Kanawha Formation (Campbell and Mendenhall, 1896). Sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal, and underclay. Sandstone, feldspathic, micaceous, with dark mineral grains, light- to medium-gray, fine- to coarse-grained, upper beds locally conglomeratic, lenticular, thick-bedded to massive, cross-bedded. Siltstone and shale, medium- to dark-gray, even-bedded, interbedded with sandstone, coal, and medium-gray underclay. Base of formation conformable, placed at the bottom of Kennedy coal bed overlying McClure Sandstone Member of New River Formation (Englund, 1981; Meissner and Miller, 1981; Windolph, 1987). Equivalent to the Wise Formation and upper part of the Norton Formation. Thickness: 550 + feet (J.E. Nolde, personal communications, 1993); top part eroded.
Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1993, Geologic Map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, scale 1:500,000.
Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 2003, Digital Representation of the 1993 Geologic Map of Virginia, Publication 174, CD ROM (ISO-9660) contains image file, expanded explanation in pdf, and ESRI shapefiles, scale 1:500,000.