Terrestrial Radioactivity and Gamma-ray Exposure in the United States and Canada: Gridded geographic images

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Robert P. Kucks
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Terrestrial Radioactivity and Gamma-ray Exposure in the United States and Canada: Gridded geographic images
Online_Linkage: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/radiometric/
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Originator: Carson, John M.
Originator: Holman, Peter B.
Originator: Darnley, Arthur G.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Terrestrial radioactivity and gamma-ray exposure in the United States and Canada
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1413
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1413/
Description:
Abstract:
Aerial gamma-ray surveys measure the gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of the naturally occurring elements K-40, U-238, and Th-232 in the top few centimeters of rock or soil. If the gamma-ray system is properly calibrated the data can be expressed in terms of the estimated concentrations of the radioactive elements. A ternary color-composite image was generated by commercial software Geosoft Oasismontaj to map the combination of all three elements.

During the period 1975-83, the U.S. Department of Energy carried out the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, which included aerial gamma-ray surveys of most of the United States. These data were reprocessed to generate this product.
Supplemental_Information:
Digital Data Series DDS-9 (CD-ROM) contains gridded radiometric geophysical data images that were created for the Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) but only available for the U.S.
Purpose:
Because uranium, thorium, and potassium concentration data are useful in geologic studies and because the NURE data are the only nationwide database on the natural radiation environment, the U.S. Geological Survey reprocessed the aerial gamma-ray data to produce maps showing surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium for the conterminous United States.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1999
Ending_Date: 2005
Currentness_Reference: all available NURE data for the U.S. has been processed
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -168.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -53.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.33
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.0
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Robert P. Kucks
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Box 25046, MS 964
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (303) 236-1405
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rkucks@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
The U.S Geological Survey reprocessed the aerial gamma-ray (NURE) data to produce maps showing surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium for the conterminous United States. These maps have been released as USGS Open-File Reports. Some of the reprocessed data have also been released in profile form. The Canadian Geological Survey data were processed by the Radiation Geophysics Section of the CGS. See Open-File Report 2005-1413 for further references.

USGS employees: Duval, Riggle, and Snyder Canadian GS employees: Carson, Holman, and Darnley
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
The NURE data were originaly stored in ASCII format on 9-track magnetic tapes. They are currently available on the report DVD as Geosoft Oasismontaj databases (.gdb) but can be converted to ASCII form.
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: ternary, gamma-ray, radiometric
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: United States, Canada
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
make these surveys were calibrated, many of the earlier surveys were done without calibration and conversion to the concentrations of the radioactive elements. Detailed examinations of the digital data available on magnetic tape also showed that many of the "calibrated" surveys do not match the data from other "calibrated" surveys of adjacent areas. For these reasons, the data must be corrected to obtain a consistent data base for the conterminous United States. If the gamma-ray system is properly calibrated the data can be expressed in terms of the estimated concentrations of the radioactive elements.
Quantitative_Attribute_Accuracy_Assessment:
Attribute_Accuracy_Value:
0.1 percent potassium; 0.1 ppm uranium and thorium
Attribute_Accuracy_Explanation:
The potassium concentration data are usually expressed in units of percent potassium (percent K). The uranium and thorium concentration data are usually expressed in units of parts per million equivalent (ppm).
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Although many of the airborne gamma-ray systems used to make these surveys were calibrated, many of the earlier surveys were done without calibration and conversion to the concentrations of the radioactive elements. Detailed examinations of the digital data available on magnetic tape also showed that many of the "calibrated" surveys do not match the data from other "calibrated" surveys of adjacent areas. For these reasons, the data must be corrected to obtain a consistent data base for the conterminous United States.
Completeness_Report:
Data coverage extends thoroughly across the conterminous US. Significant gaps exist in the coverage of Alaska, especially the area south of the North Slope but north of the Brooks Range, and the Aleutian islands. Central Canada is covered as are most of the Atlantic provinces and eastern Ontario. Large gaps exist in Quebec, the western provinces, and both northern and southwestern Ontario.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The accuracy was dependent on the flight specifications and tolerances of the Department of Energy during their surveying.
Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value: 100
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation: Dependent on flight positioning recovery used by NURE project
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The accuracy was dependent on the flight specifications and tolerances of the Department of Energy during their surveying.
Quantitative_Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Value: 100
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation: Dependent on flight positioning recovery used by NURE project
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Originator: Darnley, Arthur G. (editor)
Originator: Garrett, Robert G. (editor)
Publication_Date: 1990
Title:
Modern aerial gamma-ray spectrometry and regional potassium map of the conterminous United States
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Geochemical Exploration
Issue_Identification: Volume 39, Issues 1-2, December 1990, pages 249-253
Online_Linkage: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-6742%2890%2990076-M
Type_of_Source_Media:Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1975
Ending_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: original data collection period for the NURE program
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Duval, Darnley, and Garrett 1990
Source_Contribution: Material re-processed to obtain the present grids
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Originator: Jones, William J.
Originator: Riggle, Frederick R.
Originator: Pitkin, James A.
Publication_Date: 1990
Title: Potassium and thorium maps of the conterminous United States
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 90-338
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1975
Ending_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: original data collection period for the NURE program
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: OFR 90-338
Source_Contribution: Material re-processed to obtain the present grids
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Phillips, Jeffrey D.
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Originator: Ambroziak, Russell A.
Title:
National geophysical data grids; gamma-ray, gravity, magnetic, and topographic data for the conterminous United States
Publication_Date: 1993
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series
Issue_Identification: DDS-9
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1975
Ending_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: original data collection period for the NURE program
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DDS-9
Source_Contribution: Material re-processed to obtain the present grids
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N
Edition: 1
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series
Issue_Identification: DDS-31
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1975
Ending_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: original data collection period for the NURE program
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DDS-31 Release 1
Source_Contribution: Material re-processed to obtain the present grids
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Duval, Joseph S.
Originator: Riggle, Frederic E.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data from aerial surveys over the conterminous United States
Edition: 2
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series
Issue_Identification: DDS-31
Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1975
Ending_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: original data collection period for the NURE program
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DDS-31 Release 2
Source_Contribution: Material re-processed to obtain the present grids

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The gamma-ray data were extracted from the NURE files and Canadian data sets; then projected, gridded, and displayed in a ternary form using the commercial software package Geosoft Oasis Montaj. Three elemental grids were calculated, one each for K, U, and Th, and a fourth that is the composite of each of these, referred to here as CCM.
Process_Date: 2005
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Robert P. Kucks
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address:
Box 25046, MS 964
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Country: USA
Address_Type: mailing address
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rkucks@usgs.gov
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (303)236-1405
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The gamma-ray absorbed dose was calculated using the equation

D = 13.2 K + 5.48 eU + 2.72 eTh

where K is the concentration of potassium in units of percent K, eU is the concentration of uranium in ppm, eTh is the concentration of thorium in ppm, and D is the absorbed dose in nanoGrays per hour (nGy/hr). This equation is based upon the equation published by Grasty (see OF Report). The grid of the gamma-ray absorbed dose was calculated using the grids of potassium, uranium, and thorium concentrations. That grid was then displayed in image form using the commercial software package Geosoft Oasismontaj.
Process_Date: 2005
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Robert P. Kucks
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address:
Box 25046, MS 964
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Country: USA
Address_Type: mailing address
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rkucks@usgs.gov
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (303)236-1405
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: pixel
Row_Count: 2371
Column_Count: 5823
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Transverse Mercator (Spherical/DNAG)
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.926
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -100.0
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 0
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 2000
Ordinate_Resolution: 2000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: DNAG
Ellipsoid_Name: Sphere
Semi-major_Axis: 6371204.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 1.0
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: CCM grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition:
Gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of naturally occuring elements expressed in concentrations of radioactive elements
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: potassium percentage, uranium and thorium ppm
Attribute_Definition:
expressed in units of percent potassium (percent K) and equivalent concentration of uranium and thorium in ppm (ppm eU & ppm eTh)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Duval, Darnley, and Garrett 1990
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 100.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: percent of element
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.1
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Cells lacking color (white) represent areas of no data in image.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: K grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition:
Gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of naturally occuring elements, expressed in concentrations of radioactive elements
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: potassium percentage
Attribute_Definition: expressed in units of percent potassium (percent K)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 4.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: percent K
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.1
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Cells lacking color (white) represent areas of no data in image.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Th grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition:
Gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of naturally occuring elements, expressed in concentrations of radioactive elements
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: thorium concentration
Attribute_Definition:
expressed in units of parts per million equivalent thorium (ppm eTh)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 24.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ppm eTh
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.1
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Cells lacking color (white) represent areas of no data in image.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: U grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition:
Gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of naturally occuring elements, expressed in concentrations of radioactive elements
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: uranium concentration
Attribute_Definition:
expressed in units of parts per million equivalent uranium (ppm eU)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 6.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ppm eU
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.1
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Cells lacking color (white) represent areas of no data in image.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: exp grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition:
Gamma-ray flux produced by the radioactive decay of naturally occuring elements, expressed in concentrations absorbed doses
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: nanoGrays per hour
Attribute_Definition: gamma-ray absorbed dose rate
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 125.0
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: nanoGrays per hour
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Cells lacking color (white) represent areas of no data in image.
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USGS Map Distribution
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Box 25286, Building 810
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (888)ASK-USGS
Resource_Description: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1413
Distribution_Liability:
The USGS has made every effort to verify the veracity of this information, but is not liable for any inaccuracies.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: OGC WMS
Format_Version_Number: 1.3.0
Format_Information_Content: Uranium, Thorium, Potassium, and color composite grids
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: 6
Format_Information_Content: Uranium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: 6
Format_Information_Content: Thorium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: 6
Format_Information_Content: Potassium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Version_Number: 6
Format_Information_Content: Absorbed dose
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Geosoft grid
Format_Information_Content: Uranium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Geosoft grid
Format_Information_Content: Thorium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Geosoft grid
Format_Information_Content: Potassium
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Geosoft grid
Format_Information_Content: Absorbed dose
Transfer_Size: 41
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Fees: none
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20161207
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Organization: USGS Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

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