek Bed and 85 to 95 feet above the base. LAWTON- Predominantly orange-brown, fine-grained sandstone, the "Whitehorse Group" is mapped as Pwh where separate formations have not been distinguished and as the "Rush Springs Formation" and the "Marlow Formation" where identified. "Whitehorse Group undifferentiated," Pwh, fine-grained sandstone and siltstone as much as 100 feet (30 m) thick in western part of quadrangle, interbedded with gypsum beds 3 to 10 feet (1 to 3 m) thick.
Oregon
Playa deposits (Holocene) (Holocene)
Clay, silt, sand, and some evaporites
South Dakota
Morrison Formation, Unkpapa Sandstone, Sundance Formation, and Gypsum Spring Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Middle Jurassic-Late)
Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic)- Light-gray to green and variegatedred, brown, yellow, or lavender, silceous claystone, shale, and siltstone containing interbedded sandstone and fresh-water limestone lenses. Thickness up to 150 ft (46 m). Unkpapa Sandstone (Late Jurassic)- White, massive to thin-bedded, fine-grained, argillaceous sandstone. May be variegated to banded red, yellow, brown, or lavender. Thickness up to 267 ft (81 m). Sundance Formation (Late to Middle Jurassic)- Greenish-gray, yellow, tan, red to orange, and white, variegated, interbedded, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, clay, and limestone. Thickness 250-350 ft (76-107 m). Gypsum Springs Formation (Middle Jusassic)- Massive white gypsum and minor maroon siltstone and shale. Thickness up to 40 ft (12 m).
Spearfish Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic Mesozoic | Permian Triassic)
Red sandy shale, siltstone, sandstone, and minor limestone. Interbedded with abundant gypsum. Thickness 328-559 ft (100-170 m).
Texas
alkali flat deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
alkali flat deposits
Blaine Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Blaine Formation
bolson deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
bolson deposits
Briggs Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Leonard])
Briggs Formation
caliche deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
caliche deposits
Clear Fork Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Leonard])
Clear Fork Group
Cloud Chief Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Cloud Chief Formation
Dewey Lake Red beds (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Ochoa])
Dewey Lake Red beds
Gatuna Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Middle(?))
Gatuna Formation
gypsite deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
gypsite deposits
gypsum of Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Ochoa])
gypsum of Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations, undivided
Malone Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Late)
Malone Formation
Permian rocks, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian)
Permian rocks, undivided
Quartermaster Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Quartermaster Formation
Quartermaster Formation and Whitehorse Group, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Quartermaster Formation and Whitehorse Group, undivided
Salado and Castile Formations, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Ochoa])
Salado and Castile Formations, undivided
San Angelo Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
San Angelo Formation
Whitehorse Group and Blaine Formation, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Whitehorse Group and Blaine Formation, undivided
Whitehorse Group, undivided (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Permian [Guadalupe])
Whitehorse Group, undivided
Utah
Jurassic (1) sedimentary rocks in central Utah (Middle Jurassic)
Jurassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Salt Lake City-Coalville-Randolph region (Middle to Late Jurassic)
Jurassic (1) sedimentary rocks in southeastern Utah (Middle Jurassic)
Jurassic (1) sedimentary rocks in southeastern Utah (Middle to Late Jurassic)
Jurassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Uinta Mountains-Uinta Basin region (Middle to Late Jurassic)
Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks in southeastern Utah (Mississipian to Pennsylvanian)
Permian (1) sedimentary rocks in western Utah (Early Permian)
Permian (2) sedimentary rocks in southwestern Utah (Early Permian)
Tertiary (4) sedimentary rocks in western Utah (Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene)
Triassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Salt Lake City-Coalville-Randolph region (Early Triassic)
Triassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Salt southeastern Utah (Early Triassic)
Triassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Salt southwestern Utah (Early Triassic)
Triassic (1) sedimentary rocks in Salt Uinta Mountains-Uinta Basin region (Early Triassic)
Triassic (2) sedimentary rocks in central Utah (Middle to Late Triassic)
Virginia
Maccrady Shale (Mississippian)
Maccrady Shale - Dusky-red and green shale and mudstone; and evaporite deposits.
Maccrady Shale and Price Formation (Mississippian)
Maccrady Shale and Price Formation - Includes: Maccrady Shale: Dusky-red and green shale and mudstone; and evaporite deposits. Price Formation: Sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and shale with carbonaceous partings and impure coal beds.
Mississippian Formations Undivided (Mississippian)
Mississippian Formations Undivided - Includes Pennington Group, Bluefield Formation, Greenbrier Limestone, Maccrady Shale and Price Formation; Includes Newman Limestone, Fort Payne Chert, and Grainger Formation in western Lee County
Wyoming
Chugwater and Dinwoody Formations (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic-Early Triassic-Middle(?) Triassic-Late)
CHUGWATER AND DINWOODY FORMATIONS. CHUGWATER FORMATION--Red siltstone and shale. Alcova Limestone Member in upper middle part. Thin gypsum partings near base. DINWOODY FORMATION--Olive-drab hard dolomitic thin-bedded siltstone.
Chugwater and Goose Egg Formations (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic Mesozoic | Permian Triassic-Early(?) Triassic-Middle(?) Triassic-Late)
CHUGWATER AND GOOSE EGG FORMATIONS (north Wyoming). CHUGWATER FORMATION--Red siltstone and shale. Alcova Limestone Member in upper middle part in north Wyoming. Thin gypsum partings near base in north and northeast Wyoming. GOOSE EGG FORMATION--Red sandstone and siltstone, white gypsum, halite, and purple to white dolomite and limestone; CHUGWATER FORMATION OR GROUP (south Wyoming)--Red shale and siltstone containing thin gypsum partings near base. Group includes Popo Agie Formation (red shale and red, yellow, and purple siltstone; lenses of lime-pellet conglomerate), Crow Mountain Sandstone (red and gray, thick bedded), Alcova Limestone, and Red Peak Formation (red siltstone and shale). Chugwater Formation includes as members all the units listed above. Includes overlying Jelm Formation in Shirley and Seminoe Mountains and at northern end of Laramie Basin. JELM FORMATION--Red sandstone. GOOSE EGG FORMATION--Red sandstone and siltstone, white gypsum, halite, and purple to white dolomite and limestone.
Cloverly, Morrison, Sundance, and Gypsum Spring Formations (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Middle Jurassic-Late(?) Cretaceous-Early)
CLOVERLY, MORRISON, AND SUNDANCE (Js), AND GYPSUM SPRING FORMATIONS. CLOVERLY FORMATION--Rusty sandstone at top, underlain by brightly variegated bentonitic claystone; chert-pebble conglomerate locally at base. MORRISON FORMATION--Dully variegated claystone, nodular limestone, and gray silty sandstone. In southern Yellowstone and Jackson Hole areas the presence of Morrison is questionable. SUNDANCE FORMATION--Greenish-gray glauconitic sandstone and shale, underlain by red and gray nonglauconitic sandstone and shale. GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION--Interbedded red shale, dolomite, and gypsum. In north Wyoming wedges out south in T. 39 N.
Goose Egg Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic Mesozoic | Permian Triassic-Early)
GOOSE EGG FORMATION--Red sandstone and siltstone, white gypsum, halite, and purple to white dolomite and limestone.
Green River Formation: Wilkins Peak Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
GREEN RIVER FORMATION Wilkins Peak Member (age about 49 Ma)--Green, brown, and gray tuffaceous sandstone, shale, and marlstone; contains evaporites in subsurface sections.
Green River Formation: Wilkins Peak Member and Tipton Shale member or Tongue (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
GREEN RIVER FORMATION Wilkins Peak Member (age about 49 Ma) (green, brown, and gray tuffaceous sandstone, shale, and marlstone; contains evaporites in subsurface sections) and Tipton Shale Member or Tongue (oil shale and marlstone).
Gypsum Spring Formation and Nugget Sandstone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic-Early Triassic-Middle(?) Triassic-Late(?) Jurassic-Early(?) Jurassic-Middle(?) Jurassic-Late)
GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION AND NUGGET SANDSTONE. GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION--Interbedded red shale, dolomite, and gypsum. In north Wyoming wedges out south in T. 39 N. NUGGET SANDSTONE--gray to dull-red, crossbedded quartz sandstone.
Gypsum Spring Formation, Nugget Sandstone, and Chugwater Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic-Early Triassic-Middle(?) Triassic-Late(?) Jurassic-Early(?) Jurassic-Middle(?) Jurassic-Late)
GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION, NUGGET SANDSTONE, AND CHUGWATER FORMATION. GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION--Interbedded red shale, dolomite, and gypsum. In north Wyoming wedges out south in T. 39 N. NUGGET SANDSTONE--gray to dull-red, crossbedded quartz sandstone. CHUGWATER FORMATION--Red siltstone and shale. Alcova Limestone Member in upper middle part in north Wyoming. Thin gypsum partings near base in north and northeast Wyoming.
Jelm and Chugwater Formations, Forelle Limestone, and Satanka Shale (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic Mesozoic | Permian Triassic-Early)
JELM AND CHUGWATER FORMATIONS, FORELLE LIMESTONE, AND SATANKA SHALE. CHUGWATER FORMATION OR GROUP--Red shale and siltstone containing thin gypsum partings near base. Group includes Popo Agie Formation (red shale and red, yellow, and purple siltstone; lenses of lime-pellet conglomerate), Crow Mountain Sandstone (red and gray, thick bedded), Alcova Limestone, and Red Peak Formation (red siltstone and shale). Chugwater Formation includes as members all the units listed above. Includes overlying Jelm Formation in Shirley and Seminoe Mountains and at northern end of Laramie Basin. JELM FORMATION--Red sandstone. FORELLE LIMESTONE--Thin-bedded limestone. Locally is a member of the Goose Egg Formation. SATANKA SHALE--Red shale.
Minnelusa Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Early Pennsylvanian-Middle(?) Pennsylvanian-Late(?) Permian)
MINNELUSA FORMATION--Buff and red limy sandstone; some thin limestone beds, solution breccias, and gypsum.
Spearfish Formation (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic Mesozoic | Permian Triassic-Early(?) Triassic-Middle(?) Triassic-Late)
SPEARFISH FORMATION--Red shale, red siltstone, and white gypsum beds; gypsum beds especially abundant near base.
Stump Formation, Preuss Sandstone or Redbeds, and Twin Creek Limestone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Middle Jurassic-Late)
STUMP FORMATION, PREUSS SANDSTONE or REDBEDS, and TWIN CREEK LIMESTONE. STUMP FORMATION--Glauconitic siltstone, sandstone, and limestone. PREUSS SANDSTONE OR REDBEDS--Purple, maroon, and reddish-gray sandy siltstone and claystone; contains salt and gypsum in thick beds in some subsurface sections. TWIN CREEK LIMESTONE--Greenish-gray shaly limestone and limy siltstone. Includes Gypsum Spring Member.
Sundance and Gypsum Spring Formations (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Middle Jurassic-Late)
SUNDANCE (Js) AND GYPSUM SPRING FORMATIONS. SUNDANCE FORMATION--Greenish-gray glauconitic sandstone and shale, underlain by red and gray nonglauconitic sandstone and shale. GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION--Interbedded red shale, dolomite, and gypsum. In north Wyoming wedges out south in T. 39 N.
Sundance and Gypsum Spring Formations and Nugget Sandstone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Triassic(?) Jurassic(?) Jurassic-Early(?) Jurassic-Middle(?) Jurassic-Late)
SUNDANCE AND GYPSUM SPRING FORMATIONS AND NUGGET SANDSTONE. SUNDANCE FORMATION--Greenish-gray glauconitic sandstone and shale, underlain by red and gray nonglauconitic sandstone and shale. GYPSUM SPRING FORMATION--Interbedded red shale, dolomite, and gypsum. In north Wyoming wedges out south in T. 39 N. NUGGET SANDSTONE--gray to dull-red, crossbedded quartz sandstone.

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