The National Geochemical Survey - database and documentation

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Title: The National Geochemical Survey - database and documentation
Abstract:
The USGS, in collaboration with other federal and state government agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting the National Geochemical Survey (NGS) to produce a body of geochemical data for the United States based primarily on stream sediments, analyzed using a consistent set of methods. These data will compose a complete, national-scale geochemical coverage of the US, and will enable construction of geochemical maps, refine estimates of baseline concentrations of chemical elements in the sampled media, and provide context for a wide variety of studies in the geological and environmental sciences. The goal of the NGS is to analyze at least one stream-sediment sample in every 289 km2 area by a single set of analytical methods across the entire nation, with other solid sample media substituted where necessary. The NGS incorporates geochemical data from a variety of sources, including existing analyses in USGS databases, reanalyses of samples in USGS archives, and analyses of newly collected samples. At the present time, the NGS includes data covering ~71% of the land area of the US, including samples in all 50 states.

This version of the online report provides complete access to NGS data, describes the history of the project, the methodology used, and presents preliminary geochemical maps for all analyzed elements. Future editions of this and other related reports will include the results of analysis of variance studies, as well as interpretive products related to the NGS data.

This database provides in digital form many geochemical analyses reported by USGS in its published literature.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2004, The National Geochemical Survey - database and documentation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1001, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -178.763350
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 158.257500
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.318300
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 6.906500
  3. What does it look like?
    https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/statusmaps/sample-types-09-08.jpg (JPEG)
    The area of the United States currently covered by the NGS and for which data are available in this report. Colors are used to indicate which sample media are represented in different parts of the country. Note that overlapping symbols may obscure some points. At present, 88% of the land area of the US has sample coverage. ~70% of the analyzed samples are stream sediments and the majority of the rest are soils. 976x480 pixels, 202k bytes.
    https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/statusmaps/sample-density-09-08.jpg (JPEG)
    Density of geochemical sampling in the NGS. Density is shown both as the number of samples per 1000 km2 (right side of legend) and as the approximate linear spacing between samples had they been collected along a perfect two-dimensional grid (left side of legend). Hot colors indicate dense sampling and cool colors show areas where sampling is relatively sparse; white areas are not yet covered. Sample density is not uniform across the nation due to the incorporation of many different types of studies into the NGS, although a minimum density of ~1 sample per 289 km2 (dark blue) is maintained in all sampled areas (gray areas on the map, with lower densities, are not yet complete). 969x534 pixels, 243k bytes.
    https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/statusmaps/ngs-status-09-08.jpg (JPEG)
    Plans for completing the NGS in the year 2008

    For planning purposes, the nation was divided into ~33,000 cells, each with ~289 sq km area. These cells are shown in this map, color-coded by the status of sampling within the cell. Green areas are done. Pale green cells were missed during initial phases of the NGS and may be filled at some future date. In dark blue regions, collaborative sampling efforts by the USGS and state government agencies are under way. Red areas include both cells that will probably not be sampled (e.g., the Nevada Test Site) and cells for which sampling plans have not yet been developed. 967x484 pixels, 186k bytes.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 11-Jul-1967
    Ending_Date: 2007
    Currentness_Reference:
    Sample collection dates
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tables
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (75423)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The database contains 284 different attributes in a single table. These are documented in detail on the web site. The following list shows, by general category, the attribute labels, type, width and precision, and a short description of the field.

     Basic sample info
             REC_NO  Text     10    NURE record ID or USGS record ID code
              LABNO  Text     19    Unique laboratory name for analyzed sample
            DATASET  Text     26    Description of group of samples of which this one is a member
           CATEGORY  Text     20    General type of sample to which the sample-set belongs
           TYPEDESC  Text     12    Abbreviated description of sample type: stream/pond/spring/soil/etc
    
     Geographic information
              DATUM  Text      7    Datum of the geographic coordinates
           LATITUDE  Real     20.5  Latitude in decimal degrees
          LONGITUDE  Real     20.5  Longitude in decimal degrees (negative = West)
         QUAD24CODE  Text     10    Code for the USGS 1:24,000 (7.5 minute) quadrangle in which sample is located
         QUAD250COD  Text      5    Code for the USGS 1:250,000 (1x2-degree) quadrangle in which sample is located
         QUAD100COD  Text      7    Code for the USGS 1:100,000 (1:62,500 in Alaska) quadrangle in which sample is located
           FIPS_INT  Integer   5    FIPS of county calculated from geographic coordinates
              HUC_8  Text      8    8-digit hydrologic unit code calculated from geographic coordinates
          QD250NAME  Text     50    Name of USGS 1:250,000 (1x2-degree) quadrangle in which sample is located
    
     Sample attributes
             FLDNAM  Text     19    Field name of sample, possibly corrected after laboratory analysis.
          COLL_DATE  Date      8    Day on which the sample was collected in the field
           DESCRIPT  Text    220    Sample description and field notes
              STYPE  Integer   4    3-digit code for the sample medium and collection protocol
         SOIL_HORIZ  Text     11    Soil horizon from which the sample was collected (soils only).
              COLOR  Text     26    Observed color of powdered sample during splitting, prior to USGS analysis
          SMPGRSIZE  Text     18    Grain size of material collected in the field (descriptive)
             MEDIUM  Text      9    Sample medium (rock, sediment, standard, or unknown)
             SOURCE  Text     14    Geological source of the sample medium that was collected
         SOURCE_MOD  Text     18    Adjective describing sample source
            UPSIEVE  Integer   4    Sieve size (micrometers) through which sample passed prior to analysis
              DRIED  Text      7    Manner in which sample was dried prior to analysis
          STYPENOTE  Text     72    Notes relevant to medium, source, source_mod, upsieve, and dried fields
    
     Site attributes
            SETTING  Text     31    Physiographic setting of sample site
          ACCHANWID  Text     14    Width of active stream channel at collection site
           WATERDEP  Text     11    Depth of water at collection site
             WATCOL  Text     17    Color of water at collection site
          FLOWSTAGE  Text     17    Flow stage of stream at time of sample collection
           FLOWRATE  Text     23    Description of flow rate of stream at time of sample collection
             STRBED  Text     45    Material in stream bed at sample collection site
          CONTAMSOU  Text     30    Observed sources of anthropogenic contamination near sample site
          CONTAMPOT  Text     46    Likelihood that the sample is contaminated
         CONTAMDEGR  Text     13    Degree to which sample is likely to be contaminated
                VEG  Text     76    Description of vegetation around sample site
                 PH  Real     10.3  pH of  water at sample site
    
     Sample attributes - detailed
          GRAINSIZE  Text     16    Grain size observed during splitting prior to USGS analysis (coarse or fine)
          COLLECTOR  Text     25    Name, abbreviation, or code for person or team that collected the sample
           PRIME_ID  Text      9    Primary NURE sample name
             LASLID  Text      6    Los Alamos NURE field name
             ORNLID  Text      7    Oak Ridge NURE field name
              SRLID  Text      9    Savannah River NURE field name
              LLLID  Text      8    Lawrence Livermore NURE field name
               SITE  Text      8    Other NURE name info
              XSITE  Text      7    Quality control/assurance info for Lawrence Livermore Lab
              REPLC  Text      3    NURE Replicate codes
            LABCOND  Real     10.3  Conductivity meaured in laboratory
              GRABS  Integer   2    Number of grabs or subsamples
             SAMPHR  Integer   2    Time of day that sample was collected
           ORGN_PCT  Integer   2    Estimated %organics
              STUDY  Text      4    Special NURE study code
               ODOR  Text     12    Sample odor observed in field
    
     Site attributes - detailed
             PHOTOS  Text     19    Names of photographs taken at collection site
          FLDPLNWID  Text     11    Width of flood plain at sample collection site
             RELIEF  Text     27    Relief in drainage basin from which sample was collected
          FORMATION  Text     44    Code or name of geologic formation in which sample area was located
           SGEOUNIT  Text      4    Geologic unit at sample site
                ALK  Real     10.5  Total alkalinity of water at sample site
             O_DISS  Real     10.5  Dissolved oxygen (ppm) in water at sample site
               SCIN  Real     10.5  Gamma activity at sample site
            AIRTEMP  Real     10.3  Air temperature at time of collection
            WTRTEMP  Real     10.3  Water temperature at time of collection
               COND  Real     10.3  Conductivity of water at sample site
            STRFLOW  Real     10.5  Stream velocity (m/s) at sample collection site
           STR_CHAN  Text     10    Describes whether stream is depositing or eroding at collection site
              WEATH  Text     25    Weather observations at time of sample collection
           VEG_DENS  Text     12    Density of vegetation around sample site
          ROCK_TYPE  Text     20    Rock type in area of sample collection
           ROCK_COL  Text     15    Rock color in area of sample collection
    
     Analyses by ICP/Acid dissolution
          ICP40_JOB  Text     10    Job number for ICP 40-element method
           AL_ICP40  Real     12.5  Al (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CA_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ca (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           FE_ICP40  Real     12.5  Fe (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
            K_ICP40  Real     12.5  K  (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           MG_ICP40  Real     12.5  Mg (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           NA_ICP40  Real     12.5  Na (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
            P_ICP40  Real     12.5  P  (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           TI_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ti (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           AG_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ag (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           AS_ICP40  Real     12.5  As (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           AU_ICP40  Real     12.5  Au (ppb) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           BA_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ba (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           BE_ICP40  Real     12.5  Be (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           BI_ICP40  Real     12.5  Bi (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CD_ICP40  Real     12.5  Cd (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CE_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ce (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CO_ICP40  Real     12.5  Co (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CR_ICP40  Real     12.5  Cr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CU_ICP40  Real     12.5  Cu (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           EU_ICP40  Real     12.5  Eu (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           GA_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ga (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           HO_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ho (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           LA_ICP40  Real     12.5  La (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           LI_ICP40  Real     12.5  Li (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           MN_ICP40  Real     12.5  Mn (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           MO_ICP40  Real     12.5  Mo (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           NB_ICP40  Real     12.5  Nb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           ND_ICP40  Real     12.5  Nd (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           NI_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ni (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           PB_ICP40  Real     12.5  Pb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           SC_ICP40  Real     12.5  Sc (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           SN_ICP40  Real     12.5  Sn (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           SR_ICP40  Real     12.5  Sr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           TA_ICP40  Real     12.5  Ta (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           TH_ICP40  Real     12.5  Th (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
            U_ICP40  Real     12.5  U  (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
            V_ICP40  Real     12.5  V  (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
            Y_ICP40  Real     12.5  Y  (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           YB_ICP40  Real     12.5  Yb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           ZN_ICP40  Real     12.5  Zn (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           CS_ICP40  Real     10.3  Cs (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           RB_ICP40  Real     10.3  Rb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           SB_ICP40  Real     10.3  Sb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
           ZR_ICP40  Real     10.3  Zr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after acid dissolution
    
     Analyses by AA
             AS_JOB  Text     10    Job number for As method
              AS_AA  Real     11.3  As (ppm) by Hydride Atomic Absorption
             SE_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Se method
              SE_AA  Real     11.3  Se (ppm) by Hydride Atomic Absorption
             HG_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Hg method
              HG_AA  Real     12.5  Hg (ppm) by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption
             SB_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Sb method
              SB_AA  Real     10.3  Sb (ppm) by Hydride Atomic Absorption
             TE_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Te method
              TE_AA  Real     11.3  Te (ppm) by Hydride Atomic Absorption
             TL_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Tl method
              TL_AA  Real     11.3  Tl (ppm) by Hydride Atomic Absorption
              W_JOB  Text     10    Job number for W method
               W_VS  Real     10.3  W  (ppm) by Visible Spectrophotometry
             AU_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Au method
              AU_AA  Real     14.5  Au (ppb) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption
           PDPT_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Pd and Pt method
              PD_AA  Real     10.3  Pd (ppb) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption
              PT_AA  Real     10.3  Pt (ppb) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption
    
     Analyses by ICP Partial Chem
          ICP10_JOB  Text     10    Job number for ICP 10-element partial extraction method
           AG_ICP10  Real     13.5  Ag (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           AS_ICP10  Real     13.5  As (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           AU_ICP10  Real     13.5  Au (ppb) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           BI_ICP10  Real     13.5  Bi (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           CD_ICP10  Real     13.5  Cd (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           CU_ICP10  Real     13.5  Cu (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           MO_ICP10  Real     13.5  Mo (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           PB_ICP10  Real     13.5  Pb (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           SB_ICP10  Real     13.5  Sb (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           ZN_ICP10  Real     12.5  Zn (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           GA_ICP10  Real     10.3  Ga (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           HG_ICP10  Real     10.3  Hg (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           SE_ICP10  Real     10.3  Se (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           TE_ICP10  Real     10.3  Te (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
           TL_ICP10  Real     10.3  Tl (ppm) by Partial Extraction Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
    
     Analyses by Fusion ICP
          ICP16_JOB  Text     10    Job number for ICP 16-element fusion method
           AL_ICP16  Real      9.3  Al (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           CA_ICP16  Real      9.3  Ca (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           FE_ICP16  Real      9.3  Fe (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
            K_ICP16  Real      9.3  K  (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           MG_ICP16  Real      9.3  Mg (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           NA_ICP16  Real      9.3  Na (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
            P_ICP16  Real      9.3  P  (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           SI_ICP16  Real      9.3  Si (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           TI_ICP16  Real      9.3  Ti (wt%) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           BA_ICP16  Real      9.3  Ba (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           CR_ICP16  Real      9.3  Cr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           MN_ICP16  Real      9.3  Mn (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           NB_ICP16  Real      9.3  Nb (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           SR_ICP16  Real      9.3  Sr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
            Y_ICP16  Real      9.3  Y  (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
           ZR_ICP16  Real      9.3  Zr (ppm) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry after peroxide fusion
    
     Analyses by NAA
         INAAJOB_US  Text     10    Job number for USGS INAA method
         INAAJOB_BE  Text     10    Job number for Becquerel INAA method
            NA_INAA  Real     11.3  Na (wt%) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            SC_INAA  Real     11.3  Sc (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            TI_INAA  Real     11.3  Ti (wt%) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            CR_INAA  Real     11.3  Cr (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            FE_INAA  Real     11.3  Fe (wt%) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            CO_INAA  Real     11.3  Co (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            NI_INAA  Real     11.3  Ni (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            ZN_INAA  Real     11.3  Zn (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            AS_INAA  Real     11.3  As (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            BR_INAA  Real      8.3  Br (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            RB_INAA  Real     11.3  Rb (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            SR_INAA  Real     11.3  Sr (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            ZR_INAA  Real     11.3  Zr (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            MO_INAA  Real      9.3  Mo (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            SB_INAA  Real     11.3  Sb (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            CS_INAA  Real     11.3  Cs (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            BA_INAA  Real     11.3  Ba (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            LA_INAA  Real     11.3  La (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            CE_INAA  Real     11.3  Ce (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            ND_INAA  Real     11.3  Nd (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            SM_INAA  Real     11.3  Sm (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            EU_INAA  Real     11.3  Eu (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            TB_INAA  Real     11.3  Tb (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            YB_INAA  Real     11.3  Yb (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            LU_INAA  Real     11.3  Lu (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            HF_INAA  Real     11.3  Hf (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            TA_INAA  Real     11.3  Ta (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
             W_INAA  Real     11.3  W  (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            AU_INAA  Real     11.3  Au (ppb) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
            TH_INAA  Real     11.3  Th (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
             U_INAA  Real     11.3  U  (ppm) by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
             DN_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Delayed Neutron method
               U_DN  Real      8.3  U  (ppm) by Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis
              TH_DN  Real      8.3  Th (ppm) by Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis
    
     Analyses by XRF
            XRF_JOB  Text     10    Job number for XRF method
           SIO2_XRF  Real     10.3  SiO2  (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
          AL2O3_XRF  Real     10.3  Al2O3 (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
          FE2O3_XRF  Real     10.3  Fe2O3 (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
            MGO_XRF  Real     10.3  MgO   (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
            CAO_XRF  Real     10.3  CaO   (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
           NA2O_XRF  Real     10.3  Na2O  (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
            K2O_XRF  Real     10.3  K2O   (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
           TIO2_XRF  Real     10.3  TiO2  (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
           P2O5_XRF  Real     10.3  P2O5  (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
            MNO_XRF  Real     10.3  MnO   (wt%) by Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
            LOI925C  Real     10.3  Loss on Ignition (wt%) preceding Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
    
     Analyses for light elements
            C_S_JOB  Text     10    Job number for Carbon and Sulfur method
              C_TOT  Real     13.3  Total carbon (wt%) by Combustion
              C_ORG  Real     10.3  Organic carbon (wt%) by difference from c_tot and c_co3
              C_CO3  Real     10.3  Carbonate carbon (wt%) by Coulometric Titration
              S_TOT  Real     10.3  Total sulfur (wt%) by Combustion
    
     Analyses by NURE program
            AL_NURE  Real     12.5  Al (wt%) measured by the NURE program
            CA_NURE  Real     12.5  Ca (wt%) measured by the NURE program
            FE_NURE  Real     12.5  Fe (wt%) measured by the NURE program
             K_NURE  Real     12.5  K  (wt%) measured by the NURE program
            MG_NURE  Real     12.5  Mg (wt%) measured by the NURE program
            NA_NURE  Real     12.5  Na (wt%) measured by the NURE program
            AG_NURE  Real     12.5  Ag (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            AS_NURE  Real     12.5  As (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            AU_NURE  Real     12.5  Au (ppb) measured by the NURE program
             B_NURE  Real     12.5  B  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            BA_NURE  Real     12.5  Ba (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            BE_NURE  Real     12.5  Be (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            BI_NURE  Real     12.5  Bi (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            BR_NURE  Real     12.5  Br (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CD_NURE  Real     12.5  Cd (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CE_NURE  Real     12.5  Ce (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CL_NURE  Real     12.5  Cl (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CO_NURE  Real     12.5  Co (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CR_NURE  Real     12.5  Cr (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CS_NURE  Real     12.5  Cs (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            CU_NURE  Real     12.5  Cu (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            DY_NURE  Real     12.5  Dy (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            EU_NURE  Real     12.5  Eu (ppm) measured by the NURE program
             F_NURE  Real     12.5  F  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            HF_NURE  Real     12.5  Hf (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            HG_NURE  Real     12.5  Hg (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            LA_NURE  Real     12.5  La (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            LI_NURE  Real     12.5  Li (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            LU_NURE  Real     12.5  Lu (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            MN_NURE  Real     12.5  Mn (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            MO_NURE  Real     12.5  Mo (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            NB_NURE  Real     12.5  Nb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            NI_NURE  Real     12.5  Ni (ppm) measured by the NURE program
             P_NURE  Real     12.5  P  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            PB_NURE  Real     12.5  Pb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            PT_NURE  Real     12.5  Pt (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            RB_NURE  Real     12.5  Rb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SB_NURE  Real     12.5  Sb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SC_NURE  Real     12.5  Sc (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SE_NURE  Real     12.5  Se (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SM_NURE  Real     12.5  Sm (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SN_NURE  Real     12.5  Sn (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            SR_NURE  Real     12.5  Sr (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            TA_NURE  Real     12.5  Ta (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            TB_NURE  Real     12.5  Tb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            TH_NURE  Real     12.5  Th (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            TI_NURE  Real     12.5  Ti (wt%) measured by the NURE program
             V_NURE  Real     12.5  V  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
             W_NURE  Real     12.5  W  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
             Y_NURE  Real     12.5  Y  (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            YB_NURE  Real     12.5  Yb (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            ZN_NURE  Real     12.5  Zn (ppm) measured by the NURE program
            ZR_NURE  Real     12.5  Zr (ppm) measured by the NURE program
             U_NURE  Real     12.5  U  (ppm) [Preferred value if more than one method was used by NURE]
    
     Analytical details
             LABNO2  Text     19    A second name under which the same sample was analyzed
         PREV_LABNO  Text     16    Unique laboratory name for sample when analyzed at USGS 1980-1997.
          FLDNAM_AN  Text     19    Field name of sample as analyzed (authoritative name in FLDNAM field)
           AOV_CODE  Text      2    Analysis of variance code
          REPLICATE  Text     10    Lab number of duplicate analysis
          LOC_COUNT  Integer   2    Number of samples at these coordinates
         ANAL_NOTES  Text     40    Notes made during processing of data
          NURE_METH  Text     40    Analytical method codes for ~1980 NURE data
    
    
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/about.php

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Jeffrey N. Grossman: Principal author of this report; database design and data processing; development of geochemical mapping methods; development of computer methods in support of geochemical sampling.

    Andrew E. Grosz: Project concept, design, and leadership; development and supervision of sampling protocols and field methods; development of collaborative activities between the USGS and other agencies.

    Peter N. Schweitzer: Development of data retrieval software; website programming.

    Paul G. Schruben: GIS support; report generation; sample site maps; sample preparation.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jeffrey N Grossman
    U.S. Geological Survey, ER
    Mail Stop 954
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    703-648-6184 (voice)
    703-648-6383 (FAX)
    jgrossman@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data will compose a complete, national-scale geochemical coverage of the US, and will enable construction of geochemical maps, refine estimates of baseline concentrations of chemical elements in the sampled media, and provide context for a wide variety of studies in the geological and environmental sciences. The goal of the NGS is to analyze at least one stream-sediment sample in every 289 km2 area by a single set of analytical methods across the entire nation, with other solid sample media substituted where necessary.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    NURE-HSSR (source 1 of 15)
    Smith, Steven M., 1997, Reformatted data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-492.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    Samples collected between 1975 and 1980 as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program.
    Goldhaber and others (2001) (source 2 of 15)
    Goldhaber, Martin B., Irwin, Elise, Atkins, Brian, Lee, Lopaka, Black, Dee Dee, Zappia, Humbert, Hatch, Joe, Pashin, Jack, Barwick, Larry H., Cartwright, Walter E., Sanzolone, Rick, Ruppert, Leslie, Kolker, Allan, and Finkelman, Robert, 2001, Arsenic in Stream Sediments of Northern Alabama: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2357.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    Data identified in the database where DATASET='NURE Alabama II'

    A suite of 1690 samples from northern Alabama (excluding the northeast corner), was pulled from the NURE archive and analyzed in 1998 for a project by M. Goldhaber (Goldhaber and others, 2001). Most were analyzed by the ICP40 and As methods only.

    Cannon and others (2003) (source 3 of 15)
    Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., and Pimley, Shana, 2003, Some statistical relationships between stream sediment and soil geochemistry in northwestern Wisconsin--can stream sediment compositions be used to predict compositions of soils in glaciated terranes?: Journal of Geochemical Exploration v. 81.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A suite of 400 samples from the Ashland and Rice Lake 1x2 degree quadrangles in northern Wisconsin, pulled from the NURE archive and analyzed in 1998 for a project by W. Cannon (Cannon and others, 2003). All were analyzed by the ICP40 and As methods, and ~1/4 were also analyzed for Hg.
    Folger (2000) (source 4 of 15)
    Folger, H.W., 2000, Analytical results and sample locations of reanalyzed NURE stream-sediment and soil samples for the Humboldt River Basin mineral-environmental resource assessment, northern Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-421.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution: A large number of samples reanalyzed from the NURE collection.
    Tuttle and others (2002) (source 5 of 15)
    Tuttle, Michele L.W., Goldhaber, Martin B., Ruppert, Leslie F., and Hower, James C., 2002, Arsenic in rocks and stream sediments of the central Appalachian Basin, Kentucky: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-28.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A suite of 1280 samples from eastern Kentucky was pulled from the NURE archive and analyzed in 2000 for a project by M. Goldhaber and M. Tuttle (see Tuttle and others, 2002). All were analyzed by the ICP40 and As methods, and ~1/8 were also analyzed by the Hg and Se atomic absorption methods.
    King and others (1996) (source 6 of 15)
    King, H.D., D.L., Fey, Motooka, J.M., Knight, R.J., B.H., Roushey, and McGuire, D.J., 1996, Analytical data and sample locality map of stream-sediment and soil samples from the Winnemucca-Surprise Resource Assessment Area, northwest Nevada and northeast California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-62-B.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution: Part of a large number of NURE samples reanalyzed by USGS.
    Kilburn and others (1990) (source 7 of 15)
    Kilburn, J.E., Smith, D.B., and Hopkins, R.T., 1990, Analytical results and sample locality map of stream sediment samples from the Reno 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle, California and Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-204.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A group of 809 samples from the Reno quadrangle in west-central Nevada was pulled from the NURE archive and analyzed for Hg, Au, W, and other trace elements in 1985-1986 (Kilburn and others, 1990). No ICP analyses were done on the samples. Analytical data for the samples was extracted from the RASS component of the National Geochemical Database (Carl Abston, written comm. 2000).
    PLUTO (source 8 of 15)
    Baedecker, Phillip A., Grossman, Jeffrey N., and Buttleman, Kim P., 1998, National Geochemical Database: PLUTO geochemical database for the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    The PLUTO database contains the results of analyses of geological material done by the Branch of Analytical Laboratories (and its successors and predecessors at the USGS) between the late 1960's and mid 1990's. PLUTO is one component of the National Geochemical Database at the USGS.
    Colman and Sanzolone (1990) (source 9 of 15)
    Colman, John A., and Sanzolone, Richard F., 1990, Surface-water quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; geochemical data for fine-fraction streambed sediment from high- and low-order streams, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-571.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A series of stream sediments from the upper Illinois River basin was collected in the late 1980's, and most were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods.
    Colman and Sanzolone (1992) (source 10 of 15)
    Colman, John A., and Sanzolone, Richard F., 1992, Geochemical characterization of streambed sediment in the upper Illinois River basin: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Bulletin v. 28, no. 5.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A series of stream sediments from the upper Illinois River basin was collected in the late 1980's, and most were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods.
    Sanzolone and Ryder (1989) (source 11 of 15)
    Sanzolone, Richard F., and Ryder, Jean L., 1989, Quality assessment program and results for the NAWQA surface water pilot studies: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-658.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A series of stream sediments from the upper Illinois River basin was collected in the late 1980's, and most were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods.
    Wilson and others (1990) (source 12 of 15)
    Wilson, S.A., Kennedy, K.R., Gent, C.A., Briggs, P.H., Tidball, R.R., and McNeal, J.M., 1990, Analysis of soil samples from the San Joaquin Valley of California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-214.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    In the early 1980's, the USGS collected a large suite of stream sediment samples on a 10x10 km grid across the entire southern half of California (the "CALMAP" project). In the San Joaquin Valley, soils were collected due to the absence of suitable streams, with most of the sampling being done in 1983. This dataset comprises analyses of these soils from 1985, done by Wilson and others (1990), using the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods.
    RASS Alaska (source 13 of 15)
    Bailey, Eizabeth A., Smith, David B., Abston, Carl C., Granitto, Matthew, and Burleigh, Kuuipo A., 1999, National Geochemical Database: U.S. Geological Survey RASS (Rock Analysis Storage System) geochemical data for Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-433.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A diverse group of 677 stream sediment samples from across Alaska, with many from the Alaska Peninsula, were extracted from the RASS sample archive at the Denver Federal Center for reanalysis. These samples were originally submitted for analysis by 35 different USGS scientists during the period 1967-1992; original publications for these samples are unknown to the authors of the present report. Original analyses, many of which are by semiquantitative methods, may be found in the RASS component of the National Geochemical Database, but are not included in this database. All were reanalyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods in 2001 as part of the National Geochemical Survey project, to fill in areas of Alaska not covered by NURE samples. In addition, several quadrangles in north-central Alaska (Survey Pass, Wiseman, and Chandalar) were included in order to duplicate areas covered by the NURE program.
    Thompson and others (1998) (source 14 of 15)
    D.E., Thompson, A.E., Grosz, J.M., McNeal, and J.N., Grossman, 1998, Surface geochemistry of Mississippi to be surveyed: Mississippi Geology v. 19, no. 2.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A suite of 1421 stream sediments and soils was collected as part of a joint USGS-Mississippi Geological Survey project (Thompson and others, 1998, 2002). Samples were collected in 1998, covering the entire state. Most Mississippi samples were analyzed by the ICP40, ICP10, As, Se, Hg, and INAA methods, and ~half were also analyzed by XRF.
    Thompson and others (2002) (source 15 of 15)
    D.E., Thompson, A.E., Grosz, P.G., Schruben, and J.N., Grossman, 2002, Solid-phase geochemical survey of the State of Mississippi; on the nature and distribution of As, Se, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Zn in stream sediments and soils [abstract]:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Curry, K.J. (editor), 2002, Mississippi Academy of Sciences Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting: Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences v. 47, no. 1.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    A suite of 1421 stream sediments and soils was collected as part of a joint USGS-Mississippi Geological Survey project (Thompson and others, 1998, 2002). Samples were collected in 1998, covering the entire state. Most Mississippi samples were analyzed by the ICP40, ICP10, As, Se, Hg, and INAA methods, and ~half were also analyzed by XRF.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1967 (process 1 of 9)
    Prior sample collection programs

    Sampling has been carried out over several decades in a variety of field programs run by numerous Federal and state agencies. Groups of samples collected by the same agency or research program are referred to in the documentation as separate "datasets", meaning the samples will have a common value for the fields CATEGORY and DATASET. The CATEGORY field indicates the general type of research program collecting the samples, while the DATASET field identifies the specific project, state government, or investigator in whose effort the samples were collected. These are described more fully in https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/groups-cats.htm
    Date: 1999 (process 2 of 9)
    National Geochemical Survey project

    By 1998-1999, it had become clear within the USGS Mineral Resources Prgram that there would be great benefits to combining earlier efforts in the southeastern states with other regional geochemical assessments being conducted by the program in the western US, and expanding to a national scale. A new national effort comprising four interlinked regional "Surveys and Analysis" projects was begun, including a task to undertake a National Geochemical Survey (NGS). A complete national geochemical coverage was sought, using an internally consistent set of analytical methods and principally based on stream sediments. The minimum sample density was planned to be 1 sample per 289 km2 in all land areas of the country (i. e., based on a 17x17 km sampling grid). Analytical methods were chosen to include a 40-element ICP package plus single-element determinations of As, Se, and Hg by atomic absorption for every sample.
    Date: 30-Sep-2005 (process 3 of 9)
    Field parties from 7 states collected samples in 2001-2003, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2004-2005. (a) 190 samples were collected in southwest Alaska by USGS geologists, in an area not covered previously by the USGS or NURE programs; (b) 14 samples were collected by A. Grosz and D. Bickerstaff (USGS) in Hawai`i, covering the islands of Hawai`i, O`ahu, Maui, Kaua`i, Moloka`i, and Lana`i; (c) 423 samples were collected across Illinois as part of a joint USGS-Illinois Geological Survey project; some of these samples were also analyzed above in the States 2002 dataset; (d) 250 samples were collected across Indiana as part of a joint USGS-Indiana Geological Survey project; some of these samples were also analyzed above in the States 2002 dataset; (e) 2 samples were collected in central South Dakota by a joint USGS, North Dakota Geological Survey, and South Dakota Geological Survey team as part of a field orientation study; (f) 654 soil samples were collected in North Dakota by the North Dakota Geological Survey as part of a statewide study; (g) 1095 soil samples were collected in Iowa by the Iowa Geological Survey as part of a statewide study; All samples were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods, as well as by a fire-assay method for Au, Pd, and Pt. Index map showing distribution of these samples: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/indexmaps/states-2003.jpg Data sources produced in this process:
    • States 2003
    Date: 21-Feb-2006 (process 4 of 9)
    Field parties from 13 states collected samples in 2003-2004, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2005. (a) 56 samples were collected on Kodiak Island, Alaska, by USGS geologists, in an area not covered previously by the USGS or NURE programs; (b) 362 samples were collected across Arkansas as part of a joint USGS, Arkansas Geological Commission study; (c) 186 samples were collected across northern California as part of a joint USGS, California Geological Survey project; (d) 38 samples were collected in an area of northern Kentucky not covered by the NURE program as part of a joint USGS, Kentucky Geological Survey study; (e) 57 samples were collected in an area of northern Maine not covered by the NURE program as part of a joint USGS, Maine Geological Survey study; (f) 379 samples were collected across Minnesota as part of a joint USGS, Minnesota Geological Survey study; (g) 780 soil samples were collected in North Dakota by the North Dakota Geological Survey as part of a statewide study (see the States 2003 dataset); (h) 581 samples were collected across Ohio as part of a joint USGS, Ohio Geological Survey study; (i) 125 samples were collected across Oregon as part of a joint USGS, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries study; (j) 125 samples were collected in western Pennsylvania as part of a joint USGS, Pennsylvania Geological Survey study; (k) 42 samples were collected in central Texas as part of a joint USGS, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology study; (l) 782 samples were collected across Washington State as part of a joint USGS, Washington DNR Division of Geology & Earth Resources study; (m) 260 samples were collected across Wisconsin as part of a joint USGS, Wisconsis Geological & Natural History Survey study. All samples were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods, as well as by a fire-assay method for Au, Pd, and Pt. Data sources produced in this process:
    • States 2004
    (process 5 of 9)
    Field parties from 8 states collected samples in 2003-2005, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2006. (a) 599 samples (533 soils and 66 sediments) were collected across northern California as part of a joint USGS, California Geological Survey project; (b) 33 samples left over from the States 2002 and 2003 datasets (above), collected across Indiana as part of a joint USGS-Indiana Geological Survey project, were analyzed; (c) 170 samples (126 soils and 44 stream sediments) were collected from Kansas as part of a joint USGS, Kansas Geological Survey project; (d) 242 stream sediment samples were collected across Missouri and part of a joint USGS, Missouri Dept. Natural Resources study; (e) 294 soil samples were collected in North Dakota by the North Dakota Geological Survey as part of a statewide study (see the States 2003 and 2004 datasets); (f) 65 stream sediment samples were collected in western New York by a USGS team; (g) 446 samples (half soils, half stream sediments) were collected across Oregon as part of a joint USGS, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries study; (h) 360 samples (309 soils, 51 stream sediments) were collected in central Texas as part of a joint USGS, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology study; All samples were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods, as well as by a fire-assay method for Au, Pd, and Pt. Data sources produced in this process:
    • States 2005
    (process 6 of 9)
    Field parties from 16 states collected samples between 2001 and 2006, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2006. (a) 88 samples (85 soils, 3 stream sediments) were collected across Arkansas as part of a joint USGS, Arkansas Geological Commission study; (b) 59 soil samples were collected from wetlands in Iowa by the Iowa Geological Survey; (c) 7 samples left over from the States 2002 and 2003 datasets (above) from Illinois were analyzed; (d) 88 samples (half soils and half stream sediments) were collected from Kansas as part of a joint USGS, Kansas Geological Survey project; (e) 1 stream sediment from Maine was analyzed, beginning a joint USGS, Maine Geological Survey project; (f) 583 samples (all but 2 are soils) were collected across Minnesota as part of a joint USGS, Minnesota Geological Survey study; (g) 309 stream sediment samples were collected across Missouri and part of a joint USGS, Missouri Dept. Natural Resources study; (h) 11 soil samples were collected in North Dakota by the North Dakota Geological Survey as part of a statewide study (see the States 2003 and 2004 datasets); (i) 80 soils and 5 stream sediments were collected in Nebraska as part of a joint USGS-State of Nebraska project; (j) 24 stream sediment and soil samples were collected in Long Island, New York by a USGS team; (k) 35 soils plus 1 stream sediment were collected in Ohio as part of a joint USGS, Ohio DNR study; (l) 308 samples (76 soils, 308 stream sediments) were collected across Oregon as part of a joint USGS, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries study; (m) 78 stream sediments were collected in Pennsylvania as part of a joint USGS, Penn. Geological Survey study; (n) 38 soils and stream sediments were collected in Tennessee as part of a joint USGS, Tenn. Division of Geology study; (o) 22 samples were collected across Washington State as part of a joint USGS, Washington DNR Division of Geology & Earth Resources study; (p) 3 samples were collected from Wisconsin, completing a joint USGS, Wisconsis Geological & Natural History Survey study (see States 2004); All samples were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods, as well as by a fire-assay method for Au, Pd, and Pt. Data sources produced in this process:
    • States 2006a
    (process 7 of 9)
    Field parties from 16 states collected samples between 2001 and 2006, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2006. (a) 42 samples (39 soils, 3 stream sediments) were collected across Arkansas as part of a joint USGS, Arkansas Geological Commission study; (b) 20 samples (17 soils and 3 sediments) were collected across northern California as part of a joint USGS, California Geological Survey project; (c) 351 samples (312 soils and 39 stream sediments) were collected from Kansas as part of a joint USGS, Kansas Geological Survey project; (d) 76 samples were collected in an area of northern Kentucky not covered by the NURE program as part of a joint USGS, Kentucky Geological Survey study; (e) 165 stream sediments from northern Maine were analyzed, completing a joint USGS, Maine Geological Survey project; (f) 230 samples (all but 3 are soils) were collected across Minnesota, mostly completing a joint USGS, Minnesota Geological Survey study; (g) 24 stream sediment samples were collected across Missouri and part of a joint USGS, Missouri Dept. Natural Resources study, were analyzed; (h) 10 remaining soil samples collected in North Dakota by the North Dakota Geological Survey as part of a statewide study (see the States 2003 and 2004 datasets); (i) 95 soils and 1 stream sediment were collected in Nebraska as part of a joint USGS-State of Nebraska project; (j) 49 samples (9 soils, 40 stream sediments) were collected across Oregon as part of a joint USGS, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries study; (k) 30 samples (29 soils, 1 stream sediment) were collected in central Texas as part of a joint USGS, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology study; (l) 18 soil samples were collected across Washington State as part of a joint USGS, Washington DNR Division of Geology & Earth Resources study; (m) 1 stream sediment sample was collected from Wisconsin, completing a joint USGS, Wisconsis Geological & Natural History Survey study (see States 2004); All samples were analyzed by the ICP40, As, Se, and Hg methods, as well as by a fire-assay method for Au, Pd, and Pt. Data sources produced in this process:
    • States 2006b
    Date: 25-Feb-2008 (process 8 of 9)
    Coordinates corrected for samples with labno C-277186 and C-277197 by Jeff Grossman
    Date: Sep-2008 (process 9 of 9)
    Field parties in 9 states plus Guam, the Northern Marianas Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia collected samples between 2004 and 2007, and all were analyzed together, in random order, in 2008. (a) 19 sediment and soil samples were collected in the Bristol Bay area, Alaska, by USGS geologists; (b) 36 soil samples were collected in southern Louisiana by USGS geologists; (c) 269 samples of glacial till were collected across Minnesota, with a few in adjacent parts of Manitoba and Ontario, Canada, as part of a joint USGS, Minnesota Geological Survey study; (d) 239 soils and 3 stream sediment samples were collected in Nebraska as part of a joint USGS-State of Nebraska project; (e) 159 soils plus 8 stream sediment samples were collected in Ohio as part of a joint USGS, Ohio DNR study; (f) 213 soils plus 14 stream sediments were collected in Pennsylvania as part of a joint USGS, Penn. Geological Survey study; (g) 584 soils samples were collected in South Dakota as part of a joint USGS-South Dakota Geological Survey project; (h) 6 soils and 119 stream sediments were collected in Tennessee as part of a joint USGS, Tenn. Division of Geology study; (i) 28 soils and 33 stream sediments were collected in northeastern Utah by a team of USGS geologists; (j) 59 samples, mostly soils, were collected by USGS geologists on Pacific islands: 46 were from the territory of Guam; 4 were from Saipan, 3 from Tinian, and 3 from Rota in the Northern Marianas Islands; 4 were from Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Grossman, J.N., 1998, National Geochemical Atlas: The geochemical landscape of the conterminous United States derived from stream sediment and other solid sample media analyzed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 98-622.

    Gustavsson, N., Bølviken, B., Smith, D.B., and Severson, R.C., 2001, Geochemical landscapes of the conterminous United States -- New map presentations for 22 elements: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1648.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The database contains a wide variety of analytical results from methods whose reliability is generally well understood. The most reliable analytical methods are the following fields:

     AL_ICP40
     CA_ICP40
     FE_ICP40
     K_ICP40
     MG_ICP40
     NA_ICP40
     P_ICP40
     TI_ICP40
     BA_ICP40
     BE_ICP40
     CE_ICP40
     CO_ICP40
     CR_ICP40
     CU_ICP40
     EU_ICP40
     GA_ICP40
     LA_ICP40
     LI_ICP40
     MN_ICP40
     NB_ICP40
     ND_ICP40
     NI_ICP40
     PB_ICP40
     SC_ICP40
     SR_ICP40
     TH_ICP40
     V_ICP40
     Y_ICP40
     YB_ICP40
     ZN_ICP40
     CS_ICP40
     RB_ICP40
     SB_ICP40
     ZR_ICP40
     AS_AA
     SE_AA
     HG_AA
     SB_AA
     TE_AA
     TL_AA
     W_VS
     AU_AA
     PD_AA
     PT_AA
     AS_ICP10
     AU_ICP10
     CD_ICP10
     CU_ICP10
     MO_ICP10
     PB_ICP10
     ZN_ICP10
     GA_ICP10
     HG_ICP10
     SE_ICP10
     TE_ICP10
     TL_ICP10
     AL_ICP16
     CA_ICP16
     FE_ICP16
     K_ICP16
     MG_ICP16
     NA_ICP16
     P_ICP16
     SI_ICP16
     TI_ICP16
     BA_ICP16
     CR_ICP16
     MN_ICP16
     NB_ICP16
     SR_ICP16
     Y_ICP16
     ZR_ICP16
     NA_INAA
     SC_INAA
     TI_INAA
     CR_INAA
     FE_INAA
     CO_INAA
     NI_INAA
     ZN_INAA
     AS_INAA
     BR_INAA
     RB_INAA
     SR_INAA
     ZR_INAA
     SB_INAA
     CS_INAA
     BA_INAA
     LA_INAA
     CE_INAA
     ND_INAA
     SM_INAA
     EU_INAA
     TB_INAA
     YB_INAA
     LU_INAA
     HF_INAA
     TA_INAA
     W_INAA
     AU_INAA
     TH_INAA
     U_INAA
     U_DN
     TH_DN
     SIO2_XRF
     AL2O3_XRF
     FE2O3_XRF
     MGO_XRF
     CAO_XRF
     NA2O_XRF
     K2O_XRF
     TIO2_XRF
     P2O5_XRF
     MNO_XRF
     LOI925C
     TH_NURE
     U_NURE
    
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The accuracy of geographic sample locations depends on the procedures used by the original sampling program. Some general statements can be made, however.

    NGS Samples: For samples collected by the NGS (SW-ALASKA and State datasets) all coordinates were measured by handheld global positioning systems (GPS). Data were recorded in a variety of formats (decimal degrees, degrees plus decimal minutes, degrees-minutes-seconds, and UTM coordinates), and all were translated into decimal degrees.

    NURE samples: The coordinates of NURE samples (in all NURE datasets) , measured in the pre-GPS era, were digitized from field maps; a discussion of these methods and what datum was used may be found here.

    Other samples: The coordinates of all other samples (PLUTO and RASS datasets) were determined by unknown methods, unless specifically discussed in any primary publications on these datasets. Because most were collected in the pre-GPS era, most were probably digitized or otherwise read from field maps used during collection. It is likely that the NAD27 datum and Clarke 1866 ellipsoid were used on most such maps, but this is not known with confidence.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    At the present time, the NGS includes data covering about 71% of the land area of the US, including samples in all 50 states.

    Four of the analytical methods are considered to be most important for general coverage of the subject: the ICP 40-element acid dissolution group, and determination of Arsenic, Mercury, and Selenium by hydride-generation atomic absorption. Data from other analytical methods are provided when available but it was not the principal goal of the study to ensure that these analyses were completed on most samples. Only about 5% of the samples lack data from the ICP 40-element methods, and 25% to 35% of samples lack data from the primary AA methods (for As, Hg, and Se).

    The following table shows for each database field the number of empty cells and the proportion of the whole database that number represents.

        Field name  Missing Percent
    Sample identification
             REC_NO       0   0.0
              LABNO       0   0.0
            DATASET       0   0.0
           CATEGORY    2729   3.9
           TYPEDESC       6   0.0
    Geographic location
              DATUM   13579  19.3
           LATITUDE    2803   4.0
          LONGITUDE    2803   4.0
         QUAD24CODE    9362  13.3
         QUAD250COD    2782   4.0
         QUAD100COD    2808   4.0
           FIPS_INT    2782   4.0
              HUC_8    2804   4.0
          QD250NAME    2782   4.0
               ZIP3    2806   4.0
           CONGDIST    2806   4.0
    Sample characteristics
             FLDNAM       2   0.0
          COLL_DATE       0   0.0
           DESCRIPT    2532   3.6
              STYPE       6   0.0
         SOIL_HORIZ   63183  89.8
              COLOR   36315  51.6
          SMPGRSIZE   59512  84.6
             MEDIUM       6   0.0
             SOURCE    2720   3.9
         SOURCE_MOD   19641  27.9
            UPSIEVE    3540   5.0
              DRIED   11771  16.7
          STYPENOTE   45047  64.0
    Site characteristics
            SETTING   60013  85.3
          ACCHANWID   33857  48.1
           WATERDEP   33875  48.1
             WATCOL   45163  64.2
          FLOWSTAGE   21486  30.5
           FLOWRATE   44492  63.2
             STRBED   19804  28.1
          CONTAMSOU   14126  20.1
          CONTAMPOT   58672  83.4
         CONTAMDEGR   68546  97.4
                VEG   16267  23.1
                 PH   51554  73.3
    Sample characteristics (details)
          GRAINSIZE   46988  66.8
          COLLECTOR   30813  43.8
           PRIME_ID   19976  28.4
             LASLID   55035  78.2
             ORNLID   54452  77.4
              SRLID   45473  64.6
              LLLID   65548  93.2
               SITE   63631  90.4
              XSITE   70336 100.0
              REPLC   25323  36.0
            LABCOND   70351 100.0
              GRABS   40119  57.0
             SAMPHR   49733  70.7
           ORGN_PCT   65007  92.4
              STUDY   70026  99.5
               ODOR   64856  92.2
    Site characteristics (details)
             PHOTOS   66893  95.1
          FLDPLNWID   64933  92.3
             RELIEF   18458  26.2
          FORMATION   48761  69.3
           SGEOUNIT   51700  73.5
                ALK   59919  85.2
             O_DISS   67280  95.6
               SCIN   45205  64.2
            AIRTEMP   49965  71.0
            WTRTEMP   51416  73.1
               COND   51352  73.0
            STRFLOW   65019  92.4
           STR_CHAN   49211  69.9
              WEATH   38168  54.2
           VEG_DENS   24891  35.4
          ROCK_TYPE   42150  59.9
           ROCK_COL   58434  83.0
    Analyses by ICP/Acid dissolution
          ICP40_JOB    3540   5.0
           AL_ICP40    3563   5.1
           CA_ICP40    3563   5.1
           FE_ICP40    3563   5.1
            K_ICP40    3563   5.1
           MG_ICP40    3575   5.1
           NA_ICP40    3563   5.1
            P_ICP40    3607   5.1
           TI_ICP40    3563   5.1
           AG_ICP40    3563   5.1
           AS_ICP40    3797   5.4
           AU_ICP40    3797   5.4
           BA_ICP40    3571   5.1
           BE_ICP40    3563   5.1
           BI_ICP40    4729   6.7
           CD_ICP40    3563   5.1
           CE_ICP40    3563   5.1
           CO_ICP40    3563   5.1
           CR_ICP40    3563   5.1
           CU_ICP40    3563   5.1
           EU_ICP40    7287  10.4
           GA_ICP40    3563   5.1
           HO_ICP40    8441  12.0
           LA_ICP40    3563   5.1
           LI_ICP40    3563   5.1
           MN_ICP40    3581   5.1
           MO_ICP40    3563   5.1
           NB_ICP40    3823   5.4
           ND_ICP40    7275  10.3
           NI_ICP40    3563   5.1
           PB_ICP40    3563   5.1
           SC_ICP40    3563   5.1
           SN_ICP40    4729   6.7
           SR_ICP40    3576   5.1
           TA_ICP40    8441  12.0
           TH_ICP40    3563   5.1
            U_ICP40    4729   6.7
            V_ICP40    3563   5.1
            Y_ICP40    3563   5.1
           YB_ICP40    7275  10.3
           ZN_ICP40    3565   5.1
           CS_ICP40   66653  94.7
           RB_ICP40   66653  94.7
           SB_ICP40   66653  94.7
           ZR_ICP40   66653  94.7
    Analyses by AA
             AS_JOB   16009  22.8
              AS_AA   16009  22.8
             SE_JOB   22236  31.6
              SE_AA   22236  31.6
             HG_JOB   21206  30.1
              HG_AA   21206  30.1
             SB_JOB   67852  96.4
              SB_AA   67852  96.4
             TE_JOB   69195  98.3
              TE_AA   69195  98.3
             TL_JOB   68415  97.2
              TL_AA   68415  97.2
              W_JOB   69061  98.1
               W_VS   69061  98.1
             AU_JOB   45579  64.8
              AU_AA   45579  64.8
           PDPT_JOB   63301  90.0
              PD_AA   63301  90.0
              PT_AA   64701  92.0
    Analyses by ICP Partial Chem
          ICP10_JOB   55996  79.6
           AG_ICP10   55996  79.6
           AS_ICP10   55996  79.6
           AU_ICP10   59622  84.7
           BI_ICP10   55996  79.6
           CD_ICP10   55996  79.6
           CU_ICP10   56001  79.6
           MO_ICP10   55996  79.6
           PB_ICP10   55996  79.6
           SB_ICP10   55996  79.6
           ZN_ICP10   56000  79.6
           GA_ICP10   66737  94.8
           HG_ICP10   67058  95.3
           SE_ICP10   67510  95.9
           TE_ICP10   66737  94.8
           TL_ICP10   66737  94.8
    Analyses by Fusion ICP
          ICP16_JOB   68464  97.3
           AL_ICP16   68464  97.3
           CA_ICP16   68464  97.3
           FE_ICP16   68464  97.3
            K_ICP16   68464  97.3
           MG_ICP16   68464  97.3
           NA_ICP16   68464  97.3
            P_ICP16   68464  97.3
           SI_ICP16   68688  97.6
           TI_ICP16   68464  97.3
           BA_ICP16   68464  97.3
           CR_ICP16   68464  97.3
           MN_ICP16   68464  97.3
           NB_ICP16   68464  97.3
           SR_ICP16   68464  97.3
            Y_ICP16   68464  97.3
           ZR_ICP16   68464  97.3
    Analyses by NAA
         INAAJOB_US   64649  91.9
         INAAJOB_BE   61829  87.9
            NA_INAA   57519  81.7
            SC_INAA   57487  81.7
            TI_INAA   61963  88.1
            CR_INAA   57493  81.7
            FE_INAA   57507  81.7
            CO_INAA   57487  81.7
            NI_INAA   57566  81.8
            ZN_INAA   58474  83.1
            AS_INAA   57533  81.8
            BR_INAA   61833  87.9
            RB_INAA   57588  81.8
            SR_INAA   65165  92.6
            ZR_INAA   57500  81.7
            MO_INAA   61833  87.9
            SB_INAA   57559  81.8
            CS_INAA   57518  81.7
            BA_INAA   57536  81.8
            LA_INAA   57488  81.7
            CE_INAA   57487  81.7
            ND_INAA   57493  81.7
            SM_INAA   57488  81.7
            EU_INAA   57487  81.7
            TB_INAA   57489  81.7
            YB_INAA   57489  81.7
            LU_INAA   57491  81.7
            HF_INAA   57489  81.7
            TA_INAA   57488  81.7
             W_INAA   57696  82.0
            AU_INAA   57537  81.8
            TH_INAA   57487  81.7
             U_INAA   57487  81.7
             DN_JOB   69766  99.2
               U_DN   69766  99.2
              TH_DN   69766  99.2
    Analyses by XRF
            XRF_JOB   66795  94.9
           SIO2_XRF   66798  94.9
           L2O3_XRF   66795  94.9
          FE2O3_XRF   66796  94.9
            MGO_XRF   66795  94.9
            CAO_XRF   66795  94.9
           NA2O_XRF   66795  94.9
            K2O_XRF   66795  94.9
           TIO2_XRF   66797  94.9
           P2O5_XRF   66796  94.9
            MNO_XRF   66795  94.9
            LOI925C   66795  94.9
    Analyses for light elements
            C_S_JOB   69416  98.7
              C_TOT   69416  98.7
              C_ORG   69841  99.3
              C_CO3   69792  99.2
              S_TOT   69782  99.2
    Analyses by NURE program
            AL_NURE   26857  38.2
            CA_NURE   38881  55.3
            FE_NURE   26462  37.6
             K_NURE   36952  52.5
            MG_NURE   36938  52.5
            NA_NURE   26806  38.1
            AG_NURE   35790  50.9
            AS_NURE   54102  76.9
            AU_NURE   40720  57.9
             B_NURE   54459  77.4
            BA_NURE   36587  52.0
            BE_NURE   41728  59.3
            BI_NURE   59027  83.9
            BR_NURE   70304  99.9
            CD_NURE   59027  83.9
            CE_NURE   27641  39.3
            CL_NURE   58971  83.8
            CO_NURE   36384  51.7
            CR_NURE   36288  51.6
            CS_NURE   58954  83.8
            CU_NURE   35896  51.0
            DY_NURE   44479  63.2
            EU_NURE   42409  60.3
             F_NURE   70229  99.8
            HF_NURE   30650  43.6
            HG_NURE   70294  99.9
            LA_NURE   31508  44.8
            LI_NURE   41087  58.4
            LU_NURE   43320  61.6
            MN_NURE   26030  37.0
            MO_NURE   47168  67.0
            NB_NURE   36001  51.2
            NI_NURE   35849  50.9
             P_NURE   47185  67.1
            PB_NURE   39617  56.3
            PT_NURE   69372  98.6
            RB_NURE   58955  83.8
            SB_NURE   58955  83.8
            SC_NURE   25602  36.4
            SE_NURE   54405  77.3
            SM_NURE   41562  59.1
            SN_NURE   51643  73.4
            SR_NURE   39715  56.4
            TA_NURE   59059  83.9
            TB_NURE   59736  84.9
            TH_NURE   25845  36.7
            TI_NURE   27042  38.4
             V_NURE   25946  36.9
             W_NURE   51609  73.3
             Y_NURE   47735  67.8
            YB_NURE   45068  64.1
            ZN_NURE   35890  51.0
            ZR_NURE   48695  69.2
             U_NURE   25751  36.6
    Processing information
             LABNO2   59440  84.5
         PREV_LABNO   68420  97.2
          FLDNAM_AN      18   0.0
           AOV_CODE   65468  93.0
          REPLICATE   65468  93.0
          LOC_COUNT    2801   4.0
         ANAL_NOTES   69685  99.0
          NURE_METH   24730  35.1
    
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The samples and data that compose the NGS come from a wide variety of sources. These sources can be placed in 5 broad categories based on who collected and analyzed the samples. The CATEGORY field of the database is used to store this information. Within each category, records can be broken down into a large number of datasets, each of which contains data on samples collected and analyzed together. The DATASET field of the database stores this information.

    Descriptions of Datasets and Categories in the NGS: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/groups-cats.htm

    A limited number of analytical methods were used for samples in the NGS in order to provide the maximum level of internal consistency possible to the database.

    For every analytical data field in the NGS, there is an associated field pointing to information about the method used to make the analyses. These fields contain "job numbers," which are names laboratories assigned to batches of samples that were all run together. Multi-element methods (all ICP and neutron activation methods, XRF, PGE analysis, and forms-of-carbon) each have a single field containing job information that is applicable to all analyzed elements. Single-element methods (As, Au, Hg, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and W) each have their own field containing this information.

    Analytical Methods and Database Fields in the NGS: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/analysis.htm

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Mercury is a difficult element for which to obtain accurate analyses. Samples can easily be contaminated with Hg during handling, storage, and preparation for analysis. Mercury can also be lost from samples during the drying process or while in storage. Recently collected samples were handled and stored in a manner that should result in few such problems. However, many Hg data in the NGS are based on reanalyses of archival samples, e.g., NURE samples, that were neither collected using protocols appropriate for Hg analysis, nor stored under conditions that would necessarily preserve the original Hg concentrations. Some NURE samples in the eastern US were very likely contaminated by Hg at some point after collection (e.g., all samples from Allegany County, Maryland). At the present time, it is not known which archival samples may have been contaminated with Hg in the laboratory, and thus extreme caution should be exercised in interpreting NGS data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Peter N Schweitzer
    U.S. Geological Survey, ER
    Geologist
    Mail Stop 954
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    703-648-6533 (voice)
    703-648-6252 (FAX)
    pschweitzer@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS Open-File Report 2004-1001
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    The USGS makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the geographic data. The USGS further makes no warranties, either expressed or implied as to any other matter whatsoever, including, without limitation, the condition of the product, or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user. Although this data has been processed successfully on computers at the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS regarding the use of this data on any other system, nor does the fact of distribution constitute or imply any such warranty.

    In no event shall the USGS have any liability whatsoever for payment of any consequential, incidental, indirect, special, or tort damages of any kind, including, but not limited to, any loss of profits arising out of use of or reliance on the geographic data or arising out of the delivery, installation, operation, or support by the USGS.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Dec-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Geologist
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://mrdata.usgs.gov/metadata/ofr-2004-1001.faq.html>
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