USGS - science for a changing world

Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data

Mineral Resources > Online Spatial Data

Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale -- A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale -- A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map
Abstract:
This CD-ROM contains a digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii. In addition to the graphical formats, the map key is included in ASCII text.

A geographic information system (GIS) allows combining and overlaying of layers for analysis of spatial relations not readily apparent in the standard paper publication. This disc contains only geology. However, digital data on geology, geophysics, and geochemistry can be combined to create useful derivative products-- for example, see Phillips and others (1993).

This CD-ROM contains a copy of the text and figures from Professional Paper 901 by King and Beikman (1974a). This text describes the historical background of the map, details of the compilation process, and limitations to interpretation. The digital version of the text can be searched for keywords or phrases.
Supplemental_Information:
For DOS users, the CD-ROM contains menu-driven analytical software, in which the user selects from an array of topics. The CD-ROM also contains MAPPER display software, a user-friendly package that displays the interactive vector map. The raster image of the geologic map can be displayed with VIEWLBL.

For other types of computer users, the map must be converted from one of the following formats included on the CD-ROM:

ARC/INFO 6.1.1 Export Digital Line Graph (DLG) Optional Drawing Exchange File (DXF) Map Overlay Statistical System (MOSS)
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Schruben, Paul G., Arndt, Raymond E., Bawiec, Walter J., King, Philip B., and Beikman, Helen M., 1994, Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale -- A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-11, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -162.0
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.0
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 60.0
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.0
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds11/kb.gif (GIF)
    Bedrock geologic map units of the conterminous United States
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 1974Currentness_Reference:
    Publication date of the original work (1974) and the CD-ROM (1994)
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (21465)
      • Complete chain (29972)
      • GT-polygon composed of chains (12860)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Geologic unit
    Bedrock formations that are, wherever possible, time-stratigraphic--that is, units which are approximately the same geologic ages at all places, such as systems, series, and stages. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901)
    Fault
    Faults are shown not only to explain offsets of map units, but for their own sake, to express the structural grain of the area. The density of faults represented on the geologic map thus equals that which would appear on a tectonic map of the country, but they are marked simply as faults, not as low-angle or high- angle thrust faults, normal faults, or strike-slip faults; for this information the user should consult the appro- priate tectonic map. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Labels of the mapped units described by polygons in the data set are as follows:

    C,cat,Ce,Cg,Cq,Cv,D,D1,D2,D2c,D3,D3c,De,dike,DS,DSe,DSv,Dv,J, Jc,Jg,Jmi,JTr,Kc,Ke,Kg,Kg1,Kg2,Kg3,Kgn,Ki,Kv,lK,lK1,lK2,lK3, lMz,lMze,lMzv,lPz,lPze,lTa,lTf,lTv,M,M1,M2,M3,mm1,mm2,mm3,mm4, Ms,O,O1,O1a,O1b,O2,O3,OC,Oe,Ov,P,P1,P1c,P2,P2a,P2ac,P2b,P3,P3a, P3b,P4,Pe,PP,PP1,PP1a,PP2,PP3,PP4,Pza,Pzg1,Pzg2,Pzg3,Pzmi,Q, Qf,Qh,Qp,Qv,S,S1,S2,S3,Se,SOe,Sv,Ta,Te,Te1,Te2,Te3,Teb,Tec,Tee, Tel,Ti,Tm,Tmc,Tmf,Tmoe,Tmv,To,Toc,Toee,Tp,Tpc,Tpf,Tpv,Tr,Trg, Tri,TrPe,Trv,Tx,Txc,uK,uK1,uK2,uK3,uK3a,uK3b,uK4,uM,uMze,uPz, uPzc,uPze,uTa,W,Wg,Wgn,Wmi,WTER,Wv,X,Xg,Xm,Xv,Y,Y1,Y2,Y3,Ya, Yg1,Yg2,Ygn,Ym,Ymi,Ys,Yv,Z,Zg,Zv

    Each line object in the fault coverage has one of four attribute values:

    1) faults (label FAULT) 2) dashed fault (label DASH) 3) dotted fault (label DOT) 4) hidden contact (label CONTAC)

    Full details of the meanings of the attributes are given in USGS Professional Paper 901, whose text is provided with this data set.

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901 is included with this data set (when distributed in CD-ROM format) in ASCII, with figures in TIFF.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Schruben, Paul G.
    Minerals Information Office
    Mail Stop 920, National Center
    U.S. Geological Survey
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA

    (703) 648-6142 (voice)
    (703) 648-6057 (FAX)
    pschruben@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Conversion of the geologic map of the U.S. to a digital format was undertaken to facilitate the presentation and analysis of earth-science data. Digital maps can be displayed at any scale or projection, whereas a paper map has a fixed scale and projection. However, the geology on this disc is not intended to be used at any scale finer than 1:2,500,000.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    King and Beikman (1974) (source 1 of 1)
    King, Philip B., and Beikman, Helen M., 1974, Explanatory text to accompany the geologic map of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: Library of Congress catalog - card No. 74-600169
    Type_of_Source_Media: Paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2500000
    Source_Contribution:
    Data presented on USGS DDS-11 were produced by scanning this printed map.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1993 (process 1 of 2)
    The linework was captured by hand digitizing as well as scanning from the paper map and negatives. The digital map was assembled and edited in ARC/INFO on a State-by-State basis, which caused some edge-matching problems. The final mosaic was adjusted several times to correct for registration problems. The coastline was taken from the 1:2,000,000 scale Digital Line Graph data (U.S. Geological Survey, 1987), generalized to 1 km.

    The ARC/INFO version of the Geologic Map of the United States consists of three coverages:

    1) geology - 12,800 polygons 2) faults - 3 fault types and hidden contacts 3) legend - 164 rock units

    The fault coverage has four line types:

    1) faults 2) dashed faults 3) dotted faults 4) hidden contacts

    The DESC field descriptors are FAULT, DASH, DOT, CONTAC, respectively. Data sources used in this process:
    • King and Beikman (1974)
    Date: 09-Oct-2007 (process 2 of 2)
    Unprojected vector data repackaged using EPSG 4269 coordinate system (geographic, NAD83, decimal degrees) as on https://mrdata.usgs.gov/ Person who carried out this activity:
    Peter N Schweitzer
    USGS ER GD
    Geologist
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    703-648-6533 (voice)
    703-648-6252 (FAX)
    pschweitzer@usgs.gov
    Data sources produced in this process:
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    King, Philip B., and Beikman, Helen M., 1974, Explanatory text to accompany the geologic map of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The linework was captured by hand digitizing as well as scanning from the paper map and negatives. The digital map was assembled and edited in ARC/INFO on a State-by-State basis, which caused some edge-matching problems. The final mosaic was adjusted several times to correct for registration problems. The coastline was taken from the 1:2,000,000 scale Digital Line Graph data (U.S. Geological Survey, 1987), generalized to 1 km.

    Construction of a geologic map of an area as large and complex as the conterminous United States requires a great deal of generalization: geologic units shown on larger scale maps are combined into broader map units and their contacts are simplified to produce a pattern that is legible at the scale of publication. The process of generalization used in the compilation of the Geologic Map of the United States is described in King and Beikman (1974a, p. 20).

    Furthermore, the Geologic Map of the United States is primarily a bedrock map, which depicts geologic materials present beneath the soil or relatively thin mantles of surficial deposits, not necessarily the surficial materials themselves. For example, the map does not depict the glacial deposits in the northern States, the widespread eolian deposits in the High Plains, and the high-level gravels that mantle older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary units in much of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The users of the geologic map on this disc should respect the intentions of the compilers of the map and some of its limitations. The Geologic Map of the United States (King and Beikman, 1974b) is intended to be used at a scale of 1:2,500,000; it is not intended to be used at a more detailed scale. For instance, Colorado is about 10 inches wide at the published scale of the King and Beikman map.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The map does not include coverage of Alaska, Hawaii, or territories.

    The Geologic Map of the United States is primarily a bedrock map, which depicts geologic materials present beneath the soil or relatively thin mantles of surficial deposits, not necessarily the surficial materials themselves. For example, the map does not depict the glacial deposits in the northern States, the widespread eolian deposits in the High Plains, and the high-level gravels that mantle older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary units in much of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The coverages on this disc for the digital geologic map of the conterminous United States differ in several ways from the published map. The county outlines, cities, drainage, and other base-map information are not present on the digital version except as overlays in MAPPER. Only the larger water bodies are included.

    The larger geology polygons are split into several smaller polygons to avoid problems with color and pattern fill on screen plots and paper plotters. The maximum polygon size is 1476 vertices, which is PostScript compatible.

    The rock-unit names are stored in uppercase letters as well as the published mixed case. For instance:

     TMC   Tmc
     TMOE  Tmoe
     UTA   uTa
    
    The uppercase names are used in the coverage because an INFO sort in ARC/INFO is case sensitive. The lookup tables must be sorted to work correctly. The mixed-case rock-unit names are in the kbcolor.lut lookup table. Longer rock-unit descriptions such as:

     Cretaceous granitic rocks
     Washita Group
    
    are in the ROCKDESC column of the .pat file of the KBLEG coverage. Some of the unit names have been modified to avoid ambiguity.

    The Pennsylvanian symbol is stored as PP in:
         PP
         PP1
         PP1a
         PP2
         PP3
         PP4
    
    The Triassic symbol is stored as Tr in:
         JTr
         Tr
         TrPe
         Trv
         Tri
         Trg
    
    The Cambrian symbol is stored as C in:
         C
         Cq
         OC
         Ce
         Cv
         Cg
     m1 is replaced with mm1 to avoid confusion with M1
     m2 is replaced with mm2 to avoid confusion with M2
     m3 is replaced with mm3 to avoid confusion with M3
     m4 is replaced with mm4 for consistency
    
    The extent of glaciation appears in the legend but is not present in the coverage.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 2)
    U.S. Geological Survey Information Services
    Box 25286, Denver Federal Center
    Denver, CO

    1-888-ASK-USGS (voice)
    1-303-202-4693 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS DDS-11
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

    Although all data and software published on this CD-ROM have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and/or the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of this data, software, or related materials.

    Graphical map depictions on this disc are intended to be used within the map scale limits applicable to the source data. Although software enables the user to show images on the disc at various scales, the user is cautioned to refer to the source documentation for the appropriate map scale limitations.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    Geographic data included in DDS-11 are intended for use in a Geographic Information System (GIS).

    This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard and thus allows access to the map data files and MAPPER by computers with ISO 9660 software drivers.

    In addition, the disc contains menu and display programs that operate on DOS-compatible computers with the following configuration:

     IBM or compatible personal computer
     640 kb RAM (at least 540 kb free memory)
     Math coprocessor
     MS- or PC-DOS version 5.0 or later
     Microsoft MSCDEX version 2.1 or later
     CD-ROM drive with ISO 9660 software driver
     Hard disk drive (5 Mb free)
     Super VGA graphics card (640x480 pixels with 256 colors)
     VGA color monitor
     Mouse
    

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 2)
    USGS Mineral Resource Surveys Program
    Attn: Paul G. Schruben
    Mail Stop 920, National Center
    U.S. Geological Survey
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA

    703-648-6142 (voice)
    703-648-6057 (FAX)
    pschruben@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

    Although all data and software published on this CD-ROM have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and/or the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of this data, software, or related materials.

    Graphical map depictions on this disc are intended to be used within the map scale limits applicable to the source data. Although software enables the user to show images on the disc at various scales, the user is cautioned to refer to the source documentation for the appropriate map scale limitations.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Dec-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N. Schweitzer
Mail Stop 954 National Center
U.S. Geological Survey
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA
USA

(703) 648-6533 (voice)
(703) 648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://mrdata.usgs.gov/metadata/dds-11.faq.html>

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Peter Schweitzer
Page Last Modified: Friday, 15-Sep-2017 15:26:37 MDT

Generated by mp version 2.9.41 on Fri Sep 15 15:21:42 2017