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Geologic units containing Graywacke

Graywacke
...a dark gray, firmly indurated, coarse-grained sandstone that consists of poorly sorted angular to subangular grains of quartz and feldspar, with a variety of dark rock and mineral fragments embedded in a compact clayey matrix having the general composition of slate and containing an abundance of very fine-grained illite, sericite, and chloritic minerals.
This category is also used for graywache.
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Arizona - California - Colorado - Georgia - Massachusetts - Maryland - Maine - Michigan - Minnesota - New Jersey - Nevada - New York - Oregon - Pennsylvania - Rhode Island - Tennessee - Virginia - Vermont - Washington - Wisconsin

Arizona

California

Colorado

Georgia

Massachusetts

Austin Glen Graywacke (Middle Ordovician)
Austin Glen Graywacke - Light-gray to brown weathering calcareous graywacke.
Bellingham Conglomerate (Pennsylvanian, Cambrian or Proterozoic Z)
Bellingham Conglomerate - Red and gray metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, graywacke, and shale. Bellingham Conglomerate consists of conglomerate and lithic graywacke interbedded with chlorite phyllite and is confined to Bellingham basin. Also contains some volcanic rocks (rhyolite porphyry in roadcut on MA Hwy 146 at Premisy Hill west of Woonsocket, and felsite porphyry in the Franklin area east of Bellingham). Conglomerate contains pebbles of quartzite from adjacent Blackstone Group rocks and typical blue quartz of Milford Granite, so sediments are locally derived. Exposures on east side of Woonsocket Hill, southeast of Woonsocket, RI, show cliffs of steeply dipping, thin-bedded, white to gray quartzite of Blackstone Group standing above green schistose conglomerate containing many flattened white to gray quartzite pebbles and interbedded green calcareous quartz schist. Contact is probably a fault, but source of pebbles is quite obvious. In the same area, schist of Blackstone Group is difficult to distinguish from those of the Bellingham because of low-grade metamorphism of Blackstone rocks; it is probable that some of the low-grade Blackstone Rocks mapped northwest of Woonsocket in Blackstone River valley are part of Bellingham. The two rock units have been traditionally distinguished in the past by presence or absence of epidote (Warren and Powers, 1914), but this needs further study. Age is uncertain. Rocks have customarily been correlated with those of Pennsylvanian Narragansett basin; however, rocks in some exposures, such as the one at River St and Blackstone St in Woonsocket resemble Proterozoic Z Roxbury Conglomerate in Boston basin. Skehan and others (1979) suggest that Bellingham may have a similar age to that of Roxbury. This is supported by observation that Bellingham is a structural trough extending southwest from Boston basin and separating primarily Proterozoic Z granitoids from altered, but nongneissic, Proterozoic granitoids (Wones and Goldsmith, 1991). In deference to tradition, and because Proterozoic Z age has not been proven, age is shown on MA State bedrock map of Zen and others as Proterozoic Z to Pennsylvanian [map actually has age of Proterozoic Z, Cambrian, or Pennsylvanian, which differs from age stated in this report.] (Goldsmith, 1991).
Nassau Formation (Lower Cambrian and Proterozoic Z)
Nassau Formation - Gray to dark-greenish-gray, siliceous phyllite with abundant beds of quartzite, olive-gray metasiltstone and subgraywacke (includes Bomoseen Graywacke Member and Zion Hill quartzite Member).
Rhode Island Formation (Upper and Middle Pennsylvanian)
Rhode Island Formation - Sandstone, graywacke, shale and conglomerate; minor beds of meta-anthracite. Fossil plants. Rhode Island Formation is thickest and most extensive formation in Narragansett basin. Does not extend to Norfolk basin. Consists of gray sandstone and siltstone and lesser amounts of gray to black shale, gray conglomerate, and coal beds 10 m thick. Interfingers with Wamsutta Formation in Narragansett basin. In places overlies Dedham Granite. Age is Middle and Late Pennsylvanian (Goldsmith, 1991).
Wamsutta Formation (Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian)
Wamsutta Formation - Red to pink, well-sorted conglomerate, graywacke, sandstone, and shale; fossil plants. Wamsutta Formation occurs in Narragansett and Norfolk basins. Consists of conglomerate, lithic graywacke, sandstone, and shale. Also contains rhyolite and basalt horizons near Attleboro. Northwest of Attleboro, Wamsutta overlies Diamond Hill Felsite as used by Skehan and Murray (in Skehan and others, 1979). Volcanic rocks similar to Diamond Hill Felsite crop out west of Lake Pearl, between Franklin and Wrentham, on west flank of Norfolk basin. These are shown within Wamsutta Formation on MA State bedrock map of Zen and others (1983) because of their proximity to Diamond Hill. They also resemble Proterozoic Z Mattapan Volcanic Complex. Chute (1966) described lenses of carbonate rock in red and green shale in Wamsutta in Norwood quad. Limestone also observed in rocks mapped as Wamsutta adjacent to exposed Dedham Granite at Manchester Pond Reservoir (J.P. Schafer, 1982, oral commun.). Red and green shales may actually be Cambrian. Upper member of Pondville Conglomerate grades into and interfingers with Wamsutta; in turn, Wamsutta interfingers with Rhode Island Formation in northwest part of Narragansett basin. Nonconformably overlies Dedham Granite. Partly equivalent to Rhode Island Formation. Age is Early and Middle Pennsylvanian. Contains a few plant fossils (Goldsmith, 1991).

Maryland

"Chemung" Formation, Parkhead Sandstone, Brallier Formation, and Harrell Shale (Devonian)
"Chemung" Formation - Predominantly marine beds characterized by gray to olive-green graywacke, siltstone, and shale; thickened ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Parkhead Sandstone - Gray to olive-green sandy shale, conglomeratic sandstone and graywacke; present in Washington County, identification uncertain in west; thickness averages 400 feet; Brallier Fomation - (Woodmont Shale of earlier reports). Medium to dark gray, laminated shale and siltstone; weathers to light olive-gray; grain size coarsens upward; thickness about 2,000 feet in west, about 1,7000 feet in east; and Harrell Shale - Dark gray laminated shale; absent in east where Brallier lies directly on Mahantango, Tully Limestone lies near base in west, in subsurface of Garrett County; total thickness in west 140 to 300 feet.
Juniata Formation (Ordovician)
Juniata Formation - Red to greenish-gray, thin- to thick-bedded siltstone, shale, subgraywacke, and protoquartzite; interbedded conglomerate; thickness 180 feet in east, increases to 500 feet in west.
Martinsburg Formation (Ordovician)
Martinsburg Formation - Upper part rhythmically interbedded graywackes, siltstones, and dark shales; lower part dark brown, dark gray, and black, thin-bedded fissile shale; thickness 2,000 to 2,500 feet.
Tuscarora Sandstone (Silurian)
Tuscarora Sandstone - White to light gray, thin- to thick-bedded, cross-stratified subgraywacke and orthoquartzite; thickness 60 feet in east, increases to 400 feet in west.

Maine

Cambrian Jim Pond Formation graywacke (Cambrian)
Cambrian Jim Pond Formation graywacke
Devonian Hildreths Formation (Devonian)
Devonian Hildreths Formation
Devonian - Ordovician Flume Ridge Formation (Devonian - Ordovician)
Devonian - Ordovician Flume Ridge Formation
Devonian unnamed lithic sandstone and conglomerate (Devonian)
Devonian unnamed lithic sandstone and conglomerate
Ordovician - Cambrian Cookson formation (Ordovician - Cambrian)
Ordovician - Cambrian Cookson formation
Ordovician Chandler Ridge Formation (Ordovician)
Ordovician Chandler Ridge Formation
Ordovician Chase lake formation (Ordovician)
Ordovician Chase lake formation
Ordovician Chase Lake Formation sandstone and pelite member (Ordovician)
Ordovician Chase Lake Formation sandstone and pelite member
Ordovician graywacke of the Depot Mountain sequence (Ordovician)
Ordovician graywacke of the Depot Mountain sequence
Ordovician Kamankeag Formation basalt and graywacke member (Ordovician)
Ordovician Kamankeag Formation basalt and graywacke member
Ordovician Quimby formation (Ordovician)
Ordovician Quimby formation
Ordovician Quimby formation graywacke member (Ordovician)
Ordovician Quimby formation graywacke member
Ordovician sandstone and pelite of the Depot Mountain sequence (Ordovician)
Ordovician sandstone and pelite of the Depot Mountain sequence
Silurian - Ordovician Aroostook River Formation (Silurian - Ordovician)
Silurian - Ordovician Aroostook River Formation
Silurian - Ordovician Carys Mills Formation (Silurian - Ordovician)
Silurian - Ordovician Carys Mills Formation
Silurian - Ordovician Carys Mills Formation lower member (Silurian - Ordovician)
Silurian - Ordovician Carys Mills Formation lower member
Silurian - Ordovician Frontenac Formation (Silurian - Ordovician)
Silurian - Ordovician Frontenac Formation
Silurian Smyrna Mills Formation (Silurian)
Silurian Smyrna Mills Formation
Silurian undifferentiated pelites and sandstones (Silurian)
Silurian undifferentiated pelites and sandstones, in part of the Allsbury Formation and in part unnamed
Silurian Waterville Formation (Silurian)
Silurian Waterville Formation

Michigan

Minnesota

Animikie Group; Shale, siltstone, feldspathic graywacke, and associated volcaniclastic rocks (Early Proterozoic)
Animikie Group; Shale, siltstone, feldspathic graywacke, and associated volcaniclastic rocks - Includes the Rove Formation in Cook County, the Virginia Formation in St. Louis, Itasca, and Lake Counties, and the Thomson Formation in Carlton County
Metabasalt, metadiabase, and metasedimentary rocks metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies (Early Proterozoic)
Metabasalt, metadiabase, and metasedimentary rocks metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies - Includes fragmental volcanic rocks, mafic hypabyssal intrusions, graywacke, graphitic argillite and oxide iron-formation
Metasedimentary rocks, undivided (Late Archean)
Metasedimentary rocks, undivided - Graywacke, slate, local units of conglomerate, arenite, graphitic slate, fine-grained felsic volcanogenic, and volcaniclastic rocks, lean oxide iron-formation and its metamorphic equivalents. Includes the Knife Lake Group and the Lake Vermilion Formation in northeastern Minnesota.
North Range Group; Mahnomen Formation (Early Proterozoic)
North Range Group; Mahnomen Formation - Claystone, shale, siltstone, and graywacke metamorphosed to the greenschist facies
North Range Group; Rabbit Lake Formation (Early Proterozoic)
North Range Group; Rabbit Lake Formation - Mudstone, graywacke, iron-rich strata, and associated mafic metavolcanic rocks metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. Includes thin beds of carbonate-silicate iron-formation

New Jersey

Martinsburg Formation, undivided (Upper and Middle Ordovician)
Martinsburg Formation, undivided (Bayley and others, 1914) - Interbedded light-olive-gray, greenish-gray-, or dark-yellowish-brown- weathering, medium-dark- to dark-gray, laminated to medium-bedded graywacke and siltstone and olive-gray- to dark-yellowish-brown-weathering, medium-dark- to dark-gray slate. Turbidite cycles are common. Mapped only east of Lafayette and west of Lake Grinnell where thickness is at least 305 m (1000 ft).
Ramseyburg Member (Upper and Middle Ordovician)
Ramseyburg Member (Drake and Epstein, 1967) - Interbedded medium- to dark-gray, to brownish-gray, fine- to medium-grained, thin- to thick-bedded graywacke sandstone and siltstone and medium- to dark-gray, laminated to thin-bedded shale and slate. Unit may form complete turbidite sequences, Tabcde (Bouma, 1962), but basal cutout sequences Tcde dominate. Basal scour, sole marks, and soft-sediment distortion of beds are common in graywacke. Thermally metamorphosed near intrusive bodies. Lower contact placed at bottom of lowest thick- to very thick bedded graywacke, but contact locally grades through sequence of dominantly thin-bedded shale and slate and minor thin- to medium-bedded discontinuous and lenticular graywacke beds in the Bushkill member. Parris and Cruikshank (1992) correlate unit with Orthograptus ruedemanni to lowest part of Climacograptus spiniferus zones of Riva (1969, 1974). Thickness ranges from 640 m (2,100 ft) in Delaware River Valley, to 1,524 m (5,000 ft) near Stillwater, to 1067 m (3,500 ft) at New York State line.

Nevada

New York

Oregon

Marine sedimentary rocks (Upper Triassic? and Upper and Middle Triassic) (Early Triassic)
Black, green, and gray argillite, mudstone, and shale; graywacke, sandy limestone, tuff, and some coarse volcaniclastic rocks; chert, sandstone comprised of chert clasts, and chert pebble conglomerate; thin-bedded and massive limestone. Locally contains some interbedded lava flows, mostly spilite or keratophyre. In places metamorphosed. Invertebrate marine fauna indicates unit mostly of Late Triassic (Karnian and Norian) age. Includes the Begg and Brisbois Formations of Dickinson and Vigrass (1965; Vester Formation of Brown and Thayer, 1966) and the Rail Cabin Argillite of Dickinson and Vigrass (1965); Fields Creek Formation and Laycock and Murderers Creek Graywackes of Brown and Thayer (1966); Martin Bridge Formation and lower sedimentary series in and near the Wallowa Mountains (Prostka, 1962; Nolf, 1966); and Doyle Creek and Wild Sheep Creek Formations (Vallier, 1977). Probably partly age correlative with rocks of the Applegate Group (Wells and Peck, 1961) of southwestern Oregon
Otter Point Formation of Dott (1971) and related rocks (Upper Jurassic) (Late Jurassic)
Highly sheared graywacke, mudstone, siltstone, and shale with lenses and pods of sheared greenstone, limestone, chert, blueschist, and serpentine. Identified as melange by some investigators
Sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Jurassic and Upper Triassic?) (Late Triassic? to Jurassic)
Olive-drab, pale-brown, dark-gray, and black volcanic graywacke and siltstone; lesser conglomerate and slate, and minor limestone and chert. Includes more extensive outcrops of Triassic or Jurassic limestone at north base of Juniper Mountain in northern Malheur County and near Huntington in southeastern Baker County. Interlayers of silicic and intermediate volcanic rocks are rare. Locally metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and zeolite facies and in places to greenschist facies. Folded, sheared, and locally foliated. Includes the Weatherby Formation of Brooks (1979). Age is Late Triassic(?) and Early and Middle Jurassic (Sinemurian-Callovian)
Sedimentary rocks (Cretaceous) (Cretaceous)
Marine graywacke, subgraywacke, conglomerate, and shale. Pebbles and cobbles in conglomerate are well rounded volcanic and metavolcanic rocks, low-grade metasedimentary rocks, quartzite, chert, and minor silicic and intermediate plutonic rocks. Shales are gray to black and are fissile to blocky. Sandstones commonly display graded bedding; conglomerate beds are commonly thick and poorly bedded. Shales, near Mitchell, have yielded latest (Early Cretaceous (Albian) fossils; some earliest Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) fossils occur in beds southeast of Mitchell (D.L. Jones, oral Commun., 1972). Includes Hudspeth and Gable Creek Formations (OR049), Bernard Formation (OR028), and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks (OR008)
Sedimentary rocks (Jurassic) (Jurassic)
Black and gray mudstone, shale, siltstone, graywacke, andesitic to dacitic water-laid tuff, porcelaneous tuff, and minor interlayers and lenses of limestone and fine-grained sediments metamorphosed to phyllite or slate. Locally includes some felsite, andesite and basalt flows, breccia, and agglomerate. Marine invertebrate fauna indicates age range from Early Jurassic (Hettangian) to early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian). In northeast Oregon, includes Graylock Formation, Mowich Group, and Shaw Member (of Snowshoe Formation) of Dickinson and Vigrass (1965); Keller Creek Shale of Brown and Thayer (1966); Weberg, Warm Springs, Snowshoe, Trowbridge, and Lonesome Formations of Lupher (1941); the Coon Hollow Formation of Morrison (1964); and unnamed Jurassic rocks near Juniper Mountain in northern Malheur County (Wagner and others, 1963)
Sedimentary rocks (Jurassic) (Late Jurassic )
Black and gray mudstone, shale, siltstone, graywacke, andesitic to dacitic water-laid tuff, porcelaneous tuff, and minor interlayers and lenses of limestone and fine-grained sediments metamorphosed to phyllite or slate. Locally includes some felsite, andesite and basalt flows, breccia, and agglomerate. Marine invertebrate fauna indicates age range from Early Jurassic (Hettangian) to early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian). In Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon, includes Galice Formation (Wells and Peck, 1961) and unnamed, hornblende- and (or) pyroxene-bearing clastic rocks of Jurassic age (Smith and others, 1982)
Sedimentary rocks of Dothan Formation and related rocks (Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic) (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous)
Sandstone, conglomerate, graywacke, rhythmically banded chert lenses. Includes western Dothan and Otter Point Formations of M.C. Blake, Jr. and AS. Jayko (unpublished data, 1985) in Curry and southern Coos Counties
Sedimentary rocks, partly metamorphosed (Triassic and Paleozoic) (Paleozoic to Jurassic(?))
Poorly bedded argillite, chert, phyllite, phyllitic quartzite, calc-phyllite, impure limestone, and marble. In places rocks are strongly foliated. In Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon, includes shale, mudstone, volcaniclastic sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, tuff, and minor radiolarian chert and marble of the Applegate Group
Shale, mudstone, and sandstone (Jurassic) (Late Jurassic)
Black to gray shale, mudstone, and sandstone with local lenses of pebble conglomerate. Overlies Josephine ophiolite of Harper (1980) (unit Ju)

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Tennessee

Great Smoky Group, includes Unnamed Sandstone Unit, Anakeesta Formation, Thunderhead Sandstone, and Elkmont Sandstone (Precambrian)
Great Smoky Group - Characterized by very massive layers of coarse graywacke and arkose. The formations at right have been mapped only in region of the Great Smoky Mountains. Thickness 14,000 to about 25,000 feet; includes Unnamed Sandstone Unit - Gray, coarse sandstone and fine conglomerate, similar to Thunderhead Sandstone. Thickness about 4,500 feet; Anakeesta Formation - Dark-gray, bluish-gray, and black slate with dark-gray interbeds of fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 3,000 to 4,500 feet; Thunderhead Sandstone - Coarse, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and conglomerate; occurs in massive ledges; graded bedding and blue quartz characteristic. Thickness 5,500 to 6,300 feet; Elkmont Sandstone - Coarse to fine, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and fine conglomerate; generally finer grained beds in lower part; graded bedding typical. Thickness 1,000 to 8,000 feet.
Great Smoky Group, including Anakeesta Formation, Thunderhead Sandstone, and Elkmont Sandstone (Precambrian)
Great Smoky Group - Characterized by very massive layers of coarse graywacke and arkose. The formations have been mapped only in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. Near Ducktown, in ascending order, the Copperhill, Hughes Gap, Hothouse, and Dean Formations are recognized. Thickness 14,000 to about 40,000 feet. Includes Anakeesta Formation - Dark-gray, bluish-gray, and black slate with dark-gray interbeds of fine-grained sandstone. Thickness 3,000 to 4,500 feet; Thunderhead Sandstone - Coarse, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and conglomerate; occurs in massive ledges; graded bedding and blue quartz characteristic. Thickness 5,500 to 6,300 feet; Elkmont Sandstone - Coarse to fine, gray feldspathic sandstone, graywacke, and fine conglomerate; generally finer grained beds in lower part; graded bedding typical. Thickness 1,000 to 8,000 feet
Unicoi Formation (Cambrian)
Unicoi Formation - Sequence of gray feldspathic sandstone, arkose, conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone and shale; greenish amygdaloidal basalt flows near middle and base. Thickness 2,000 to 5,000 feet.

Virginia

Vermont

Gile Mountain Formation (Devonian)
Gile Mountain Formation - Gray quartz-muscovite phyllite or schist, interbedded and intergradational with gray micaceous quartzite (graywacke northeast of Nulhegan River), calcareous mica schist, and, locally, quartzose and micaceous crystalline limestone like that of the Waits River formation. The phyllite and schist commonly contain porphyroblasts of biotite, garnet, or staurolite, and locally kyanite, andalusite, or sillimanite. Used as Early Devonian Gile Mountain Formation. Generally consists of gray to tan metawacke and schist or phyllite, gradational into its Meetinghouse Slate Member, but much more thickly bedded and less pelitic. Contains minor metavolcanic lentils. Unnamed metavolcanic member is possibly equivalent to Putney Volcanics of southeastern VT. Separately mapped interbedded gray slate or phyllite and brown-weathering calcite-ankerite metasiltstone, and minor marble and quartzite, resembles Waits River Formation of VT. Meetinghouse Slate Member consists of gray to black phyllite and silty metasandstone turbidite. Report includes geologic map, cross sections, correlation chart, and four 1:500,000-scale derivative maps (Lyons and others, 1997).
Hathaway Formation (Ordovician)
Hathaway Formation - Gray to black argillite and bedded radiolarian chert, with included blocks and fragments of chert, limestone, dolomite, sandstone and graywacke.
Ottauquechee Formation (Cambrian)
Ottauquechee Formation - Black carbonaceous phyllite or schist containing interbeds of massive quartzite commonly criss-crossed by veins of white quartz; quartzite is dark gray and carbonaceous, light gray, or white; also includes light green quartz-sericite-chlorite phyllite or schist and sercitic quartzite; beds of phyllitic graywacke and feldspar granule conglomerate are north of Lamoille River. Schist contains abundant porphyroblasts of garnet and biotite from Ludlow south. The Ottauquechee contains two major units: A black phyllite and the Thatcher Brook Member. The black phyllite contains a previously unreported sub-unit of gray carbonate schist. The Thatcher Brook Member (named in an abstract by Armstrong and others, 1988) is a carbonaceous albitic schist with greenstones and ultramafics. These rocks have previously been included in the Ottauquechee but have never been differentiated from the black phyllite. Member is in fault contact with the silvery green schist of the Pinney Hollow Formation to the west. Age is Cambrian (Ratcliff, in press).
Pawlet Formation (Ordovician)
Pawlet Formation - Silver gray to jet black, locally carbonaceous and pyritiferous, micaceous silty slate; interbedded, at intervals of a few inches to tens of feet, by beds of dark gray rusty weathered graywacke a few inches to 6 feet thick. The graywacke contains subangular grains of quartz, and less abundant feldspar and slate fragments, in a gray argillaceous matrix that is locally calcareous.
St. Catherine Formation, Bomoseen Graywacke Member (Cambrian)
St. Catherine Formation, Bomoseen Graywacke Member - Green to olive-colored arkose and graywacke that weathers pale red to white; contains visible flakes of mica and rock fragments.
St. Catherine Formation, Zion Hill Quartzite Member (Cambrian)
St. Catherine Formation, Zion Hill Quartzite Member - White weathered green, vitreous chloritic quartzite and graywacke spotted with limonite.
Stowe Formation (Cambrian-Ordovician)
Stowe Formation - Quartz-sericite (muscovite-paragonite)-chlorite phyllite and schist; porphyroblasts of albite, garnet, chloritoid, or kyanite common locally; includes phyllitic graywacke north of Lamoille River. Schist contains abundant segregations of granular white quartz. The Stowe Formation in the study are contains two unnamed members: a silvery green schist and a greenstone. The schist is a fine-grained, silvery to dark green quartz-muscovite-albite-chlorite schist. It is in fault contact with the black phyllite of the Ottauquechee Formation. The greenstone is a homogenous, fine-grained, light green actinolite-albite-epidote-calcite-chlorite schist. Large outcrops of the resistant greenstone are common. Age according to map symbols is Proterozoic and Cambrian. Unit is correlated with the Rowe Schist (of Zen, 1983). [Rowe Schist on 1983 MA map is Cambrian and Ordovician. No explanation here for older age.] (Walsh, 1992).

Washington

Carboniferous and Permian volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian; Triassic in Asotin County)
Predominantly altered andesite, basalt, and diabase with interbedded chert and argillite; includes some tuff, greenstone, and spilitic volcanic rocks; northern Cascade Mountains. Mostly schistose greenstone, some agglomerate, and rarely lapilli; includes minor beds of limestone with associated argillite and graywacke; northwestern Stevens County.
Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian; some Jurassic)
Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Cherty and slaty argillite, siltstone, graywacke, chert, greenstone, tuff, andesite, and spilitic volcanics.
Carboniferous-Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Devonian to Permian, minor Mesozoic)
Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and slate; includes minor marble, siltstone, arkose, conglomerate, ribbon cherts, and volcanic rocks. Some Devonian rocks may be included in northwestern Washington.
Carboniferous rocks (Late Devonian to Mississippian)
Thin-bedded graywacke, shale, argillite, slate, schist, volcanic breccia, gritstone, conglomerate, and limestone on northeast shore of Orcas Island. Limestone or dolomitic limestone, apparently interbedded with limy argillite and graywacke, forms belt of small separate outcrops between Springdale and Valley in southeastern Stevens County. Late Devonian to Early Pennsylvanian in age.
Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, mostly marine (Cretaceous)
Upper Cretaceous black siltstone, graywacke, and silica pebble conglomerate in western Okanogan County.
Mesozoic-Tertiary marine rocks, undivided (Miocene to Eocene)
Dark-gray, massive to poorly bedded gray-wacke of the interior Olympic Peninsula; commonly with interbedded slate, argillite, volcanic rocks, and minor arkosic sandstone. Includes rocks both older and younger than Ev2, some of which may be Paleozoic.
Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Middle Jurassic)
Andesite, dacite, and minor basalt with slate and graywacke interbeds in the Nooksack River region of Whatcom County.
Permian rocks (Permian-Triassic)
Conglomerate, graywacke, siltstone, argillite and interbedded fossiliferous limestone, greenstone, and minor angular conglomerate in northwestern Stevens and Ferry Counties. Impure quartzite, sandstone, graywacke, greenstone, ribbon chert, chert breccia, and limestone in Snohomish County and on San Juan Island. Lower Permian limestone on Black Mountain in northwestern Whatcom County. Middle Permian rocks in northeastern Washington.
Pre-Middle Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Jurassic)
Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and slate; includes minor marble, siltstone, arkose, conglomerate, ribbon cherts, and volcanic rocks.
Pre-Middle Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Paleozoic deposition? with Cretaceous metamorphism?)
Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, undivided. Graywacke, argillite, slate, greenstone, and spilitic volcanic rocks.
Pre-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks, undivided (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic)
Predominantly greenstone and spilitic volcanic rocks; includes some slate, argillite, and graywacke.
Pre-Tertiary sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, undivided (Mostly Early Cretaceous to Middle Jurassic, possibly includes minor Eocene rocks)
Graywacke, argillite, phyllite, chert, talc, and graphite schist; some faulted-in blocks of serpentinite and greenstone. Includes minor limestone on San Juan Island.
Pre-Upper Jurassic metamorphic rocks of the low-grade zone (Jurassic)
Greenschist, phyllite, and slate; includes some limestone, quartzose phyllite, schistose metaconglomerate, breccia, and basic igneous rocks. Includes schist locally.
Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous)
Predominantly sedimentary rocks. Graywacke, argillite, and siltstone with some slate and phyllite; includes graywacke breccia and ribbon chert with minor local limestone lenses and basalt flows.
Upper Triassic and/or Lower Jurassic Marine Rocks (Cretaceous-Triassic)
Conglomerate, gritstone, graywacke, and carbonaceous argillite of northwestern Whatcom County.

Wisconsin